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51  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 25, 2016, 09:31:21 pm
Blue: existing edges, that I am suggesting be kept.
Red: existing edges, that I am suggesting to be deleted.
Green: existing edges, that I am suggesting to be added.



To be deleted:

(A) Driveways around High School.
(B) Driveways around Firemen's Home.

Do you think any of these should be kept?
52  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 25, 2016, 09:24:33 pm
Blue: existing edges, that I am suggesting be kept.
Red: existing edges, that I am suggesting to be deleted.
Green: existing edges, that I am suggesting to be added.



To be deleted:

None.

To be replaced (to replace an edge, it must be deleted and then added)

(A) Mill Street east of 2nd Street (being extended to 3rd Street)
(B) Stream east of 2nd Street, near Mill Street (corrected position)

Do you think any of these are not accurate?

Being added:

None.
53  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 25, 2016, 09:15:28 pm
This shows the edges for Houston.

Blue: existing edges, that I am suggesting be kept.
Red: existing edges, that I am suggesting to be deleted.
Green: existing edges, that I am suggesting to be added.



To be deleted:

(A) Statistical lines in North Bay.
(B) Front Street north of Dock Street.
(C) Lombard Street south of Dock Street.
(D) State Avenue west of Front Street.
(E) Loop at Warren west of Front Street.

Do you think any of these should be kept?

To be replaced (to replace an edge, it must be deleted and then added)

(A) Mill Street east of 2nd Street (being extended to 3rd Street)
(B) Dock Street west of Front Street (being extended toward RR tracks)
(C) Stream east of 2nd Street, near Mill Street (corrected position)

Do you think any of these are not accurate?

Being added:

(A) Escarpment above railroad tracks.
(B) Boundary of Promenade Hill Park.

Do you think that any of these are not visible?
54  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Local vs regional road connections on: April 25, 2016, 08:14:29 pm
Actually if I've written my definition correctly, then the fragment you would like to use is an isolated fragment, in that it has no connections to other units, at most a local connection to other fragments in the chopped unit. That leads to rules that favor your preferred chop.

Definition: Isolated County. An isolated county is a county or equivalent that has no regional connections. Example: Pitkin county, CO.
  
Item: An isolated county is connected to a unit if there is a local connection to the unit.

Item: An isolated county fragment that has no regional connections to adjacent units in other counties in the same district is connected to a unit or fragment across county lines if there is a local connection to the unit.

The underlined narrowly defines the connections for your preferred chops. Without the underlined it would treat all isolated fragments the same whether or not there is a regional link to the rest of the district. Without the underlined it is simpler and either way it accommodates your preference. Any thoughts?

Oh, and I do like your signature. What's the source?

The map came from here. I found the page doing a search for "new york topographic maps".

55  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 25, 2016, 05:26:33 pm
Well the document I read does state one can add new features, but you are drawing lines where the features are not visible on any map. Here is a list of features that will be accepted.  Maybe a point to point line includes an invisible line with no features. How that works on the ground, I don't know. Colleen stated one must draw closed polygons.



Where do you get this notion of "visible on any map"?  A map is a symbolic representation of geographical data.

Go out your front door, what do you see?  There is a 25 foot-wide strip of asphalt that is know as Robinson Street. That is the visible feature.

The infinitely thin line in the census bureau data base, or pencil-thin black line on census maps is a representation of that data.

Which document are you looking at? If you tell me, I'll give you some other page references.

National Hydrography Dataset

National Hydrography Dataset





Columbia County Property Search

Insert the name of a property owner or a street address. If the property owner owns multiple properties, click on one of them. Over on the right side click on "Pin Property on GIS Map" and zoom out. or start here:

Columbia County Property Search and zoom in.



Note that Google Maps is placing gray street markers, which is contaminating your understanding. Get in a car, and you will have no difficulty driving down Mill Street to even with 3rd Street. If you go up to the top end of the Dugway, you won't be able to drive on what is shown as "Mill Street". It is now a bike trail, which crosses Lucille Drive and then continues on a zebra-striped area on the west side of Harry Howard out to the High School. The bike trail up the Dugway is part of a bike route which uses Front Street, Dock Street, Mill Street, the bike trail, and the side of Harry Howard.

Third Street has been part of the Hudson ward boundaries since 1815. It then continued up the Dugway and out the road now known as Harry Howard Avenue and on north to what is now Stockport, but was then part of the City of Hudson. At that time, the city charter was under control of the New York State legislature. It is quite possible, perhaps even likely, that State Senator Martin Van Buren sponsored the legislation. He was probably familiar with the route traveling between Kinderhook and Hudson.

Somewhat later, Rick Scalera recalls as a first grader at Charles Williams School (west side of 3rd Street, north of Robinson Street) that the playground was at the bottom of the hill. The tax office gives the address of the parcel of land at the southwest corner of 3rd St and Mill St, as 3rd Street and Mill Street.

The land is in the 3rd Street right of way, so it may actually be considered an unpaved portion of 3rd Street by the city of Hudson. How is it depicted on zoning maps?

There is clearly a logical, rational, and legitimate basis for drawing the 3rd Street extension. The Census Bureau should accept our suggestion.
56  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 25, 2016, 12:31:49 pm
Many of the features you use are not depicted on the census block map, nor appear on google map aerials. So how can they be used?
I'm not sure what you are saying. Can you give me some examples?

See:
2010 Census - Census Block Maps

On right hand side under "Place" select New York, then H, then Hudson to get PDF of census map

Nothing connects from Mill Street to Harry Howard, and yet you drew lines between the two - twice.


I added the lines.

We start with the 2010 lines (2015 actually).

The first part of the Block Boundary Suggestion Project is to propose edits to the current lines.

The census bureau is primarily interested in areas that have been newly developed, or redeveloped, since that is where there will be new streets, or changed streets. The census bureau is mainly interested in associating street addresses with census blocks, so that they can get people placed in the right area.

Second is to eliminate errata. Features that no longer exist (or never existed) or are missing or badly placed.

The third part is to suggest which lines be used as block boundaries.

I am being slightly aggressive in the second part, knowing where I will want to suggest blocks be place.

Mill Street clearly exists to 3rd Street. To change a feature, the old version is deleted, and a new one is added. So what I am really doing is telling the census bureau that their current line for Mill Street is too short.

The bike trail up the Dugway does exist, and what is shown as Mill Street at the top end does not exist. So I am telling the census bureau to eliminate that part of Mill Street and add the bike trail.

Mill Street and the bike trail are visible. Someone who lives in Hudson could verify their existence.

2020 Census Program Phases

PL 94-171

We are implementing PL 94-171, which requires the Census Bureau to consult with bodies responsible for redistricting as to what areas to enumerate. It is reasonable to assume that New York state wants a single set of data to be used for congressional, legislative, and local redistricting, even though it is unlikely that Hudson will be divided by legislative or congressional districts.

I am concerned that if the feature is not on the census map, then you don't have a closed polygon, which is what the Census bureau requires. Maybe it would be willing to add new features, but to try to go there, one would need tp see the feature on some map. You are drawing lines where there might be features (that you inferred are there, or whatever or used some topo map), but they are invisible on aerial maps.

2020 Census Program Phases

Click on "BBSP Geographic Update Partnership Software Participant Guide [PDF]"

GUPS is the software that is being used. Read Parts I. You might not understand what Colleen of the Census was telling you.

Have you read PL 94-171?
57  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 25, 2016, 02:06:09 am
Hudson Railroad Status



Red - Lines no longer exist:

(A) Railroad to cement plant across South Bay.
(B) Siding east of East Court Place.

Green - Confirm use as block boundary.

Some of the east-west RR were used for block boundaries in  2000, but were omitted in 2010. The census is proposing to use them in 2020. I confirmed that we liked the idea:

(A) State Street to Fairview Avenue
(B) Front Street to Union Street.
(C) Bridge across North Bay estuary - used to connect Hudson shoreline.

Lime Green - Force to keep.

(A) Currently the block boundary takes an excursion on the wye in South Bay. Since this is no longer available, I switched to the west track.

Blue - Force to not use.

(A) From Ferry Street to the North Bay estuary, the block boundary will be forced to the escarpment.

Cyan - No change in use as block boundary.

(A) Generally, west track south of Ferry.

Powder Blue - Current non usage unchanged.

(A) Union Street to State Street - blocks left alone.
(B) North of North Bay estuary, not used, tracks adjacent to shore.
(C) East track south of Ferry St, west track is used.

General strategy for mainline:

South of Ferry Street, west track  is used.
Between Ferry Street and North Bay estuary, escarpment is new block boundary.
Across bridge at North Bay, west track is used to connect shoreline.
North Bay, tracks not used as boundary.
58  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 24, 2016, 10:37:11 pm
Lines not used for block boundaries, but lines kept.



These include boundary lines for the cemetery and hospital, the remnant of South Bay, and an island in North Bay. The island is used for a useless census block.

It also includes Underhill Pond and Oakdale Pond. I will flag these to be used for block boundaries.
59  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 24, 2016, 10:20:29 pm
Lines that the census bureau isn't planning on using for block boundaries, and I deleted them.



In essence, the Census Bureau is saying these aren't suitable for block boundaries, but we leave them here unless the people in Hudson want them. But they serve no purpose, so they should be deleted.
60  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 24, 2016, 10:08:26 pm
Features that Census Bureau intends to use as block boundaries, but which I deleted.



None of the lines actually exist, except for the internal roads in the prison, which serve no purpose for the census.

61  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 24, 2016, 10:05:46 pm
We need to know from the Census Bureau where 123, 125, 127, and 129 Fairview Avenue were enumerated:

In Census Tract 12, Block 1009
or Census Tract 11, Block 3038

We need to know what was the address of the people enumerated in

Census Tract 13, Block 4015.
62  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 24, 2016, 08:22:12 pm
Many of the features you use are not depicted on the census block map, nor appear on google map aerials. So how can they be used?
I'm not sure what you are saying. Can you give me some examples?

See:
2010 Census - Census Block Maps

On right hand side under "Place" select New York, then H, then Hudson to get PDF of census map

Nothing connects from Mill Street to Harry Howard, and yet you drew lines between the two - twice.


I added the lines.

We start with the 2010 lines (2015 actually).

The first part of the Block Boundary Suggestion Project is to propose edits to the current lines.

The census bureau is primarily interested in areas that have been newly developed, or redeveloped, since that is where there will be new streets, or changed streets. The census bureau is mainly interested in associating street addresses with census blocks, so that they can get people placed in the right area.

Second is to eliminate errata. Features that no longer exist (or never existed) or are missing or badly placed.

The third part is to suggest which lines be used as block boundaries.

I am being slightly aggressive in the second part, knowing where I will want to suggest blocks be place.

Mill Street clearly exists to 3rd Street. To change a feature, the old version is deleted, and a new one is added. So what I am really doing is telling the census bureau that their current line for Mill Street is too short.

The bike trail up the Dugway does exist, and what is shown as Mill Street at the top end does not exist. So I am telling the census bureau to eliminate that part of Mill Street and add the bike trail.

Mill Street and the bike trail are visible. Someone who lives in Hudson could verify their existence.

2020 Census Program Phases

PL 94-171

We are implementing PL 94-171, which requires the Census Bureau to consult with bodies responsible for redistricting as to what areas to enumerate. It is reasonable to assume that New York state wants a single set of data to be used for congressional, legislative, and local redistricting, even though it is unlikely that Hudson will be divided by legislative or congressional districts.
63  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 24, 2016, 02:37:39 pm
This is an alternate version.



This eliminates the goat trail from 6th Street and Glenwood Avenue, and uses the northern shore of Underhill and Oakdale ponds as the block boundary. This would eliminate 4 unpopulated blocks.

The other change would be to place North Bay into a single unpopulated block.
64  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 24, 2016, 02:01:36 pm
Prospective 2020 Census Blocks



Areas in greenish have no change from 2010.

Areas in blueish are expansions of current blocks due to elimination of mostly non-existent features, this will have negligible effect since most of the eliminated blocks had 0 population.

Areas in orangeish are divisions/revisions of current blocks due to:

(1) Using railroads as block boundary between Union Street and Front Street; and State Street and Fairview Avenue.
(2) Separation of Hudson Correction Institution as a block.
(3) Elimination of railroad across South Bay. While I delineated the South Bay Causeway Truck Route, it would not be held as a block boundary.
(4) Addition of Promenade Hill Park.
(5) Delineating Cherry Alley between City Hall Place and 5th Street.
(6) Delineating Rope Alley between 6th Street and 7th Street.
(7) Adding Stream 201a from North Bay to near eastern boundary.
(8) Using Underhill and Oakdale ponds as block boundaries.
(9) Extending Mill Street to 3rd Street (extended).
(10) Adding Dugway bike route.
(11) Adding 3rd Street extension from north of Robinson Street to Mill Street.
(12) Utilizing Clinton Street extension from west of 5th Street to Harry Howard Avenue.
65  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 24, 2016, 02:17:52 am
Hudson Proposed 2020 Edges



The census bureau maintains a database of edges (polylines). Edges have a location (a series of Latitude/Longitude points), and thus have a direction, from the starting point to an ending point.

Edges do not cross. So for example at the intersection of 3rd and State Street there are 4 edges that meet, corresponding to (1) State Street from 3rd to 2nd; (2) State Street from 3rd to 4th; (3) 3rd Street from State Street to Rope Alley; (4) and 3rd Street from State Street to Long Alley. (the order I've used here may not reflect the order in the database, but was just to illustrate the four edges going away from the intersection.

Edges do not not have to join other edges at their endpoints. For example, Rope Alley east of 3rd Street only connects on one end. The edge defining the shoreline of Underhill Pond connects with it self (a common start and end point).

A closed path of edges define a face. Some faces are census blocks. A census block must be defined by a closed path of edges, so it could be comprised of adjacent faces (share one or more edges).

The Census Bureau may have to split edges to reflect new edges. In other cases it may join edges that are connected end to end.

For example, the Census Bureau inexplicably does not believe that Cherry Alley is continuous from City Hall Place to 5th Street. Instead it had used statistical lines to close the gap across 4th Street. For the 2010 census the statistical lines were not used, and if you look at census block map, the two blocks on either side of 4th Street go from Warren Street to Union Street.

Since the Census Bureau decided those statistical lines did not correspond to anything, it removed them. This meant that the two edges corresponding to 4th Street could be merged (they connected end to end, and had other shared characteristics, such as a the same name). This can be an automated process. They gave a new TLID (permanent edge ID to the merged edge). TLID's never change, so the old TLID's were retired. TLID's are now around 700,000,000 for the USA.

Since I am now reinserting Cherry Alley, it will re-split the edge on 4th Street, likely resulting in creation  of two new edges.

Edges have two faces associated with them, one to the left and one to the right. For example, the edge corresponding to your block is to left of Robinson street, to the left of Rope Alley, to the right of 2nd Street, and to the left of 3rd Street. From this we can see that the numbered streets were drawn south to north, while Rope Alley was west to east, and Robinson from east to west. In most likelihood, the east west streets were digitized from Front Street to whereever they end, and the numbered streets from south to north, and then they let a computer slice them into edges.

Faces may have holes in them. For example, the face that envelopes Underhill Pond has 19 edges associated with it. Since the Clinton Street extension is part of the census data base, it is one of the edges that define the face. The pseudo-block bounded by Harry Howard, Washington, 6th Street, Clinton St, and the Clinton extension is a separate face.

The census block is comprised of three faces: the one from Clinton to Harry Howard and Paddock Place, Underhill Pond, and the pseudo-block.

We will "suggest" to the Census Bureau that they use the Clinton Street extension as a block boundary, so that the block between Washington and Clinton (extended) and Harry Howard and 5th Street will be a census block.

For each edge, there are the following fields (in a spreadsheet each row corresponds to the record for an edge, and each column corresponds to a field).

STATEFP (36 for New York)
COUNTYFP (021 for Columbia)
TLID (Permanent Edge ID)
TFIDL (Permanent Face ID, Left)
TFIDR (Permanent Face ID, Right)
MTFCC (MAF/Tiger Feature Classification Code)  For example a neighborhood street is S1400, a stream H3010.
FIDELITY (flag indicating location has been enhanced, be census bureau)
FULLNAME Name of feature (eg Robinson St)
SMID (Spatial metafile ID) I don't know what this is.
BBSPFLG (Block Boundary suggestion from 2010, Must Hold, Don't Hold)
CBBFLG (Planned 2020 block boundary)
BBSP_2020 (suggested block boundary)

So CBBFLG says what the census bureau plans to do, and BBSP_2020 is our suggestion. The census bureau plans to use Robinson Street (from 2nd Street to Strawberry Lane). We could suggest that it not be used.

CHG_TYPE= "DL" delete line, "AL" Add line, "CA" Change attributes.

When I wanted to delete a line, I changed the field to "DL".

When I wanted to add a line, I created a new feature, which saved its location (vertices of polyline) and created a new row, I then edited the row. I would insert the MTFCC, the name, and added "AL".
If the new line was replacing an existing line, I would duplicate the TLID, and make the changes.

If I were just changing attributes, the field is "CA". For example, "Van Winkle Rd" was mispelled as "Vanwinkle Rd", which I correct. I also corrected the 10-foot gap in the RR which was miscoded.

JUSTIFY 150 characters of justification for the change. I entered something for every change. I don't know if it is required, but it would help me remember why.

LTOADD
RTOADD
LFROMADD
RFROMADD

These are the house numbers on the left and right side of the street. For Robinson they are:

Left: 249-201
Right: 298-200

Because the edge for Robinsion is directed from east to west, left is as you walk from 3rd Street. There is a an assumption that street numbers are odd and even on opposite sides of the street (this is likely USPS policy). And the ranges are potential.

Because Strawberry Lane intersections Robinson Street, there is a second edge for the portion of Robinson Street south of the form Charles Williams School. Its address ranges are:

Left: 299-251
Right: NULL-NULL.

So we can expect that numbers higher than 251 are opposite the school.

ZIPL Zip code to the left
ZIPR Zip code to the right

In the map above, the edges are color coded by type:

Yellow: Streets, bike paths, foot paths
Red: Statistical/legal lines.
Purple: Landmark boundaries.
Green: Railroads.
Cyan: Water
66  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 23, 2016, 01:05:21 pm
Changes to railroads



Existing tracks are in green (both tracks on north/south mainline are depicted in census data base.

A small gap (10 feet) in the west track south of Ferry Street has been corrected (shown in orange, but not really visible at this scale).

Tracks that have been removed are in red.

(A) To cement plant across South Bay causeway (replaced by truck route)
(B) Siding east of East Court Lane.

It is intent to use the east-west tracks between Front Street and Union Street; and State Street and Fairview Avenue as block boundaries. This will provide a clear limit to most of the developed area on the south side of the city, and a separation between Green Street and Glenwood Boulevard. This was done in 2000, but removed in 2010.

Between Union Street and State Street, the tracks will not be used since this simply causes senseless division of small areas.
67  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 23, 2016, 12:23:56 pm
Added streets.



These are of two types:

(1) Corrections to existing streets. In the case of corrections, the old street was deleted.
(2) New streets.

(1) Corrections to existing streets.
(A) Corrected alignment of Van Winkle Road, Van Winkle Road Extension, Academy Hill Drive.
(B) Continuous single public access route through Hudson Correction Institution.
(C) Extend Ferry Street towards water, eliminating parking lot.
(D) Correct alignment of Deer Alley west of cross lane.
(E) Completion of Cherry Alley between City Hall Place and 5th Street (missing gap)
(F) Truncate Hudson Avenue to actual street.
(G) Corrected Washington Street west of Harry Howard Avenue (actual location)
(H) Dock Street west of 2nd Street, extended further west.
(I) Mill Street east of 2nd Street, extended east to 3rd Street.

(2) New Streets.
(A) South Bay Causeway Truck Route (replaces RR tracks)
(B) Rope Alley between 6th Street and 7th Street
(C) Bike path up Dugway between Mill Street (and 3rd Street) to Lucille Drive (near Harry Howard), replaces Mill Street at east end.
68  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 23, 2016, 10:32:43 am
Many of the features you use are not depicted on the census block map, nor appear on google map aerials. So how can they be used?
I'm not sure what you are saying. Can you give me some examples?

See:
2010 Census - Census Block Maps

On right hand side under "Place" select New York, then H, then Hudson to get PDF of census map
69  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 23, 2016, 09:53:42 am
Deleted Streets



Linear street features were deleted for several reasons:

(1) They do not exist.
(2) Badly aligned. The location in the census bureau database does not match the location on the ground. To add the correct location, the old location is deleted, and replaced by the new location.
(3) Extend or truncate streets. The location in the census bureau database does not include the full length of the street. To add the correct length, the current location is deleted, and replaced by the now location.
(4) The street is a driveway or internal road, not intended for general traffic.

(1) They do not exist.
(A) Spurious extension of Faxon Avenue, northwest of Fairview Avenue and Storm Avenue.
(B) Spurious branch of Columbia Turnpike, just east of Prospect Avenue-Columbia Street intersection.
(C) Road west of Columbia Memorial Hospital, between Prospect Avenue and Columbia Street.
(D) Two spurious roads in block bounded by State Street and Long Alley; 6th Street and 7th Street.
(E) Spurious street in block bounded by State Street and Washington Street; 6th Street and 7th Street (not to be confused with Rope Alley).
(F) South Alley (northwest end of Tanners Lane)
(G) West of RR tracks, north of Ferry (former Partition Street)
(H) West of Front Street at Warren.
(I) State Street west of Front Street.
(G,H, and I predate development of Hudson Terrace when E-W streets extended west of Front Street. These are residual, which somebody decided must be there for some reason.
(J) Front Street, north of Dock Street.
(K) Mill Street, west of Lucille Drive (and Harry Howard). Replaced by bike trail.

(2) Badly misaligned road (current census alignment deleted)
(A) Van Winkle Road, Van Winkle Road Ext, and Academy Hill Drive do not match current buildout.
(B) Deer Alley, west of Cross Lane (census shows as stub)
(C) Washington Street west of Harry Howard Avenue (fictional version).


(3) Street to be extended or truncated (current census version deleted)
(A) Hudson Avenue, replaced by truncated version.
(B) Cherry Alley, between City Hall Place and 5th Street, the central section across 4th Street is inexplicably missing.
(C) Ferry Street to be truncated through marina parking lot.
(D) Dock Street west of Front Street, to be extended further west.
(E) Mill Street east of 2nd Street to be extended to 3rd Street, and Dugway bike trail.

(4) Driveway.
(A) Driveway at roughly 900 Columbia Street northward. Badly placed on census map.
(B) Driveway to Bronson House on HCI grounds. Badly placed on census map.
(C) Roadways in Hudson Correction Institution. They are badly misplaced. A single route through the prison from East Court Place past the main parking lot, and to the road east to Worth Avenue is retained.
(D) Lombard Street (south of Dock Street)
(E) Driveways at Middle School off Paddock Place
(F) Driveways at FASNY Firemen's Home off Harry Howard
(G) Driveways at High School off Harry Howard
70  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 23, 2016, 01:44:56 am
Hudson Natural Features.



While block boundaries are typically streets and roads, visible natural features such as streams may also be used. The census bureau is primarily interested in visible features since this permits more accurate placement of residences, so that people are counted in the right place.

Smaller streams are represented by lines. Rivers and lakes may be represented as areal features. It is their shorelines which are represented by lines.

(1) Existing streams to be retained (green on map)

(A) Stream in  South Bay.
(B) Portion of North Bay immediately east of railroad tracks. This is about 60 feet wide at its southern mouth, but is represented as a line.
(C) Stream from North Bay to about Mill Street and 2nd Street. This is the stream that flows through Underhill and Oakdale ponds. The actual course might be better refined.

(2) Stream to be deleted (red)

(A) Stream from 2nd and Mill Street. Poorly aligned and spuriously connects to 3rd Street.

(3) Streams to be added (cyan)

This is the stream to the north of the developed central plateau of Hudson, and essentially marks the northern limit of the street grid.

(A) 2nd and Mill Street to Underhill Pond.
(B) Underhill Pond to Oakdale Pond.
(C) Oakdale Pond to Power Springs (connects to RR tracks near end of Spring Street.
(D) Underhill Pond to Paddock Place (connects north of houses on Paddock Place.

(4) Escarpment added (purple)

(A) Escarpment between Ferry Street and Dock Street on west edge of Promenade Hill Park and Hudson Terrace apartments. 50 to 75 feet above Hudson River.
71  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 23, 2016, 12:37:28 am
New P-Line Features.



These non-visible lines are used to demarcate census blocks. While non-visible, their location is easily discernible on the ground.

(1) 3rd Street Extension, from end of 3rd Street, north of Robinson Street to Mill Street. The extension is in the 3rd Street right-of-way. This has formed part of the ward boundaries of Hudson since 1815.

(2) Limits of Promenade Hill Park. The eastern limit is Front Street, and the western limit, the escarpment. Promenade Hill Park is the oldest public park in the United States, dating from 1795.

(3) Ferry St. Extension from end of Ferry Street to Hudson River. Permits use of Ferry Street to Hudson River.
72  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 22, 2016, 09:16:31 pm
'P' Linear Features to Be Retained.



'P' features are non-visible statistical or legal boundaries, including boundaries of areal features including water features.

The following lines are to be retained:

(1) Water Boundaries.

(A) Hudson River shoreline.
(B) Open water in North Bay.
(C) Residual of South Bay, west of 3rd Street.
(D) Underhill Pond.
(E) Oakdale Pond.

(2) Limits of Areal Features.

(A) Hudson Correctional Institution. Census 2020 intends to enumerate prisons and similar facilities (eg Universities and Colleges) as separate census blocks. It might be better to show the boundary of the prison property that extends from 3rd Street to Worth Avenue. This would make the non-prison areas on Union Street and Worth Avenue a clearly separate block.
(B) Western limit of Columbia Memorial Hospital.
(C) Limits of Cedar Park Cemetery. It might be better to eliminate the northern and eastern bounds, and use Columbia Turnpike and Newman Road as the cemetery limits.

(3) Statistical boundaries.

(A) Non-visible Hudson City limits, including city/county boundary in Hudson River. Boundaries along Ten Broeck Lane, Newman Road, Columbia Turnpike, Paul Avenue, Union Turnpike, Graham Avenue, and Fairview Avenue use those streets. The gap in the southern boundary is marked by a property parcel line.
(B) Lines from Front Street and Dock Street, northward, and then westward through North Bay to the center of the Hudson River. This marks the boundary betweens Census Tracts 12 and 13, and is maintained for statistical continuity.
(C) Extension of Clinton Street from the west terminous of Clinton Street, west of 5th Street to Harry Howard Avenue. This extension is within the Clinton Street right-of-way. It will be used to mark a census block bounded by Washington Street (and Harry Howard Avenue), 5th Street, Clinton Street, Clinton Street extension, and Harry Howard Avenue. This block was enumerated separately in the 1990 census.

(4) Erroneous line reclassified.

(A) There is an inexplicable 10 foot gap in the west track of the railroad mainline, about 120 feet south of Ferry Street. It has been reclassified as a Railroad Feature. It is marked in Orange on the map.
73  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Legal description of Hudson's city boundaries on: April 22, 2016, 01:39:07 pm


The census bureau classifies features (point, linear, and areal) with a MAF/Tiger Feature Classification Code (MTFCC). This is a 5-character code. The first letter indicates a type of feature (eg 'S' for streets), and the last four numbers a subtype. For example:

S1100 primary road
S1200 secondary road
S1400 neighborhood street

'P' features, are primarily "Nonvisible Legal/Statistical Boundary", with a typical use of marking a block boundary. In some instances, the lines had been recognized as streets or roads, and used to define block boundaries. The census bureau has determined that the road does not exist, but has converted to a statistical line in case there is a desire to maintain a block boundary.

I have flagged the lines in red on the map above for deletion:

(1) Roads in the cemetery were badly aligned for the 2010 Census, and were used to define census blocks. The census bureau has downgraded the streets to statistical lines. Since there is nobody living in the cemetery, there is no point in maintaining them.

(2) Former open reservoirs on Reservoir Hill replaced by closed storage.

(3) Spurious line southeast of Warren-Worth intersection.

(4) Spurious extension of Joe Alley.

(5) Spurious duplication of State Street between railroad tracks and Green Street.

(6) Residual from realignment of Long Alley into Columbia Street.

(7) Non-existent Prison Alley across Public Square.

(8) Connection of Hudson Avenue to RR tracks, ineligible for use as block boundary.

(9) Residual from realignment of Power Avenue to spike along 3rd Street.

(10) Spurious possible duplication of road on former rail bed east of 3rd Street at southern city limits.

(11) Line apparently to connect Clinton St and Harry Howard to north end of 3rd Street.

(12) Lines in North Bay (lines defining Census Tracts 12 and 13 retained).
74  Presidential Elections - Analysis and Discussion / Presidential Election Process / Re: Article about potential reforms the Democratic Primary process on: April 22, 2016, 01:21:18 am
Semi-closed/semi-open primaries would be better than open in my view. I think everyone can agree we don't want Republicans ratfyucking in our primary.
How would that work in states with no party registration?
In Texas, voters affiliate with a party on election day.
75  Presidential Elections - Analysis and Discussion / Presidential Election Process / Re: How would you reform the primary system? on: April 22, 2016, 01:16:57 am
I will substitute the words "political club" for "political party" to emphasize that they  are private organizations rather than an extension of the government.

Under the US Constitution, each state appoints presidential electors. They are not required to hold popular elections to determine the appointees, but all do. The fact that Congress can set the time of appointment contributed to this.

The candidates on the November ballot are placed there by state political clubs. The state political clubs are affiliated with national political clubs. The national political clubs dictate to the state political clubs who they will place on the state ballots. There is a quasi-democratic process by which the national political clubs choose the nominee.

But the states are in no position to reform the national political clubs. But they can reform the process by which the candidates are placed on the ballot.

In Texas elections for US Senator, there is a primary, and if necessary a primary runoff, and the winner is placed on the general election ballot.

There is no reason Texas could not use the same procedure for presidential elections. Each presidential candidate could designate 38 presidential elector candidates. There would be the primary, and a possible runoff, and the winner would be placed on the November ballot, along with the presidential electors.

But what would happen if different states had different presidential candidates in November?

The state of Texas would permit the Texas political clubs to designate political clubs in other states where similar primaries are held as long as they were held under the following conditions:

(1) No elections before the first of March. Iowa, New Hampshire, South Carolina, and Nevada would of course be free to hold their early straw polls.

(2) Same candidates on the ballot. States parties could hold caucuses, but would have to report the actual popular vote. Associated with each candidate would be delegate candidates designated by the  candidate.

(3) No withdrawal of candidates.

(4) Primaries could be held through the first of June. Delegates would be apportioned on a strictly proportional basis. If a candidate received 356,182 votes in a state, he would receive 356,182 delegate votes, allocated among a reasonable number of delegates, say one per 20,000 votes. Delegates could be awarded geographically by CD to any candidate who received 10,000 votes in  the CD. Other delegates could be awarded on a statewide basis (eg Jim Gilmore would get a delegate in each state, with a small number of convention votes).

(5) If a candidate receives a majority of the vote, he becomes the party nominee in all participating states.

(6) If no candidate receives a majority of the vote, then delegates meet to choose the presidential candidate. Presidential candidates could release their delegates, but could not dictate who they vote for, though they are of course free to encourage who they vote for.

If no candidate receives a majority on the first ballot, the last place presidential candidate will be eliminated, and a second ballot held. Presidential candidates could continue to release their delegates.
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