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51  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Hudson Block Boundary Suggestion Project (BBSP) on: May 13, 2016, 06:42:34 pm

Open Google Earth or Bing as a Layer in QGIS (Youtube Video)

52  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Hudson Block Boundary Suggestion Project (BBSP) on: May 13, 2016, 05:15:25 pm
I'm not doing very well. Sad



X the Browser Panel. The Layers Panel is the only one I ever use. You can get the others back if you ever need them.

Right click on the three zip files and Remove them. You will get a warning message, Click OK. This doesn't do anything to the data, it just gets it out of the project.

Check the box next to the edges shapefile. This makes it visible. You can drag the layers around to control how they are rendered, the one on top is rendered last. Layers can be partially transparent, in case they overlap.

Make sure that the edges shapefile is selected (left click on the name). This makes it the current layer, the one you are currently working with.

On the menu at top, click on the looking glass to the right of the looking glass with the yellow. This is "Zoom to Layer". It will zoom to the extent of current layer, which covers Columbia County.

You can use the looking glass with + and - to zoom in or zoom out.

Click on the + looking glass, then left click-hold on the upper left corner of where you want to zoom to, hold as you move the cursor to the lower right corner of the area you want to zoom to. When you release the map will zoom.

You can do this several times (you are in Zoom In mode). Zoom in a few times until you can find Robinson Street.

If you zoom in too much, click on the minus looking glass, and select the area you want to zoom out around. The smaller the area, the faster you will zoom out. If you just want to expand the area shown a bit, do a rectangle to almost the extent of  the visible area.

Click on the hand icon (Pan Map). Now you can drag the map about. You can also use the keyboard arrow keys, but that is hard.

We are now going to select Robinson Street and look at its attributes.

There are 3 icons over towards the right that are used for selection. The first is for graphical selection. Click on the little black arrow to the right, and choose "Select Feature by Freehand", this will remain the graphical selection mode until you change it. If you click on the yellow part of the icon you are starting the selection process.

Click on the yellow part of the icon. Then go down to Robinson Street, hold-click and draw a selection area that crosses the street. When you release, Robinson Street will be in yellow indicating it is the selected feature. You can select multiple features by drawing a bigger area.

Selection is in the current layer, the one highlighted in the Layers Panel on the left. Sometimes you will forget, and it will be like selection is not working. Click on the 3rd yellow icon (that is a red international do not indicator) to clear all selections. Go select the layer you want to be current, select the Select Feature by Freehand, select Robinson Street again.

Now click on the icon that looks like the Monopoly card for Oriental, Vermont, and Connecticut (light blue). A table will appear. In the middle of the icons at the top you will see an icon with a yellow bar and blue arrow pointing down. Clicking on that will bring the selected features to the top of the table (and highlighted in blue). You should now see Robinson Street.

Important fields are:

(Don't try to type changes yet, we're still learning to navigate)

STATEFP: 36 is New York
COUNTYFP 021 is Columbia County
TLID: is a USA-wide unique ID for the line.

MTFCC: MAF/TIGER Feature Code.  S1400 is neighborhood street.
FULLNAME:

These could be changed, but usually won't, unless there is a mistake.

BBSPFLG: 4 indicates it was a hold as block boundary suggestion for 2010.
CBBFLG: 4 indicates that the census bureau will use it as a block boundary for 2020.
BBSP_2020: Is our suggestion for 2020. If we didn't want Robinson St to be a block boundary in 2020, we make this a 2. If we wanted to emphasize that it should be a block boundary we make this a 1.
CHNG_TYPE: 'AL' for add line; 'DL for delete line'; 'CA for change attributes.
JUSTIFY: Our justification to the census bureau why we are suggesting the change.

You can click on the X in the upper right corner of the  table to get rid of it. Otherwise you will get many different versions.

Under the Project Menu on the upper left corner, you can select "Save as Image" which will save a .png file of the current map version. This will also create a .pngw file which basically gives map locations of the rectangle in the png file, but just ignore these. You may know that .png files can be edited in Paint, so you could draw on the image, just like you did with the census map files. This is more efficient that doing print screens (unless you want me to show the menus, etc.)

Right click on the Edges shapefile in the Layer Panel, and select Save As.

Use the Browse button to get to the correct directory, and enter a name of your choosing. Leave the Add Saved File to Map checked, and click on OK.

This will add a copy of the shapefile to your project. You can uncheck the original, and even remove it from the project. This avoids the risk of making changes to the original.

Also click on the diskette icons "Save" or "Save As" file, and you will get a dialogue about where to save a project file. A project file (.qgs) contains all your current layers, and settings. If you exit QGIS or have a system crash, you will be able to get back to where you were at, and you can also have multiple projects, so you could work on Hudson, then go gerrymander another state.

I'll have to remember how to install the option to add Google satellite images. You only have to it once, and then can forget how you did it.
53  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Hudson Block Boundary Suggestion Project (BBSP) on: May 13, 2016, 02:30:03 pm
There is (or might be) a foot trail from N 6th Street and Glenwood Blvd to the Middle School. It may be just a shortcut to the school. In 2010 it was used as a block boundary, splitting a block that ranged from Washington Street and Harry Howard Avenue to Oakwood Boulevard and Paddock Place. The census bureau is recommending that it not be used as a block boundary for 2020. I would consider deleting it unless it can be confirmed that it really exists.

It doesn't exist. If you really want to help me, we need just a few key cuts to suggest. I will post the ones that I really want. I need to email something out no later than Monday.
Why not just send the shapefile?


The one that I need to download and figure out how to use?
The one I would send you.
54  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: May 13, 2016, 02:29:11 pm
I realize this would render all this mapmaking moot, but has any thout been given to merging Greenport back into Hudson?  If nothing else, it'll reduce the number of Greenprts in New York.
Vaguely. But there is a cultural mismatch (suburbs v city); and also political (towns have a 3-member governing board, with the supervisor acting as an executive), Hudson is a city, which is actually quite rare in New York, and overgoverned with a large common council, and lots of boards; and perhaps financial (higher taxes in Hudson).

The underlying concern about the Ward 5 population being so much larger is only partially about two alderman having almost 40% of the vote. Much of Ward 5 is more like Greenport, and they dominate the portions of the ward that are in the gridded part of the city. If they merged, then you would have more areas like Ward 5. Greenport has about 4000 people, and Hudson 6400, so Greenport and Ward 5 would be politically dominant.

If there were a merger, a more logical solution might be to create a Town of Hudson, and then let the central part of Hudson form a village. In New York, counties, towns, and cities, are creations of the legislature; while villages can be formed by citizen initiative, and exist concurrently with towns (more like cities in most parts of the country). But Hudson would never go for that.

Because of the Greenport on Long Island, the Town of Greenport has Hudson street addresses.

The school district does cover both Hudson and Greenport, and parts of some other towns. In 1877, Columbia County had 180 school districts, most operating one room schools. Even Hudson had multiple school districts. Consolidation has reduced the county to seven districts. While the Hudson district is named Hudson City Schools, there is no relationship between the city and school district. The school buildings are fairly new, and out on Harry Howard where they are as convenient to Greenport as downtown Hudson.
55  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Hudson Block Boundary Suggestion Project (BBSP) on: May 13, 2016, 01:51:09 pm
Here are the few cuts that would be really helpful where I know there are geographic features to support the cuts, with the possible exception of the Hudson Terrace Apts cut.



The Census Bureau already intends to use the RR tracks in those areas as block boundaries (plus between S 3rd Street and E Court St (it creates a zero population block down to Power Ave, but I think it is better to have a consistent definition than not).



I can only add bikeways and not foot trails. As you drive east on Mill Street, past the entrance to the parking area just before you get to where 3rd Street would be, there is a sign that says

"Bike Road"
"Dead End"
Then an orange sign (pipeline warning?)

Off in the direct of 3rd Street there is either a bit of pavement, or crushed asphalt. The bike trail is a continuation of the eastbound portion of Mill Street.



Mill Street does not exist at the east end. The bike trail starts at Lucille Drive. If you are coming north on Harry Howard Ave and turn left on Lucille Drive, the bike trail starts immediately on your left.



There is a bike route that includes Front Street, Dock Street, Mill Street, the bike trail up the Dugway, and then the zebra-striped area along the west side of Harry Howard Ave.

So you have extend Mill Street to 3rd St, add the bike trail, and delete the non-existent Mill St on the east end.



You can't do an extension off a T. You can either delineate Promenade Hill Park, and use the escarpment as a visible feature, or wait until the VTD phase.
56  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Hudson Block Boundary Suggestion Project (BBSP) on: May 13, 2016, 11:35:18 am
There is (or might be) a foot trail from N 6th Street and Glenwood Blvd to the Middle School. It may be just a shortcut to the school. In 2010 it was used as a block boundary, splitting a block that ranged from Washington Street and Harry Howard Avenue to Oakwood Boulevard and Paddock Place. The census bureau is recommending that it not be used as a block boundary for 2020. I would consider deleting it unless it can be confirmed that it really exists.

It doesn't exist. If you really want to help me, we need just a few key cuts to suggest. I will post the ones that I really want. I need to email something out no later than Monday.
Why not just send the shapefile?
57  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Hudson Block Boundary Suggestion Project (BBSP) on: May 13, 2016, 08:05:52 am
Edit: Deletion of foot trail to Middle School.

Narrative Part I



Streets (MTFCC = 'Snnnn') With No Changes

Most of the linear features in Hudson are streets, and will not have any suggestions made. In effect, we are content with the Census Bureau classification.

The streets in green will be used for block boundaries. Note that in some cases, the block boundary includes non-street features. This is the case for N 2nd Street, Harry Howard Avenue, Fairview Avenue, Newman Road, Ten Broeck Lane, Worth Avenue, and S 3rd Street.

There are a few small gaps in block boundaries that will be addressed with other changes.

The streets in brown will not be used for block boundaries. In general, they form dead ends. They will appear as lines on census maps, and may be used by the census bureau for locating street addresses.

58  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Hudson Block Boundary Suggestion Project (BBSP) on: May 13, 2016, 06:21:55 am
This is intended to be a more focused discussion of the suggested block boundary changes for Hudson. Part of it will consist of a narrative explaining the rationale for the changes, that would be submitted to the Census Bureau as support documentation.

59  General Discussion / Constitution and Law / Re: How long would it take for Atlas to repeal the 22nd amendment? on: May 13, 2016, 04:23:48 am
God this election is awful.  That debate was so frustrating to watch.
Barack, please, I need you to stay.
Hell I'd even take W at this point.
It would be better to switch to a parliamentary form of governor, and let a ceremonial president to be chosen among the lineal descendants of former presidents.
60  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: May 13, 2016, 04:14:13 am
Do I need to download "python modules" with the download of QGIS?  I want to make some suggestions to the NY guy, but just a few, not zillions, which will just drive them away. Pick your shots baby.

OK, go QGIS open with a blank page, and got the sample up. So where do I get the data set for Hudson that shows all those hydrology features you are putting up and what not that I cannot see on Google Maps? Is this going to give me access to more visible physical features?
"A shapefile" actually consists of several files, in particular a ".shp" file that contains the raw coordinates, and a ".dbf" dBase file that contains the attributes of each edge, block, etc. When you drag a ".shp" file into the viewing area, QGIS is also getting the associated ".dbf" files. We are using QGIS to view and edit the "shp" and ".dbf" files.

You can open the ".dbf" file with Excel. Open a file in Excel, select ".dbf" as the extension and browse to the directory and open PVS_15_v2_edges_36021.dbf  You can't write a .dbf file with Excel, but that does not matter, this is just to help explain what we are doing. The actual editing is done in QGIS.

The edges have the following fields:

STATEFP   State code (36 for New York)
COUNTYFP      County code (021 for Columbia)
TLID   Line ID. This is permanent for the US. Each edge has a unique ID.
TFIDL   Face to the left.
TFIDR   Face to the right.
MTFCC      MAF/TIGER Feature Classification code. This indicates whether an edge is a street, hydrology feature, statistical line, etc.
FIDELITY   This is used by the Census Bureau.
FULLNAME   Name of feature eg "Robinson St"
SMID      This is used by Census Bureau
SMIDTYPE   This is used by Census Bureau
BBSPFLG   Whether edge was suggested block boundary for 2010.
CBBFLG   Whether the Census Bureau intends to use the suggested block boundary for 2020.
BBSP_2020   Our suggestion for block boundary use for 2020.
CHNG_TYPE   Change type: "AL" add line, "DL" delete line, "CA" Change attributes.
JUSTIFY   Justification for change (free form text).
LTOADD   Street address ranges on left and right side of edge.
RTOADD   
LFROMADD   
RFROMADD   
ZIPL   Zip code on left and right side of edge.
ZIPR   
EXTTYP   Census Bureau Use
MTUPDATE   Census Bureau Use

The New York State guy could call up the Census Bureau and tell them to delete line 415689732, and the census bureau would tell him to send an update file with line 415689732 marked as 'DL'. This would also be true for Torie and the New York state guy. Since I have already proposed a set of suggestions in the format that the Census Bureau wants (AS I UNDERSTAND IT), it would be easiest to get that to Torie and the New York state guy and the Census Bureau. Somewhere along the line it might be discovered that I made a mistake, but that can be fixed.

Since we aren't making changes one-by-one via a phone call or e-mail, I don't see a reason for limiting the number of changes. Every change that I have suggested has the JUSTIFY field completed. And we can include a narrative explaining the changes.
61  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: May 13, 2016, 01:23:11 am
This is pretty interesting.

What is Hudson's Conservation Advisory Council

Our inventory will produce both a written description and a digital map. It will incorporate many
types of information including (but not limited to)
property boundaries, and whether properties are public or private, built or unbuilt
topography, slopes and erosion problems
natural habitats and the presence of rare or threatened species
water features, drainage courses, wetlands and flood zones
tree canopy and street trees
existing and proposed water, stormwater and sewer lines
historic districts and sites, and other cultural resources

See General Municipal Law (GMU) Section 12-F

Does Columbia County have a Conservation Advisory Council? Any of the towns or villages in the county?
62  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: May 12, 2016, 06:59:38 pm
Do I need to download "python modules" with the download of QGIS?  I want to make some suggestions to the NY guy, but just a few, not zillions, which will just drive them away. Pick your shots baby.
They should be included in the QGIS download.

Are you getting the shapefiles from the Census Bureau or from the New York guy?

All my suggestions are in a edges shapefile.

An "edge" is a polyline (a series of vertices), a polyline is like a polygon, except it is not closed (some edges are closed, because they start and end at the same point. For example, the edge representing the shoreline of Underhill Pond is continuous because it does not connect with any other edges.

An edge has a starting and ending "node", which are the starting and ending vertices of the edge. Because they have a start and an end, edges have a direction.

Edges may not cross, so most edges join other edges at a node. For example Robinson Street is represented by two edges. (1) 2nd Street to Strawberry Alley where it connects to Robinson Street west of the former Charles Williams School; (2) Strawberry Alley to 3rd Street.

At the node at Robinson Street and 2nd Street, the first Robinson Street edge joins two edges representing 2nd Street north and south of Robinson. At Strawberry Alley, the two Robinson Street edges join the edge representing Strawberry Alley. At 3rd Street, the second Robinson Street edge joins two edges representing 3rd Street, north and south of Robinson Street.

An edge does not have to join any other nodes. The edge representing Mill Street joins two edges representing 2nd Street (and an edge representing a stream west of 2nd Street) at its western end. The node at the eastern end does not join any other edges.

An edge has at least two vertices, but may have more to help refine the shape. The edge corresponding to Robinson Street has three vertices, with a vertex between the two ends. Strawberry Alley has five vertices, with the middle three describing the curve from a path parallel to Robinson to the north-south connection to Robinson Street.

A face is bounded by a closed path of edges. A block is comprised of one or more contiguous faces. A face may have holes. For example there is a face corresponding to Underhill Pond, and then a face for the area around it - Harry Howard, the loop around the inner Westwind units, Harry Howard, Paddock Place, driveways around the middle school, the goat path south to 6th and Glenwood, 6th Street, Clinton Street, the extensions of Clinton Street.

The Clinton Street extension is an edge, and so there is a face bounded by Harry Howard, Clinton Street extension, Washington, and 5th Street.

The census block corresponds to three faces, the large face, the Underhill Pond face, and the "block" south of Clinton Street.

Currently, the Census Bureau does not intend to use the edge corresponding to the Clinton extension as a block boundary. What we are "suggesting" to the census bureau is that they use that edge as a block boundary, which then makes the face a block.





63  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: May 12, 2016, 06:17:49 pm
Do I need to download "python modules" with the download of QGIS?  I want to make some suggestions to the NY guy, but just a few, not zillions, which will just drive them away. Pick your shots baby.

OK, go QGIS open with a blank page, and got the sample up. So where do I get the data set for Hudson that shows all those hydrology features you are putting up and what not that I cannot see on Google Maps? Is this going to give me access to more visible physical features?

And where did you get the below super clear image from?


When you installed QGIS it installed about 6 programs. Be sure you are running:

QGIS Desktop 2.14.2  (don't worry about the last number, they put out new versions frequently).



Go to here 2020 Census Program Phases and download BBSP Using Your Own Software Participant Guide [PDF] 2.6MB

This is the guide for the New York state guide, assuming he is using his own GIS, and it explains how to make "suggestions" to the census bureau.

Then jump down the page to "Partnership Shapefiles", and select 2016 Partnership Files and then select New York, Columbia County, and Submit. You will get a zip file containing two other zip files.

partnership_shapefiles_15v2_36021.zip

contains the shapefiles for Columbia County (the census code for New York is 36, the census code for Columbia County is 021). Unzip those.

partnership_shapefiles_15v2_36.zip

contains some shapefiles for New York State as a whole. You probably won't need it, but it won't hurt to unzip it.

Drag this file into QGIS (be sure to get the .shp file)

PVS_15_v2_edges_36021.shp



For the images, click on Web on the top menu, Open Layers Plugin, Google, Satellite Map.
64  Presidential Elections - Analysis and Discussion / 2016 U.S. Presidential Election / Re: Clinton & Trump VP search news megathread on: May 12, 2016, 07:20:15 am
Gingrich is interesting because it's possible he helps neutralize one of Clinton's big advantages, which is nostalgia for the success and stability of the '90s. Trump and Gingrich can just attribute the prosperity to the Republicans in Congress and argue that their ticket now has the winning recipe.

Problem is, it's Newt Gingrich. Tongue

If Bob Dole weren't so old, he wouldn't have been a bad pick.
If it is a Dole, it will probably be Liz Dole. She is 13 years younger, female, legislative experience, and from a critical state.
65  Presidential Elections - Analysis and Discussion / Presidential Election Process / Re: Caucuses on: May 12, 2016, 06:29:12 am
Is the national party leadership of the Democrats or the GOP allowed to prohibit the statewide party subdivisions (or whatever they're called) to hold caucuses?
If states require parties to hold primaries, the states have to pay for them.

If the national party required the state parties to have a primary, and the state was not funding it, the primary might go badly. The parties might not have up-to-date registration records, they would have to pay wages to all the election workers, and might have to pay market rates for renting polling places and voting equipment.

If the national party required primaries, the state parties would probably force the states to hold primaries. Almost all legislators are Democrats and Republicans, and when it comes to elections they are primarily interested in what is good for their party. They may be more altruistic with regard to other spending.
66  Presidential Elections - Analysis and Discussion / Presidential Election Process / Re: What happens when no candidate gets to 270 and the House has changed parties? on: May 12, 2016, 06:09:37 am
The new House votes.

Other than before 1933, the inaugural dates differ. I think this is the reason why Congress assembles on January 3 and presidents are sworn in on January 20.

The Constitutional Convention in 1787 was out of control. It was supposed to propose amendments to the Articles of Confederation, but instead wrote a whole new constitution. To paper over this coup, the President of the Constitution, George Washington, wrote a letter to the Continental Congress, which was meeting in New York, requesting that they pass it on to the States, and also keep track of any ratifications, and in the event that nine states ratified the constitution, set up the process for it being instituted. The Continental Congress passed the proposed constitution onto the states, where it could be considered by state conventions, bypassing the legislatures.

By summer of 1789, 9 states had ratified the constitution, but the Continental Congress waited for Virginia to ratify, and then could not determine where the new Congress would meet. The Continental Congress operated by state delegations, and delegations from states which had not ratified the Constitution abstained, reasoning they should set the meeting place for an organization that they might not join. An abstention was equivalent to a No vote, for any motion that required 7 of the 13 states. Eventually, they agreed to have the new Congress meet in New York, since they could not agree on any other city.

They then set up a schedule for the appointment of presidential electors; meeting of presidential electors; and meeting of Congress, as the first Wednesday in January, February, and March of 1789. The first Wednesday in March 1789, was March 4. A preliminary schedule had proposed beginning the process a month earlier. But for the deadlock over the capital, terms might have begun on February 4.

When Congress met on March 4, 1789, they did not have a quorum, and thus could not do anything official, including counting the electoral votes. Eventually, they had a quorum, counted the electoral votes and determined that George Washington and John Adams had been elected President and Vice President. Washington did not reach New York until June, when he took the oath of office, three months into his first term.

Since the Constitution provides for terms of 2 (representative), 4 (president), and 6 (senator) years, the Congress decided that they would begin on March 4 every 2nd year.

But to avoid the problem of not having a president elected by the beginning of his term, they set up a schedule where the outgoing Congress would count the electoral votes, and if necessary, choose the president and vice president. At the time, it was anticipated that the House would be usually choosing the president - that the election of George Washington by a unanimous electoral vote was an anomaly due to his popularity and prestige.

So they set up a schedule where they would count the electoral vote in January or February, the electors would meet in early December, and the electors would be appointed in November. This would give the House time to elect a president before his term began.

This was not an unreasonable schedule. Congress did not ordinarily meet until December of each year. While the Constitution did not set dates for terms, it did set a default meeting month of December. Congress would typically meet in a long session beginning in December of the odd year, 9 months into their terms, continuing through late spring or early summer. They would then meet in a short session starting in December of the even year in a session that would run through March 3 of the odd year.

Since all representatives are elected every two years, the House could not meet on March 4, since many members might not have been re-elected, or even elected, since many states had not held congressional elections yet. The senate is a continuing body, since 2/3 of members carry over. If there was a new President, they would meet for a week or so, to confirm any cabinet secretaries, and then go home.

In 1801, the lame duck House had to choose between Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson who had tied. Even though the intent had been for Jefferson to be president, all Democratic electors voted for both Burr and Jefferson. The Federalists controlled 8 of the 16 state congressional districts, with 2 Democrat, and 2 split. It took 36 ballots before Jefferson was finally elected, as the Federalists believed that Burr would be more willing to make a deal with them. As a result of this election, the 12th Amendment was passed, which results in electors casting separate votes for President and Vice President.

In 1825, the lame duck House chose John Quincy Adams from among Adams, Andrew Jackson, and William Crawford, who were all Democrats. "Donald J" Jackson claimed that the election had been stolen because he had received more popular votes. This election pushed all states but one to switch to popular election of electors, as well as winner take all elections. There was no senate election for Vice President, since John C Calhoun was the almost unanimous choice.

In 1837, the outgoing senate chose Richard Johnson as vice president. The 23 Virginia electors had refused to vote for Johnson as vice president, denying him a majority of electors, even though Martin Van Buren had received a majority for President. In 1840, the Democrats decided not to have a vice presidential candidate. Van Buren running for re-election against William Henry Harrison, lost; and Johnson lost to John Tyler too.

In 1845, Congress set the time of appointment (election) of presidential electors to the 2nd Tuesday after the first Monday in November. This fit into the schedule that had already been established for the presidential electors meeting in early December. All but one state had switched to popular elections for presidential electors. Because of the time needed to canvass statewide results, and then summon the electors to the meeting place, elections were already held in early November. But this established a single date. Tuesday was chosen because that is what New York, the largest state used. The odd construction of the first Tuesday after the first Monday, was to ensure that the time between the election and the meeting of electors in December was always a fixed number of days.

Congressional elections continued to be on a variety of dates, usually coincident with a state election. Many states elected their representatives in the odd year, figuring that since the House usually didn't meet until December they had plenty of time. This also avoided re-electing someone who might then feel free to vote in an unpopular way in the lame duck session, knowing that they had already been elected for another term. The presidential election was treated more like a presidential primary is now as a special election.

Had Abraham Lincoln not received a majority of electoral votes in 1861, the House of Representatives might well have chosen one of the other candidates.

In 1872, Congress set the uniform election date for congressional elections to match the presidential election date. This was act of the northern hegemons enforcing their will. Before the war, such a centralizing of power would have been unthinkable. It also meant that representatives would be elected before the lame duck session, and perhaps a year before the new representatives would begin service.

As time went on, congressional sessions became longer, and there was increased concern about a lame duck House choosing the president. One constitutional amendment that almost made it out of Congress would have switched the beginning of presidential terms to May, when the weather for an inauguration would be more tolerable.

The 20th Amendment revised the beginning of terms for Congress from March 4 to January 3, and for the President from March 4 to January 20. The default meeting date for Congress was changed from December (9 months into the term) to January 3, coincident with the start of the term.

The 17-day delay permitted an incoming Congress to count the electoral votes, and if necessary to elect a president. But it wasn't so long that they would be twiddling their their thumbs waiting for a new president to show up.

For Congress, the amendment took practical effect on January 3, 1934, when Congress began their session for 1934; and January 3, 1935  (for representatives and senators elected in November 1934). Those elected in November 1932 had their term shortened by two months.

For President, the amendment took practical effect on January 20, 1937 (FDR's 1st term was shortened about 1-1/2 months).

After the 20th Amendment was first passed, Congress would typically meet from January 3 in the odd year, to fall, and then from January 3 in the even year to summer. This was particularly true after WWII was over.

This schedule gave representatives a few months break between terms, and then several months before the next election. Now that representatives can fly home on weekends, and can campaign by TV commercial, sessions have got longer and longer. It is impractical to have any other career, so they become career politicians, and effective reside in Washington or its suburbs.
67  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Something strange is happening demographically-speaking on: May 12, 2016, 05:03:12 am
New York State had an abnormally high increase in deaths between Jan.-June 2015:

1st half of 2015: 104.510 deaths

1st half of 2014:   75.763 deaths

That's an increase of 38% (!!!) - Even Germany had "only" an increase of 10%.

All other states had way more moderate increases of 1-10%, which is in line with the European data I posted above.

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/dvs/provisional_tables/Provisional_Table02_2015Jun.pdf
If you check the monthly results here:

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/nvsr/monthly_provisional_notice.htm

You will see that there was a major step in January 2015.

Compared to the same month, previous year the increase beginning in January 2015 was 44%, 41%, 37%, 34%, 36%, 35%.

The number of deaths had been declining in New York from say 1996 to 2006 likely due to a continuing decline in the death rate, and baby boomers not yet reaching the high death ages (80+)

from 2004 to 2013 the number of deaths was fairly stable (from between 146,432 and 152,681), this is only a 4.3% variation, minimum to maximum.

It is possible that this is a very shallow valley as an aging population is catching up with a declining age-dependent death rate (eg the death rate for 80 YO in 2013, is lower than for 80 YO in 2003, but a larger share of the population is 80 in 2013). The peak years were on the end (2004, 2005, and 2013), the mnimums were in 2009 and 2010.

2014 was less deadly than 2013, particularly in the beginning of the year. January 2013 was particularly deadly. Even though January 2014 had the most deaths of any month in 2014, it was down 11% from January 2013. I suspect you will find that January 2013 was colder or there was an influenza uptick. Cold weather stresses frail older people enough that they die.

So January 2014, while a deadly month as far as 2014 goes, may have been relatively healthy as far as January's go. This makes that 44% increase for January 2014-January 2015 somewhat overstated. The year-over-year increases for March to June are around 35%.

https://health.data.ny.gov/Health/Vital-Statistics-Deaths-by-Resident-County-Region-/v6zf-ydez

If you go back several years, the ratio of deaths of NYS+NYC to NYS is a very steady 35%.

You would expect the ratio of deaths in NYC to the remainder of the state to be more consistent over time, than the year to year number of deaths, the weather changes from month to month, more than the distribution of the population - not that many people summer in the Hamptons or Catskills.

I think NYC is being double counted.
68  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: New Hampshire's "Libertarian" credentials? on: May 12, 2016, 02:48:38 am
The conventional wisdom is that New Hampshire is a fairly libertarian place.  With Trump, Kaisch, and Christie outpolling both Republican Liberty Caucus candidates in Cruz and Paul in New Hampshire it appears that conventional wisdom is incorrect.  Is it regional bias (Cruz and Paul being Southerners) or something else?
The state motto is "Live Free or Die".  New Hampshire does not have an income tax on wage income nor a sales tax, so traditionally has relied on property taxes to provide services at the local level. With a relative small population it doesn't need or can't afford a massive state bureaucracy. You can't rail against the politicians "up in Concord" and be taken seriously. If you were from Massachusetts or New York, you would probably regard New Hampshire as libertarian.

There was an effort a few years ago to get a group of Libertarians to move to New Hampshire, with an effort to take over the state politically. You might reason that a cadre of 50,000 persons might be able to take over the state. But if you have a cadre taking over a state it will disintegrate into folks fighting for power. Most people need a job to live somewhere, and I don't think that many people moved.

Techies in Nashua and Manchester may have interest in Libertarian values, but they might not be willing to go without state schools for their children. And even if they did, their neighbors don't. And Boston has too much influence over the state.
69  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: May 12, 2016, 02:21:48 am
When did the maps start showing the city line to include the notch? In other words who introduced what seems to be an error?

Also, it appears that Ten Broeck lane shifted at some point. Is that shift part of the problem?
We may be referring to two different things as the notch.

There is a big excursion up Ten Broeck Lane and then east, south, east, north, and west around the new (Cedar Park Cemetery).

And there is what I am referring to as "the notch" is where the city limits make a 143 degree turn, and go south for 260 feet.

In either case, they are the result of the 1897 annexation of the new cemetery. The old cemetery (Hudson Burial Ground) was (and is) to the west of the Ten Broeck Lane. In 1895 The City of Hudson purchased some land in Greenport for expansion of the cemetery. Greenport was going to assess property taxes. The city was going to protest the taxes, but to be sure decided to get the legislature to annex the property (by amending the charter). In the 1896 and 1897 minutes of the Common Council it was recorded that the committee preparing the legislation sought a surveyor to make sure that the annexed area matched the cemetery property.

When the Town of Greenport was detached from Hudson in 1837, the boundary followed an "old road" that is today known as Ten Broeck Lane (note that there is also a Ten Broeck Road and Ten Broeck Avenue in the general area. The Ten Broeck family was quite prominent through the Hudson Valley, not only in Columbia County). The city limits state that bearings should be based on an 1825 magnetic declination. My guess is that the lines had been surveyed a few years before the legislature finally passed a bill.

This is the only part of the city limts that followed a physical feature (not counting the center channel of the river), and a white oak and willow tree that marked turning points.

Ten Broeck Lane was an "old road" even at that time, so was probably a pair of wagon ruts.

The Ten Broeck Lane portion of the city limits was surveyed in 5 segments. These had bearings of

57.86, 38.86, 50.36, 28.36, and 17.11 (azimuth angles, assuming the that the magnetic declination in 1825 was 5.43 degrees west). Azimuth angles are measured clockwise from true North.

The first and third segments are east of northeast (45 degrees), while the second segment is north of northeast. The road still follows this pattern, east of northwest, then bearing more north, and then bearing more east.

The fourth segment does not exist, instead of bearing more northerly, the road bears more east. The final segment does exist.



In this image, the fourth segment is between the two gold stars on either side of the green star. The road has clearly been shifted here (or not surveyed correctly when the city limit was established). The final segment is now longer.

That the gold stars are generally west of the road may not mean anything. I don't know where Ten Broeck Lane reached the northern side of Union Turnpike in 1825. Ten Broeck Lane is now called Paul Avenue and has a slightly more northerly course, perhaps to produce a more perpendicular intesection with Columbia Street. I may have use the wrong magnetic declination which would rotate the whole string of gold stars around my presumed origin. Distances on my projection might not match distances on the ground, or distances and bearings in the charter may not match reality.

There is a fenced area of the cemetery, about 20 feet x 30 feet with the red and orange stars in the southern part of it. You can see it as a lusher green in this image. The southeast corner of the fence is extremely close to the roadway. If the road were there first, you would never permit the fence to be built. If a drunk driver cuts the inside of that corner, he'll clip the fence.

But if the fenced area with graves in it were there first, you would route the road around it. There is either a gate or a sign on the road side of the fenced area. It is possible that it is not actually part of the Hudson Burial Ground.

The cemetery annexation splices into the original city limits at the green star in the fourth segment. The fourth segment was originally 4.40 chains (290.40 feet). The fourth segment is now one chain (66 feet). The remainder of the fourth segment and all of the fifth segment are no longer in the charter (the portion of the fifth segment along Paul Avenue is still included, but includes neither a distance or bearing).

I do not know how they determined that the splice occurred at one chain into the 4th segment. The statute for the annexation only describes the annexed area, and gives a distance of 872 feet along the existing city limit to close the loop around the new cemetery. Someone at a later date, incorporated the annexation into the overall charter description (and also made corrections to the cemetery annexation description).

But I just realized that they might have measured the one chain along the road, instead of along a bearing of 28.36 degrees azimuth. This would rotate the green star around the gold star to the south. That is the correct charter interpretation is that the remainder of the 4th segment is "66 feet along the road" rather than "66 feet at a bearing 28.36 degrees azimuth that follows the road".

The annexation has a short segment of 16-1/2 feet to get from the center of the road, and is said to be perpendicular to the road. The bearing is in fact perpendicular to the current road and not to the 28.36 degrees stated in the charter.

The second to last red star has to be at the southwest corner of the new cemetery. Its calculated location is too far north. The distance from that corner northward to the road matches the 264 feet in the annexation statute, and in the charter. And the distance from that point northward to Columbia Turnpike matches the 872 feet in the annexation statute.

The charter is now literally incorrect except for "thence along the center of said old road ...". The distances and bearings are descriptive rather than defining.

The historical atlases are from middle to late 19th century before the annexation. The annexation occured in 1897. There is an 1895 15-minute USGS topo sheet that was updated numerous times (IIRC until 1931). None of them show the cemetery annexation. The topo sheets are not necessarily accurate in any case. There are topo sheets that show the northern city limits roughly parallel to the street grid, when the northern city limits are much closer to east-west.

The 1940 census map shows the notch. It is based on a print of a 1932 map by the Department of Public Works, on which someone had marked the city limits and ward boundaries and enumeration districts with a crayon or marking pencil. Because of the thickness of the mark, the actual fineness of the cut is obscured.

Later 7.5-minute topo sheets do not have the notch, nor do census maps. There is large scale map showing the sewage system that show the notch at the wrong place.

"When did the maps start showing the city line to include the notch? In other words who introduced what seems to be an error?"

I'm confused by the part in red. The error is the omission of the notch. The city charter has the notch in it. The 1932 city map had the notch. Modern census maps do not.


70  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: I am a census guinea pig. on: May 11, 2016, 07:49:30 pm
Good.

Hopefully the Census Bureau is able to bring down the ridiculously high costs of the US Census with this testing.

As a comparison:

The cost of the US Census 2010: 13 billion $ (=42$ per capita)

The cost of Austria's register-based Census 2011: 10 million (=1.2 per capita)
Austria might not include the cost of maintaining the registers.

One of the major costs of the 2010 Census was trying to make sure they had a good match between address and location. This required house-to-house GPS locating, as well as getting the census maps to match. The US really doesn't have a mapping agency. The USGS is more concerned with the public lands, and geology rather than residential addresses.

They have run some tests for 2020, trying to figure out whether they could concentrate on certain areas where there has been development or redevelopment, but it doesn't appear that it has been real successful. I suspect that in Austria if someone attempts to change their address, and the new address is not recognized, they immediately try to figure it out.

An advantage of using internet responses is that they can immediately check responses, and also guide the respondent through the form. With a mail-in form, they have to scan it, and then figure out if there were items that were missed, etc. But a major expense will be the non-response, where they have to try and track down non-respondents. Conceivably, people will be more willing to respond by internet. I have to drive a couple of miles to mail anything.
71  Presidential Elections - Analysis and Discussion / Presidential Election Process / Re: If you were in charge of a State GOP, what sort of primary system is best? on: May 11, 2016, 12:59:33 am
The problem with jungle primaries is that it pushes the real action of the election to a low-turnout primary.
Why are elections where the real action occurs low turnout?


72  Presidential Elections - Analysis and Discussion / Presidential Election Process / Re: If you were in charge of a State GOP, what sort of primary system is best? on: May 11, 2016, 12:52:11 am
Open primary. Texas doesn't have party registration, which is nice because party registration is silly and it shouldn't be the state government's job to ensure party loyalty or the ideological purity of primary voters.
Well put. If the state is paying for the primary, I don't see why the state should try to enforce the desires of a party to have only certain voters. If the party wants to pay, then they can set up a pre-registration system for their party. IL uses an open party primary for almost all races, but township party organizations may hold closed caucuses to nominate their slates for township officers.
I thought this was a loophole, where "new" parties could nominate by caucus; so each election a new party would qualify, and choose a name that had the same initialism (eg League Of Loggers, Laughing Out Loud; Loophole Of Lincolnland; would always be "LOL")
73  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: I am a census guinea pig. on: May 10, 2016, 11:55:36 pm
A test area for the 2020 Census is in Harris County.

2016 Census Test to Start in Harris County, Texas

Today I got a 6x10 envelope from the Census Bureau.

Inside was a card that directed me to a Census Bureau website for completing the form, which included a code to be entered. There was a sheet describing the purpose in English and Spanish. There was another sheet providing phone numbers for phone assistance in English, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Tagalog, Arabic, and French.

After logging on to the website, I was asked to enter the ID code from the card. It then verified that I would be living at that address on Census Day (April 1, 2016). It requested contact information, including a phone number and email address.
I received a phone call from the Census Bureau. I figured that they must have had a question about one of my responses.

They then carefully questioned me about my name and address, to make sure I was the person who had responded for that household. They then said that they wanted to take a survey that would take about seven minutes, and that participation was mandatory.

I figured with that length of interview, they were going to do the entire form by phone interview. Since it was a census test, they might want to know whether internet self-response and phone interviews produced the same results.

But it appears what they were seeking was whether I understand the question about who should be counted.

Did you live there on April 1? Yes.
Did you live anywhere else during 2016? No.
Did anyone else live there on April 1? No.

So what would the other 6 minutes constitute of?

Did any newborns live there? No
Did any foster children? No
Did any of your own children? No
Did any children of other people? No
Any other relatives? No
Any other person? No
Any persons who had no other place to stay? No

They then listed the names of the persons (sic) who lived there and began to ask whether they had stayed somewhere else on April 1, or any other time in 2016:

Dormitory? No
Sorority or fraternity? No
Nursing home? No
Assisted living? No
Under a bridge? No
In a car? No
etc.

This is an area where Austria does better, by maintaining a registry of persons, rather than trying to maintain a registry of possible locations.
74  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: May 10, 2016, 04:51:02 am
The Notch Part V

We can calculate where we think the city limits are.



The red stars represent the boundaries around the Cedar Park Cemetery annexed in 1897. Beginning at Paul Avenue and Columbia Turnpike, they proceed east on Columbia Turnpike, and then south on Newman Road. They then go west, and north around the boot heel. There is then a westerly segment, and finally a northerly segment to each the edge of the road. The orange star is the final 16-1/2 feet to the center of the road. Because of this  short distance, the orange star partially overlays the final red star. The order of the stars is the opposite of the charter, because we are working from the known point of Ten Broeck Lane/Paul Avenue and Coumbia Turnpike. In the legal description, this point is on the south side of Columbia Turnpike (in 1897), while I have placed it at the intersection of the census lines. Thus my stars are slightly north of their true location. There may be smaller errors due to use of the wrong magnetic declination (this would rotate everything), and perhaps my not fully understanding how to mesh projections.

The greater excursion around the boot heel is probably correct. If it is included then, the annexed area is about 47.6 acres. The statute says "forty-seven acres more or less". Using the city limit on census maps gives and area of about 44.9 acres, even excluding the notch.

The gold stars represent the original boundary along Ten Broeck Lane, beginning on the north side of Union Turnpike (or Columbia Street and Paul Avenue in modern terms). The green star represents where the splice occurs. The distance between the gold stars on either side is 4.40 chains (290 feet). The green star is 1.00 chain (66 feet) north of the gold star to its south. Ideally, the green and orange stars would be coincident. They are separated by about 35 feet. The starting point for the gold stars is in the center of Columbia Street and Paul Avenue, while the legal definition is the north side of Union Turnpike in 1825. Thus they are slightly further south in this image. The intersection of Paul Avenue and Columbia Street may have been modified to make it more perpendicular, and also further from the curve when Columbia Street transitions to Union Turnpike. In 1825, it was a single straight shot from the first gold star south of Columbia Turnpike to the gold star north of then Union Turnpike. Now Paul Avenue is slightly more northerly than Ten Broeck Lane. This would move the gold and green stars further east.

The gold stars are slightly to the west of Ten Broeck Lane. This may be due to an error in placement of the starting point, but the road may have moved. It was described as an old road 200 years ago, so it was likely little more than a pair of wagon ruts. The road might shift to the downhill side (to the east). And any formal widening to pave the road or improve drainage would be away from a cemetery.

The southernmost star is coincident with a tiny deflection in southern boundary. The census bureau has deliberately colocated its definition of the city limit to match Ten Broeck Lane. The census bureau considers anybody east of Ten Broeck Lane to be in Greenport, and anyone to the west to be in Hudson. The small deflection may represent a connection between the actual limit, and Ten Broeck Lane.

This is a closeup of the notch area.



The red line is the likely city limit, just outside the cemetery lane, but with the notch to the north, rather going directly west to Ten Broeck Lane. It is parallel to the cyan line, the the census bureau uses for the city limit, but runs across the city limit.

The gold line is the the original city limit, projected backwards from Union Turnpike and Ten Broeck Lane (now Columbia Street and Paul Avenue). South of the green star it remains the city limit. At the gold star south of the green star it should be about 28 feet west of the red line, which would put it pretty close to the centerline of Ten Broeck Lane.

According to the city charter Ten Broeck bears to the left about 22 degrees; but in actuality it  bears a bit more to the right. It appears that Ten Broeck Lane has been shifted east at this point, perhaps so there is a straight shot on Ten Broeck Lane where the old and new cemeteries adjoin each other.

There is also a fenced area in the cemetery, about 20 feet by 30 feet, that almost reaches the pavement on Ten Broeck Lane. The southeast corner of the fence is within a foot or two of the pavement.



There appears to be a gate or sign facing the roadway. It could be a family cemetery, or possibly a cemetery for blacks or Jews. In any event, the road could have been routed to the  east to barely miss it.

This is a portion of the  map from the 1940 census which was based on a 1932 map prepared by the Department of Public Works. I've marked some lanes that are clearly visible in satellite images that show that we have correctly located the notch.



According to the 2010 Census, 2 persons were living in a single housing unit in Census Tract 13, Block 4015. The only plausible location is the building in the notch.

7 persons were living two housing units in Census Tract 13, Block 4016, in a family of five and a family of two. There is possibly an apartment on the back side of the house.
75  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: May 09, 2016, 03:12:52 am
The Notch Part IV

At its March 23, 1897 meeting, the Common Council approved this statute that had been enacted by the legislature, to annex the Cedar Park Cemetery. The city had purchased the land for the new cemetery in 1895, but because it was within the Town of Greenport, there was an issue whether Greenport could tax the property. Hudson then sought to have the land annexed to the city. In seeking legislative relief, they specifically got authority to get a survey of the property done. Thus the annexation matches the cemetery property.



The statute describes the annexed area. This description has been incorporated into the city charter. The cemetery was surveyed counterclockwise beginning at Columbia Turnpike and Paul Avenue. The city charter describes the city limits in counterclockwise order, so these segments have been inserted into the charter in reverse order, and with the bearings reversed 180 degrees. I have converted the bearings to degrees azimuth, based on an 1895 magnetic declination of 9.80 degrees west.

Part 1, between red lines, describes the starting point, which is on the south side of Columbia Turnpike at Ten Broeck Lane, which separates the old (Hudson Burial Ground) and new (Cedar Park Cemetery) cemeteries.

Part 2, to green line, describes the line along Columbia Turnpike to Newman Road.

(1) 817 feet, 120.87 degrees azimuth.
(2) 433 feet, 121.17 degrees azimuth.

Note that the current charter (and an 1925 version) gives a distance of 817 feet, while the annexation statute says 816 feet. I think the charter is correct (see next segment).

Part 3, to blue line, describing the line along Newman Road (in 1897 Berridges' quarry road).

(3) 1627 feet, 189.62 degrees azimuth.

The statute says 783 feet, but this makes no sense, since it would make the area substantially smaller than the 47 acres stated in the statute. There may have been a transcription error. The version shown above is from the Common Council minutes, not the statute passed by the legislature.

Part 4, to orange line, describing the southern part of the boot heel.

(4) 553 feet, 255.80 degrees azimuth.
(5) 457 feet, 278.72 degrees azimuth.

Part 5, to purple line, describing the western part of the boot heel.

(6) 1172.5 feet, 23.62 degrees azimuth.

The statute says 626.2 feet, while the charter says 1172.5 feet. I believe the charter is correct.

Part 6, to brown line, describing the south boundary of the cemetery east of Ten Broeck Lane.

(7) 641 feet, 284.85 degrees azimuth.

Part 7 to gold line, describing the closure to the existing (in 1897) city limit.

(8) 264 feet, 13.53 degrees azimuth.

The statute gives a bearing of "north 29 degrees, 25 minutes (omitted)" with no indication whether it is east or west of north. This also repeats the next bearing of north 29 degrees, 25 minutes west. Either the survey split two consecutive segments into two parts, or there was a bizarre coincidence of adjacent segments having exactly the same angle but, opposite directions from magnetic north, but they happened to omit a necessary part of the description, or there was a transcription error and they ran two segments together. I think that this error is the case.

The charter gives an angle of "south 23 degrees, 20 minutes west". I have assumed that the charter is correct. Since the charter reverses, the directions, this would be equivalent to north 23 degrees, 20 minutes east, for this segment.

Part 8 to pink line the final connection to the center of Ten Broeck Lane.

(9) 16.5 feet, 320.78 degrees azimuth.

This is a short segment to reach the existing city limit (in 1897). This is where the current city limits switch from the original city limits, to traverse the cemetery annexation.

The last segment (8) before this small segment to get to the center of the road is northerly with just a small easterly component. The city limit reached Ten Broeck Lane from the south, not the east. This creates the notch.

Part 9 to lime line closes the annexation description.

(10) 877 feet along existing city limit (ie Ten Broeck Lane) to start of annexation description (south side of Columbia Turnpike).

Since this is where the annexed area joined the city, it is no longer part of the city limits.

The cemetery annexation has been spliced into the original city limits. The charter now reads:

"...to the center of the old road passing through the farm formerly owned by Charles Evarts; thence along the center of said old road north sixty-three degrees and twenty minutes east (N 63 20' E) six chains and 60 links; thence north forty-four degrees and twenty minutes east (N 44 20' E) 10 chains and 45 links; thence north fifty-five degrees and fifty minutes east (N 55 50' E) six chains; thence north thirty-three degrees and fifty minutes east (N 33 50' E) one chain; thence, as the magnetic needle stood in the year 1895 at right angles from center of said old road south twenty-nine degrees twenty-five minutes east (S 29 25' E) 16 1/2 feet; thence south twenty-three degrees twenty minutes west (S 23 20' W) 264 feet to lands of Everts Ten Broeck; thence south sixty-five degrees twenty-one minutes east (S 65 21' E) 641 feet; thence south thirty-three degrees twenty-five minutes west (S 33 25' W) 1,172 1/2 feet to a stone monument; thence south seventy-one degrees twenty-nine minutes east (S 71 29' E) 457 feet to a stone monument; thence north eighty-five degrees thirty-six minutes east (N 85 36' E) 553 feet to a stone monument near an elm tree, on the north side of Berridge's quarry road; thence along the northerly side of Berridge's quarry road, north nineteen degrees twenty-five minutes east (N 19 25' E) 1,627 feet to the westerly side of the Columbia Turnpike; thence northerly along the westerly side of the Columbia Turnpike, north forty-nine degrees two minutes west (N 49 2' W) 433 feet; thence continuing along the westerly side of the Columbia Turnpike north forty-nine degrees twenty minutes west (N 49 20' W) 817 feet to the center of Paul Avenue; thence northerly along the center of Paul Avenue to the northerly side of the Union Turnpike; ..."

Part 1, in red, is the same as the original charter. Here we have reached Ten Broeck Lane, and are proceeding north.

Part 2, in orange, has been modified. Originally, this segment was 4.40 chains (290.40 feet). It has been reduced to one chaing (66 feet). This is where the cemetery splice begins.

Part 3, in blue is the cemetery splice. Note that distances are now specified in feet, and compass directions are based on the 1895 magnetic declination.

Part 4, in lime green, now simply specifies a northerly course along Paul Avenue, with no distance. In the original version, this was part of 15.70 chain (1036.20) segment that started south of Columbia Turnpike, which was superseded by the cemetery annexation.

Not shown above is the description of the second annexation (out Union Turnpike to Graham Avenue, and out Fairview Avenue past Oakwood Boulevard).
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