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51  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Record number of US citizens are leaving the US to live abroad on: July 09, 2015, 01:11:17 am
The number of USA citizens in Austria has roughly doubled between to an estimated 16,884 in 2010, which would represent about 1/500 of the total population.  Vienna would be an attractive location, as would the ski areas if that were your interest.

Those estimates are wrong though.

Because Austria has a CPR (Central Population Registry). Here are the actual numbers for Jan. 1, 2015:

US citizens living in Austria: 7.572 (with 3.888 living in Vienna)

http://www.statistik.at/wcm/idc/idcplg?IdcService=GET_PDF_FILE&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&dDocName=064287

I guess the big difference between the US dept. numbers and the Austrian numbers are due to the fact that the US actually doesn't track emigration, while in Austria you have to register when moving in and out of a town within 3 days.
The link didn't work, and couldn't find anything on the web-site.


For me, the link works.

Let's try the Excel version instead:

http://www.statistik.at/wcm/idc/idcplg?IdcService=GET_NATIVE_FILE&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&dDocName=064287

...

Otherwise go here:

http://www.statistik.at/web_de/statistiken/menschen_und_gesellschaft/bevoelkerung/bevoelkerungsstruktur/bevoelkerung_nach_staatsangehoerigkeit_geburtsland/index.html

and click on the PDF/Excel files next to it:

"Bevölkerung am 1.1.2015 nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit und Bundesland"

or

"Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn seit 2002 nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit"
The original PDF works now.  It was 404-land last night.

I pretty much skimmed the report.   I think what they did was develop a model that includes factors such as US taxpayers, SS beneficiaries, etc., that provide a measurement of the US citizen population, as well as measurements that provide an indication of the migration, such as size of the foreign-born population in the US, distance, total population, language, economic level, etc. and compared these to with estimates of the the US citizen population.

But I don't think they used the individual foreign government estimates (FGE) to make their estimates.  But rather the FGE were used to calibrate their overall model.

The estimate from the registry does not appear to take into account dual citizenship.  Someone who legally has US citizenship may not claim it, unless they want to move to the US, and even then might not disclose it to the foreign government.   In the case of Austria, dual citizens might include citizens who are citizens of other EU countries and the United States.  A German/US dual national living in Austria is likely to say that they are German citizen (and therefore an EU citizen).

It is likely that the the registry measures the growth in the US citizen population more accurately than it measures the total number of US citizens.   This assumes that the composition of the population is not changing dramatically over time.   The registry shows an 11% growth over 10 years, vs. a 100% growth for the FVAP estimate.

Looking at changes (2002-2015) in other countries in the Austrian registry, I noted the following:

Germans 75K to 170K.  I would expect a large number of Germans because of proximity and language but not such a large growth.  Are these pensioners?  Or people from the GDR?  It would take some time after 1995 to develop migration pipelines.

Growth in Bulgarians, Romanians, Slovakians, Hungarians, which would be based on EU expansion.  The growth in Poles, Croats, and Czechs, was less, but they were already present in large numbers.  There was a particular uptick in Greeks, Spaniards, and Portuguese toward the end of the period.  Huge increase in persons from the Baltics, but from a very low base.

Really big increases from the former Soviet Union, likely a combination of political and economic refugees.

And the really surprising one, the increase in Mongolians from 160 to 2,154.  Any ideas?

Incidentally, the only country I couldn't figure out was "Osttimor" which would have presumably been one of the easiest for you.

Is "ehem" a German word, or is it an abbreviaton?  As in "DR Congo, ehem Zaire"?






52  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Record number of US citizens are leaving the US to live abroad on: July 08, 2015, 02:21:29 am
The number of USA citizens in Austria has roughly doubled between to an estimated 16,884 in 2010, which would represent about 1/500 of the total population.  Vienna would be an attractive location, as would the ski areas if that were your interest.

Those estimates are wrong though.

Because Austria has a CPR (Central Population Registry). Here are the actual numbers for Jan. 1, 2015:

US citizens living in Austria: 7.572 (with 3.888 living in Vienna)

http://www.statistik.at/wcm/idc/idcplg?IdcService=GET_PDF_FILE&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&dDocName=064287

I guess the big difference between the US dept. numbers and the Austrian numbers are due to the fact that the US actually doesn't track emigration, while in Austria you have to register when moving in and out of a town within 3 days.
The link didn't work, and couldn't find anything on the web-site.
53  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Record number of US citizens are leaving the US to live abroad on: July 06, 2015, 04:43:20 pm
We should have overseas congressional districts…

Includes Country Specific Estimates

Based on the estimates in the above, 6 districts.  But 7 might fit a bit better:

OS-1: Canada and British Isles 624K
OS-2&3: Mexico 1110K
OS-4: South America, Central America, and Caribbean 713K
OS-5: Mainland Europe 813K
OS-6: East and Southeast Asia 495K
OS-7: Miscellania: Near East, Oceania, South Asia, and Africa 571K

What's election turnout among Americans abroad like ?

I guess only 5% bother to vote in a major election ...
In 2010, 611K ballots were sent out, and 211K were returned of which 184K were counted.

Military voters were about 54% of those sent out, and about 50% of those returned.

I suspect that a major problem is that ballots can be requested electronically, sent electronically, but have to be returned by surface mail.

I found another report from a foundation advocating for overseas (civilian voters).  They had a lot of reports with percentages, but no totals.  Apparently, they had contacted overseas voters, but I didn't read how they found the people to be polled, so there could be a selection bias.

They showed 39% students; 8% retirees; 7% educators; 6% management; 6% medical.   So at least in their sample, those overseas could be considered temporary, even if it ends up being an extended period, and some don't return. 

Even retirees would probably expect to return when their health begins to fail, in order to be closer to family.  An exception might be those who had family ties, such as Poland.

Mexico was less than 2%, despite being such a large share of the overseas citizen population, while countries such as Canada, UK, and Germany had a representation among overseas voters that was two or three times their population share.
54  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Record number of US citizens are leaving the US to live abroad on: July 05, 2015, 11:37:11 pm
We should have overseas congressional districts…

Includes Country Specific Estimates

Based on the estimates in the above, 6 districts.  But 7 might fit a bit better:

OS-1: Canada and British Isles 624K
OS-2&3: Mexico 1110K
OS-4: South America, Central America, and Caribbean 713K
OS-5: Mainland Europe 813K
OS-6: East and Southeast Asia 495K
OS-7: Miscellania: Near East, Oceania, South Asia, and Africa 571K

So under this scheme, I'd be voting in a congressional district of Miscellania?  If East/Southeast Asia is a separate district, then I guess I wouldn't be voting in the same district as opebo, even though he's not all that far away in the grand scheme of things.
I was trying to balance the population.

If I moved Oceania to OS-6 that would make OS-6 629K and OS-7 to 437K, about a 43% difference, vs. 15% my original way.

I could swap Southeast Asia (Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia) for Oceania, which would reduce the difference to 6.6%, and would arguably be more compact, but IMO would have less COI.

The population of the four sub-regions

Far East Asia (Japan 95K, Philippines 68K, Korea 34K): 197K
China (Taiwan 82K, PRC 74K, Hong Kong 23K, Macau 1K): 180K
Southeast Asia (Thailand 31K, Vietnam 23K, Indonesia 20K, Malaysia 15K, Cambodia 15K, Singapore 8K, Laos 1K): 113K - Thailand and obepo may be atypical of this group.
Oceania (Oz 102K, NZ 27K, Pacific Islands 5K) 134K
55  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Record number of US citizens are leaving the US to live abroad on: July 05, 2015, 10:15:17 pm
We should have overseas congressional districts…

Includes Country Specific Estimates

Based on the estimates in the above, 6 districts.  But 7 might fit a bit better:

OS-1: Canada and British Isles 624K
OS-2&3: Mexico 1110K
OS-4: South America, Central America, and Caribbean 713K
OS-5: Mainland Europe 813K
OS-6: East and Southeast Asia 495K
OS-7: Miscellania: Near East, Oceania, South Asia, and Africa 571K

56  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: Record number of US citizens are leaving the US to live abroad on: July 05, 2015, 09:57:49 pm
I found these numbers, when reading the Fact Sheets of the Dept. of State:

FY 2015:

Quote
An estimated 8.7 million U.S. citizens live overseas.

FY 2014:

Quote
The Department estimates that 7.6 million U.S. citizens live abroad.

FY 2013:

Quote
The Department estimates 6.8 million American citizens live abroad.

...

Of course nobody knows the real number, because the US does not track emigration in any statistic, but there's also birth data in these releases:

FY 2014: Overseas births of U.S. citizens registered: 66,854

FY 2013: Overseas births of U.S. citizens registered: 68,314

FY 2013: Overseas births of U.S. citizens registered: 64,991

If we assume that the birth rate among US expats is similar to that of citizens in the US (1.25%), then it would point more to an actual number of 5.4 million Americans abroad.

But maybe Americans abroad just have fewer kids, or they are just not registering all of them with the Dept. of State because they are citizens of other countries ... which means the overall size of Americans abroad could be in line with the estimates.
This report notes numerous problems estimating the overseas citizen population.  Many of the US citizens living overseas are 14th Amendment citizens, who moved when their non-citizen parents returned to their home country.

Counting the Uncountable: Overseas Americans

This paper provides technical challenges of estimates and has country specific details.  They say that the State Depeartment provides few details of their methodology (something about them being on a private server in Westchester County, New York, or some such nonsense).

A Model for Developing Estimates of  U.S. Citizens Abroad

Most of the growth is migration to areas that traditionally had not been a source of immigrants, such as South America, Africa, and South Asia, but have started to develop a pool of persons with ties to those countries.

The top countries in 2010 based on the paper's estimates:

Mexico 25.6%
Canada 8.5% (declined in absolute numbers by 12.1% between 2000 and 2010, and declined in share from 13.5% to 8.5%)
United Kingdom 5.1% (declining)
France 4.1%
Israel 3.1%
Germany 2.4% (declining, remember that the number include military personnel and dependents)
Australia 2.4%
Japan 2.2%
Taiwan 1.9%
India 1.8% (number quadrupled during decade).
Dominican Republic 1.8%
Ecuador 1.8% (it appears Los Angelenos are moving to Guayaquil and Phoenix)
China 1.7%
Philippines 1.6%
Brazil 1.6%
Italy 1.4% (declining slightly)
Poland 1.3% (big increase, may reflect those who escaped after WWII, been naturalized, and return in retirement for lower costs; plus those who escaped from behind the Iron Curtain.
Peru 1.2% (Los Angelenos move to Lima and Denver)
Argentina 1.1%
Venezuela 1.0%

On a percentage basis, the largest share of USA citizens appears to be St. Kitts and Nevis where it is closing in on 5% of the population (though no estimates are available for places like Bahamas, Turks and Caicos, or Cayman Islands).

The number of USA citizens in Austria has roughly doubled between to an estimated 16,884 in 2010, which would represent about 1/500 of the total population.  Vienna would be an attractive location, as would the ski areas if that were your interest.
57  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: July 05, 2015, 05:07:31 pm
Ward and Census History

Under the 1785 charter from the State of New York, Hudson had four aldermen and four assistants elected at large at a meeting of the freeholders of the city. If I am comprehending the statute, the mayor was appointed by the legislature.

In 1815, the city was divided into two wards. Recall at that time, that the city included all of Greenport, plus Stockport south of Stockport Creek. Ward 1 was west of the old road beginning at Claverack Creek near Peter Van Rensselaer's house, until it intersects the "road leading up the dugway", then along that road to Third Street through the compact portion of the city, to Highland Turnpike to the south end of the city. Ward 2 was the area to the east.

A dugway is a road cut on a hillside, either along the hill or across it. In some cases, the hill above may be cut to provide fill for the road below. So "the dugway" must refer to the road up from Mill Street, but later expanded to also mean the road along Harry Howard.  A motoring guide from 1905, notes the presence of "The Dugway", but says it is not suitable for automobiles, being but a lane. It also warns of the steep grade on Front Street between Ferry Street and Warren Street. The guide says that the route out Carroll and Short Street is passable, but prefers the routes out the east side of the city, north towards Albany (on Fairview), east towards Massachusetts (on Green and Columbia Turnpike), or southward (on Worth Avenue).

The "old road" must refer to what is now Joslen Blvd, which was already old in 1815. The Highland Turnpike entered from the south on Third Street. Essentially, Third Street was established as a ward divider in 1815 (March 31 was the 200th anniversary). Each ward elected two aldermen and two assistants and one supervisor at a ward meeting of the freemen.

An 1829 revision of the charter defined a compact area of the city, in which a tax could be assessed, with the proceeds being spent within the same compact area (eg sort of like a TIRZ). The tax within the compact area could raise $1200, while the general tax for the entire city could raise $2000. In effect, the tax rate was about 50% higher within the compact area. At the time in 1829, Hudson still included all of Greenport as well as part of Stockport.

The compact was roughly rectangular and parallel to the street grid, from about Mill Street to a point on Green Street (I think about where Green Street bends southeasterly), and to Tanners Lane and Third Street on the south side of town. The eastern side of the rectangle would have been perhaps 1/5th a mile past 8th Street. The law referred to a map drawn by the city surveyor. Yoda worked for the legislative drafting office and suggested, "[survey map] reference being thereto had will more fully appear."

An oddity of Hudson's is that it received a charter from the State of New York a couple of years after its founding. It was the 3rd city to receive a charter, New York and Albany having received theirs in the late 1600s from the colonial governor. They must have had good lobbyists. In a sense, Hudson was a planned city, a precursor to Washington, Canberra, Brasilia, Chandigarh, Irvine, The Woodlands, and Milton Keynes.

The 1829 charter also provided that each ward should have its own assessor and collector, though it appears that there would be a uniform tax rate (assuming the assessors were consistent). So, at least in 1829, the ward designation on property records was legally meaningful.

The current city limits of Hudson were mostly established in 1837 when the Town of Greenport was erected (60th Legislature, Chapter 420).  Since Greenport surrounds Hudson on three sides, the cutout in the Greenport limits, also defines the southern, eastern, and western limits of Hudson.

The northeastern corner of Hudson according to the current city charter is "a white oak tree standing one chain and 55 links from the northeasterly corner of the farm lately owned by Jonas White, and nine links westerly from the fence along the westerly side of the old road leading from Hudson to the print works." The white oak tree no longer stands, being in the middle of the softball fields at the high school. The Hudson Print Works were established in 1826 at what is now Stockport. In the Samuel Slater's memoir he describes the print works based on correspondence from the owner.  A print works dyes cotton cloth (calico). The Hudson Print Works was capable not only of doing navy blues, etc., but madder colours. Sigh, I find madder colour is a deep reddish purple dye derived from the roots of the madder plant, and not a description of an exuberantly multicolored colored print. In any event, the northeast corner of the city was just west of what is now known as Harry Howard Road.

The city limits in the city charter incorporate three different measurement systems.

(1) The limits from 1837, which are based on compass bearings (1820) with distances in chains and links. The magnetic declination in 1820 was about 14 degrees west of North, so that bearings in the description need to be rotated 14 degrees counter-clockwise. For example, the northern limit has a bearing of 74 degrees 25 minutes west of (1820 compass) north. This is, then about 88 degrees west of true north, or almost due west. A chain is 66 feet (4 rods), and a link is 1/100 of a chain.

(2) The annexation of 1898 of Cedar Park Cemetery, which is based on compass bearings (1895). The magnetic declination in 1895 was about 10 degrees west of North. Distances were measured in feet.

(3) The annexation of 1915 adding an area between Union Turnpike and Fairview, including Aitkens Avenue, and an area west of Fairview, including the eastern ends of Glenwood, Oakwood, and Parkwood. These were in a single annexation, so rather than being two triangular areas, it is more of a sawtooth. Bearings are measured relative to the previous bearing, and distances are in feet.

Neither the 1833 law establishing Stockport nor the 1837 law establishing Greenport say anything about the ward boundaries within the remaining portion of Hudson. But since the prior ward boundary divided the City of Hudson north to south, continuing on Third Street through the compact area, there might have been no need to adjust the boundaries. In 1840, the population of Greenport was 1161, compared to 5672 for Hudson.  Thus, Greenport represented about 1/6th of the population within the pre-1837 city limits. Both wards would have lost farmers outside the city.

In the 1840 Census, the city was enumerated by ward (two wards). Ward totals were not published. In 1840, those involved in navigation, both sea and river and canal were overwhelmingly in Ward 1, which was west of Third Street (110 vs. 7).

Ward Populations:

Ward 1: 2818
Ward 2: 2854

In the 1850 Census, occupations such as Boatman, Fisherman, Sailor, Ship Carpenter, Seaman, and Oysterman being overwhelmingly from Ward 1, while occupations such as Clerk and Student were more common in Ward 2 (at the time, a male who was of high school age, would be exceptional if they were occupied with going to school rather than working). Ward 2 also had professions such as Merchant, Dentist, Jeweler, and Temperance Lecturer.

Ward Populations:

Ward 1: 2936
Ward 2: 3350

In 1854, the legislature recodified the city charter (77th Legislature, Chapter 139). Among its other provisions, it divided the city into four wards. Ward 1 was south of Warren Street and West of Third  Street.  At that time, there was no mention of extensions of either street.  Warren Street at the time reached Water Street.  Ward 2 was north of Warren Street and west of Third Street, extended. This was a change from the ward boundary which had run up the dugway from Third and Mill Street and on out Harry Howard. Then, as now, Third Street did not extend to the northern city limits. Ward 3 was east of Third Street, and south of Warren Street, a diagonal across Public Square, and south of Columbia Street and Columbia Turnpike. The Combination of Columbia Street and Columbia Turnpike were treated as a single entity, with a singular center line. At that time, the street north of Warren Street was known as Diamond Street. Columbia Street was only the portion of modern Columbia Street to the junction of Columbia Turnpike and Union Turnpike. Ward 4 was the remainder of the city.

Thus the ward boundaries were the same as they are now, with the exception of Ward 4 including the entirety of modern Wards 4 and Ward 5. The original dividing line between the two wards on Third Street was retained. In addition, only two supervisors were elected, with one being elected from Wards 1 and 2, and the other from Wards 3 and 4.

Aldermen were elected for two year terms, with one alderman from each ward elected each year.  At the initial election two alderman would be chosen from each ward, with one alderman then given an initial term of one year by lot.

In addition, the boundaries of the city were changed to reflect the creation of Greenport. When Greenport was erected in 1837, its limits expressed as the area of the City of Hudson being taken, leaving the definition of the City of Hudson being the original area less the areas taken by Stockport and Greenport.

1860 Census

The 1860 Census was the first with four wards. No address information was recorded.

Ward 1: 1542
Ward 2: 1840
Ward 3: 1690
Ward 4: 2115

In 1866 the legislature added this provision (89th legislature, Chapter 198) to the city charter.

"The said common council shall have power and are hereby directed to raise by tax and expend, during the current year, on the Underhill road, leading from the corner of Fourth and State streets in said city of Hudson to the town line of the town of Greenport, the sum of three thousand dollars, in addition to the sum of eighteen thousand dollars authorized to be raised by section five of this act."

This does not make sense, unless it is understood to include Carroll Street, a portion of Short Street, and what is now Harry Howard. This was essentially the only old country road in Hudson, and perhaps the city needed special direction, since there had previously been a special tax assessed and expended in the compact area of the city.

The 1870 Census showed the following ward populations.

Ward 1: 1679
Ward 2: 2409
Ward 3: 1856
Ward 4: 2673
58  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: July 04, 2015, 03:38:42 am
This is speculative.  All road locations were drawn freehand, so think of them as being conceptual, rather than actual.



The red circles are likely location of Claverack Landing, which had wharves on both South Bay and North Bay.   There were perhaps 200 persons in the area before the Hudson proprietors arrived.  It appears that the settlement on the South Bay was more prominent, likely because it has easier access from the east as the slope down to water is more gradual.  There was an existing wagon road, roughly about Partition.  I've drawn it in blue.  To get to Claverack it would have to go north of Prospect Hill.

If you were coming from the north (Joslen Road) you might want to take advantage of a lesser slope to get to North Bay.  This would account for Dugway Road connecting to Mill Street.

There might have been a ford at Underhill Pond, or Carroll and Short Street might have been developed later.  Is Underhill Pond totally artificial, or is it an enhancement of a natural pond?  Once the city of Hudson were developed, farmers might prefer a more direct entry into the city.

The Orange Line is roughly the location of Warren Street.  There was a ravine at roughly 4th and Warren.  The terrain shows a depression at roughly Columbia Street more or less parallel to Warren.

The route of Columbia Turnpike (light bill) was clearly to avoid going directly over Prospect Hill.  It appears that Green Street (green) was added to either take advantage of easier terrain, or alternatively opened up the levelest area at the east end of the city to development.

In 1880, before Ward 4 was divided, it had 35% of the population.   The split along 5th Street (maize line) was reasonably balanced.   Since then Ward 5 has continued to grow, or at least not shrink.  Ward 5 has been the most populous ward since 1930.
59  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: July 03, 2015, 10:19:21 pm
Below is my little mappie of what I was referring to, along with depicting some of the sights of the area. Oh, below the "t' in "bought" are the ruins of the old Evans Brewery, which was sold by the Evans brothers when prohibition hit to Legs Diamond, who kept on brewing of course, piping the beer up to Columbia Street then Diamond Street whore houses and so forth. The Evans grandson now owns the Pump Station restaurant and micro brewery up in Albany, and he sat down when we were there and chatted with us for about 30 minutes. His grandfather and grand uncle owned grand houses on Warren Street between 4th and 5th street, which are still there. There were the richest guys in Hudson back then.

Harney now rents one of my apartments on Robinson Street which he uses as a pied a terre when he is in town.


The trail used to be more prominent.  Has the school blocked the road from vehicular traffic?  As you head west from the school there is a branch that branches off to the north (about 15 degrees) and ends in a button hook, that almost looks like a turnaround.  But then there is a connection back to the main trail.



Right at the end of where you have marked the creek, is the rail spur to the plant.  You may be seeing it as sort of a birdfoot delta.  It is actually the built-up area for the tracks across the tidal flats.  Notice that at the west end widens into two arcs so that the spur can connect into the mainline.  Given the size of plant in the 1929 topo, and that it had its own railroad spur, it is pretty remarkable that there is no apparent road access.  You can sort of see where the plant was due to lack of vegetation.

On page 20 of the report, your secret is sussed out:

HUDSON LANDFILL- PHASE I

Executive summary of report: It will cost lots of money to redevelop the landfill/dump due to risk of puncturing cap or causing erosion.  The dump site was officially a landfill but city and county residents were permitted to dump household garbage.  It is possible that the informal trails were shortcuts to the dump.

Your trail is shown as a road at the bottom of the map.   Greenport Conservation Area trails (PDF).  There is at least contemplated a connection to the conservation area from downtown Hudson.   Presumably it would veer off from the branch of 2nd Street that wanders off to the west.

Incidentally, the area of the Greenport Conservation Area was farmed continuously from 1661 to 1991, so that Joslen Blvd and Harry Howard, are likely around 350 years old.
60  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: July 03, 2015, 02:26:27 pm
The infill finally happened, but not most of the development of course. A bit north of Mill Street was where the garbage dump was. Today, that is in the process of being remediated with pipes sticking out releasing gases and so forth, and is a big mound covered with grass. Ultimately it will become park land. I walk over it en route to an abandoned road that goes through the woods to the High School. I call it my secret short cut. I discovered it looking closely at google earth. Of course the old time locals know about it, and some tell me they went there from the High School to smoke pot. Smiley
On the 1929 topo sheet there is a really huge structure right on the Hudson, just north of the city limits.  It had some sort of connection to the railroad.  Logically, it would have been a railroad spur.  If you look at aerial images you will see a strip of trees crossing the tidal flats perpendicular to the railroad.  Apparently this is elevated enough that tree roots can survive.   The spur, but no structure is present in the 1895 topo.

A 1995 DOT update of the USGS maps shows a trail vaguely connecting with the end of 2nd Street past the dump.

1929 (note Greenport-Hudson border is in error.  The northern limit of Hudson is pretty much east-west.  It is not parallel to the street grid).



1895



1995



The trails from the east possibly connect, making your trail a shortcut from Greenport.  The older images on Google Earth show enough of a cut to indicate that it was used for vehicles.  The northern branch has a turnaround loop, which might indicate an alternate unofficial dump site.

Ella Fitzgerald lived in Hudson (at the reform school) for a short while, but escaped.

Is the cemetery (Swartwout Memorial) between the Firemen's Home and the high school, Dutch or tied to the Firemen's Home.  There is another cemetery behind the Firemen's Home that is clearly associated with it, but this is off to the north almost to the school grounds.   I found some historical Swartwout's, but they are generally associated with further south in the Hudson Valley.
61  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: July 03, 2015, 06:59:37 am
This is a map from 1835-1837.



It shows both Carroll Street and Short Street, but misplaces Short Street as being a continuation of Fifth Street, rather than being between Fourth and Fifth.   This likely results in misplacing of the location of the mill, which has to be below Underhill Pond.   While Dugway Road is shown connecting to Mill Street, there is a separate road connecting to Carroll Street.  This is likely just confusion.

There is a line denoted as "Compact Line".  Until 1837, the City of Hudson included Greensport, and before 1833, a portion of Stockport as well.  As early as 1811, there was a distinction made between the compact area of Hudson, and the city limits.  I don't know if there is a specific legal definition or not.

The map shows South Third Street as Highland Turnpike.  The Highland Turnpike was an ambitious project which ran from the King's Bridge (Kingsbridge) which spanned Spuyten Duyvil Creek at the northern tip of Manhattan linking the mainland and insular New York to Hudson.  Along with the Farmers Turnpike it would have linked the capital and New York City.  The turnpike ran into financial troubles, and cost overruns, such as occurred where it crossed the Croton River.  It kept asking for time extensions.  It lost its charter in 1833, after a remonstrance from the people of New York to make it a free road.  At the end of the 19th century, good roads and bicycling advocates published guides on how to ride to Hudson.

The maps shows Worth Avenue as the Branch Turnpike.  Native Hudsonian General Williams Jenkins Worth was most noted for his service in the Mexican War, which was a decade or so after this map was drawn.

The map shows the Farmers Turnpike as extending along modern Prospect Avenue.  The Farmers Turnpike ran from Troy to Hudson, entering Hudson along the modern Fairview Avenue.  Since Fairview Avenue is not aligned with Prospect Avenue, I'm a bit dubious of this claim.   

This map shows Columbia Turnpike as including the area between Public Square and the junction of Columbia Turnpike and Union Turnpike.  Given that this was the first part of the street to actually be known as Columbia Street, this is a reasonable possibility.  Note that the first part of Green Avenue at least had been developed at this time.  Warren Street had been extended to where it met the Branch Turnpike, but Eighth Street existed as being a half-block long extending only to Prison Alley.
62  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: July 02, 2015, 01:35:31 pm
This is from the Columbia County 1888 atlas, published by Beers, Ellis & Company.  Ward 4 was divided into wards 4 and 5, in 1886.



Historic Map WorksSearch Columbia County 1888

If the Board of Elections would like a print, they are available at the above site.

Harry Howard was still Dugway Road.  The renaming must have occurred soon after the the Firemen's Home was built, since it is used in the 1900 Census.   Note that the farm houses are mostly quite to the east of the road.

Spring Street had been developed at this point, but only the west end was inside the city.  The area along Fairview, including the eastern portions of Glenwood, Oakwood, and Parkwood was annexed in 1915.

63  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: How soon will Houston pass Chicago? on: July 02, 2015, 11:43:20 am
Chicago needs to learn their place.
its* place
Chicago is just a bunch of buildings, dead cattle, and windy bluster?
64  Other Elections - Analysis and Discussion / Gubernatorial/Statewide Elections / Re: Last time each party won a statewide office per state on: July 01, 2015, 08:27:16 am
Quote
You had wholesale county switches where all the county officers would become Republican, and there was no longer the need to be Republican at the top of the ticket, and Democrat at the bottom, so why be Democrat in the middle?

Which was the county which every elected Democrat did so at the same time - Shackelford or Throckmorton?
Throckmorton in 2012.

In Texas, primaries are conducted by the political parties, and in particular the county political parties.  If there is no county chair for a party, there will be no primary.  You can run as an independent, but that requires a bit of effort, while filing in the primary just requires the filing fee. 

There is little political competition for county offices.  So everyone may just go along and be a "Democrat".  No one is going to vote against Bobby who running for sheriff or Mary Sue for county clerk because they're a "Democrat".  The only detriment is that you can't vote for statewide offices, and perhaps for legislature. 

Even if there were a Republican party and primary, voters might pick the Democratic primary because that is where the local officials are chosen.

All the news accounts for Throckmorton County were in early May, a few weeks before the delayed primary, and were associated with restoration of the county courthouse, and include some state dignitaries such as the Ag Commissioner and the state party chair.

The candidates would have had to file in March, and more likely in December 2011.  So they may have just taken advantage of the county event to get reporters from Abilene to notice.   There was also a  bunch in Coke County who switched, and that was reported in the San Angelo media in April.
65  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: My thoughts on AZ commission SCOTUS case on: June 30, 2015, 08:28:08 pm
"It is currently on appeal to the SCOTUS.  When the AIRC was proposed it was said that it would reduced the deviation among legislative districts.  A criteria was that congressional districts had to vary as little as practicable.  The identical criteria was applied to legislative districts.  You'd have thunk that they both mean that there was no minimum.

Since the minority opinion suggests that this decision illustrates the failure of the commission process, it would seem quite possible that the court would accept the case, ... "

Yup.  I think this challenge is fairly serious. When you combine degrading the concept of one person, one vote, with gerrymandering purposes, you get a rather toxic cocktail. You depart from one person, one vote, for good government reasons, not gerrymandering or other naughty reasons. And SCOTUS has now made clear that you don't skirt other rules for Section 5 purposes, inasmuch as Section 5 is dead, and even if it weren't, retrogression is fine as long as the ability to elect a candidate of a minority's choice is retained.
Roberts was coy in his discussion of the case saying "the case is pending on appeal before this Court, and I take no position on the merits question."  Meanwhile, Scalia and Thomas rejected the SCOTUS taking the case, knowing that there was another case coming.



1.Does the desire to gain partisan advantage for one political party justify intentionally
creating over-populated legislative districts that result in tens of thousands of individual voters
being denied Equal Protection because their individual votes are devalued, violating the one-person, one-vote principle?

2.Does the desire to obtain favorable preclearance review by the Justice Department
permit the creation of legislative districts that deviate from the one-person, one-vote principle?
And, even if creating unequal districts to obtain preclearance approval was once justified, is
this still a legitimate justification after Shelby County v. Holder, 133 S.Ct. 2612 (2013)?

3.Was the Arizona redistricting commission correct to disregard the majority--minority rule and rely on race and political party affiliation to create Hispanic "influence" districts?

66  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: My thoughts on AZ commission SCOTUS case on: June 30, 2015, 11:06:11 am
OH already has a redistricting reform amendment scheduled for the ballot on Nov 3, 2015. It proposes a bipartisan (but not independent) commission that will be limited to legislative districts.
Ohio has had a legislative redistricting commission for over 150 years.
67  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: My thoughts on AZ commission SCOTUS case on: June 30, 2015, 11:03:06 am
The state supreme courts in Florida and Illinois have thrown out independent commission amendments in the recent past.  Whether restrictions could be imposed on the legislature in Illinois or further tightened in Florida is unclear, but the opposition parties would have reason to try.

Florida only permits a constitutional amendment to cover one topic.  They had to choose between setting criteria for legislative and congressional districts, or procedural.

Florida already had procedural requirements for legislative districts, which require immediate SCOFLA review of the districts.  That is why Florida had to redo some legislative districts, and it also gave the SCOFLA the opportunity to interpret the new criteria.

With regard to congressional redistricting, there were no procedures in place.  This meant that the congressional districts had to be challenged in state court.  The state court then applied the interpretation of the SCOFLA with regard to legislative districts to the congressional districts, and the legislature has since modified them.

So it seems plausible that the procedural requirements will be made consistent.

Or alternatively the legislature could be replaced by a commission.
68  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: My thoughts on AZ commission SCOTUS case on: June 30, 2015, 10:06:53 am
What is the next step? A new set of standards for the commission? A new vetting process for its members?
There are two other pending cases.  One in state court challenges procedural flaws in creating the congressional map.  It has been stayed pending the SCOTUS decision (i.e. if the AIRC didn't have authority to redistrict in the first place, it wouldn't matter whether they had followed the law in the first place).  This probably won't go very far. 

When the AIRC was choosing its mapping consultant, Mathis contacted each of the Republican members asking for their support, and suggesting that they might need a 3rd vote in the future.  The mapping consultant, based in Washington D.C., had never done redistricting before, but had done targeting for political marketing.  100% of their clients were Democratic candidates.

There are quorum and public meeting requirements for the AIRC.  Mathis skirted these requirements by talking to each of the Democratic members separately.

The Constitution requires the AIRC during the comment period to consider comments by the legislature in the form of a memorial or minority report.   The Arizona legislature did so.  When the attorney for AIRC explained this provision, one of the Democratic members asked if that mean the commissioners could read the resolution if they chose to, and was told that was OK.  The only formal "consideration" of the resolution was to note receipt in the commission minutes.

The commission is required to produce a "grid plan", and then adjust it to meet other requirements.  There is no evidence of any adjustments to the grid plan.

But the Arizona courts will likely simply determine that all the provisions were simply to guile the voters in passing the measure in the first place.

There is also a federal lawsuit, Harris v Arizona Redistricting Commission, challenging the legislative plan on equal protection grounds.



It is currently on appeal to the SCOTUS.  When the AIRC was proposed it was said that it would reduced the deviation among legislative districts.  A criteria was that congressional districts had to vary as little as practicable.  The identical criteria was applied to legislative districts.  You'd have thunk that they both mean that there was no minimum.

Since the minority opinion suggests that this decision illustrates the failure of the commission process, it would seem quite possible that the court would accept the case, if for no reason other than to let Justice Kennedy explain why this is not political gerrymandering, but that he knows it is out there somewhere.

The likely popular interpretation of the Arizona decision is that SCOTUS approved the procedure used in Arizona.  This is equivalent to saying that the Lopez Torres decision was a ringing endorsement of New York's bizarre scheme of electing judges, or that all judges should be elected.

So the Arizona legislature should propose to replace Arizona's broken scheme with something like that in California.
69  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: My thoughts on AZ commission SCOTUS case on: June 29, 2015, 04:22:11 pm
Prediction: The majority opinion will quote Hawke v Smith:

"What did the framers of the Constitution mean in requiring ratification by 'legislatures'? That was not a term of uncertain meaning when incorporated into the Constitution. What it meant when adopted it still means for the purpose of interpretation."

The minority opinion will quibble, or try to reframe the quotation.

"What did the framers of the Constitution mean in delegating the prescription of the manner of election to 'legislatures'?  That was not a term of uncertain meaning when incorporated into the Constitution. What it meant when adopted it still means for the purpose of interpretation.  It means the total process by which laws are made by a State."
I was correct, except for Justice Kennedy's vote.
70  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: My thoughts on AZ commission SCOTUS case on: June 29, 2015, 04:20:17 pm
7-2 Torie haha? Tongue
How do you figure 7-2?

Scalia signed on to Roberts dissent.

Scalia's dissent said that the legislature didn't have standing, so that lower courts rulings should have been thrown out.  It went on to say that Ginsburg's decision on the merits was such crap that he would vote against it.
71  Other Elections - Analysis and Discussion / Gubernatorial/Statewide Elections / Re: Last time each party won a statewide office per state on: June 28, 2015, 12:59:01 pm
It's worth noting that the Republicans won the state house in 2002 even with a map that the Democrats worked very hard to try to shore themselves up with. And then you had Tom DeLay orchestrate another redrawing a year later and in 2004, every non-minority, non-urban Democrat had their career go up in flames, apart from a few in East Texas.
The 2002 redistricting was done by the Legislative Redistricting Board.  They simply had to undo the Richards gerrymander of the 1990s.  In East Texas, there aren't many options, the counties have to be combined in ways that they fit together.   An incumbent Democrat might find himself in a district with his home county, and three new counties.  He really wasn't an incumbent.  You had wholesale county switches where all the county officers would become Republican, and there was no longer the need to be Republican at the top of the ticket, and Democrat at the bottom, so why be Democrat in the middle?

Travis County had three Democrats who lived within a block of each other.  It was simple and fair to put them into the same district.  Because voters prefer to live in Republican districts, balancing population also results in Republican gains.

The 2001 legislative districts were the first since the 1950s that was not modified mid-decade.

The legislature did not redistrict congressional districts in 2001.  They did so in 2003.
72  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: June 28, 2015, 04:19:00 am
This is from the 1873 Atlas of Columbia County, New York, published by D.G.Beers&Company.  The Atlas includes maps of each town, as well ward maps for Hudson.



New York Public Library Digital Collections Search Columbia County 1873

Historic Map WorksSearch Columbia County 1873

The Historic Map Works has more vibrant colors and higher resolution but there may be more copyright risk.  If you're just browsing, I'd choose it.

In 1873, Hudson had 4 wards, quartered by 3rd Street and Warren St plus Columbia Street and Columbia Turnpike.  Notice that the eastern city limits of Hudson were straighter in 1873.

The area of the Cedar Park Cemetery was annexed in 1897, after the land had been purchased by the city in 1895 (New York 1897 Session Laws, Chapter 133).   The statute explicitly placed the area in Ward 3.  Because the northern edge of the annexed area is along Columbia Turnpike, there may be a sliver of Columbia Turnpike in Ward 5 (the ward boundary between wards 3 and 5 is along the centerline of Columbia Turnpike).

The area along Union Turnpike up to Graham, and along Fairview up to past Oakwood was annexed in 1915 (New York 1915 Session Laws, Chapter 528).  The statute explicitly placed the area in Ward 5.  While the area appears to be two separate triangular areas, it was a single annexation.

If you read the City Charter carefully, Section C1-3 switches between two measurement systems where the annexed areas extended the city limits.  The older language is expressed in chains and links, and absolute bearings, while the newer language is in feet, and bearings are relative to the previous bearing.  The older city limits would date from 1837, when the town of Greenport was erected.  Previously, the City of Hudson had included the area of Greenport.

The map of Greenport provides more context.



North of the city, what is now Joslen Blvd. was clearly established with more farms indicated along that road, than the straighter Farmers Turnpike (modern US 9/Fairview).  Since there is a house built around 1700, Van Salsbergen House (page 5), about a 1/4 mile west of the road, this route is very old, with the Farmers Turnpike being established a century later.

The road that we currently call Harry Howard was the shortcut from the city to this road.

Tollhouses on the Union Turnpike and Columbia Turnpike are indicated just west of Claverack Creek. The West Gate on the Columbia Turnpike is still present.  The Union Turnpike had gone out of business in 1860, but it would still be a known location along the road.  Near a creek with a bridge would presumably be a good location for a tollhouse.  Using the turnpike bridge could be worth the cost, compared to fording a stream or a low bridge subject to washout or flooding.

Green Street had been extended past the Farmers Turnpike and Union Pike to join the Columbia Turnpike further southeast.  Perhaps this was an easier route than over Academy Hill.  If so, the routing of US 9 along Green Street may not be so circuitous after all.  The 1915 annexation refers to this road as the Hudson to Hollowville Road (the annexed area crosses this road).  

Worth Road was called Ancram Road in Greenport.  What is now Ten Broeck Lane, a more direct route to the junction of the turnpikes was in existence.   In 1873, it was along the eastern city limits.  It now goes between the two sections of cemetery.

The 1873 map of the built-up portion of Ward 2 has some interesting features.



The east-west streets passed through Front Street.   Warren Street ended at Promenade Hill.  The extension of Warren Street was across the railroad tracks and into the river.   When the apartments on Front Street were built, all the streets to the west of Front Street were removed.   A similar phenomena can be seen where Chapel Street has disappeared between Columbia Street and State Street.

Columbia Street was then Diamond Street.   Only the portion of modern Columbia Street between Public Square (now 7th Street Park) and Columbia Turnpike was known as Columbia Street.  The east-most portion was still considered to be Union Turnpike.   During an interim period, the portion of modern Columbia Street east of 5th Street was Gifford Place.   The ward boundaries in the city charter refer to the intersection of Gifford Place and Columbia Street.  A modern reference would be to where Columbia Street bends to the north.

New Road ran from State and Front to near 2nd St and Mill St.  The northern portion of New Road has been incorporated into Dock Street west of Mill Street and Second Street.  The original wharves on North Bay were at the foot of State Street, and fill has moved the edge of the bay northward.

It turns out that New Road still exists, at least on the New York State Department of Transportation Listing of Local Roads.  Dock Street runs from its end for 0.21 miles where it meets New Road, which runs 0.10 miles to 2nd Street (opposite Mill Street).

Mill St and 3rd Street intersect in this map.  In a sense they still do.  There are telephone polls northward along 3rd Street.  There appears to be a trail there, or perhaps it is just the tree cuts for the power line.   Since the grist mill was just below Underhill Pond, Mill Street continued eastward.

This is the western part of Ward 4 in 1873.  I've trimmed the area south of State Street, and the map did not show the undeveloped area to the north (that was shown on the map for the whole city).



What we now know as Harry Howard was known as Dugway Road at that time.   Mill Street is shown dead-ending near the mill stream.  Cross Street and Short Street and the connection to Harry Howard existed then, and in fact have existed at least since 1837.

When the proprietors established Hudson, one of the initial tasks was to build a road down from Front Street to the North Bay.  That is the bluff along the Hudson extended around to the east.  In addition, there was a deep ravine at Main St (Warren St since 1799) and 4th Street.  It not only required filling, but actually needed a bridge.

If you look at the back side of the school (John L. Edwards Primary School) behind the library, you will see that it is deeper than the front side, because it is built on a reverse hill.  It is a 85 foot drop from State and Carroll to the bottom of the hill.  

What is for now the library was built in 1818 as the Alms House.  It later served as the Insane Asylum (1830), Female Academy (1851), George Power (1865), Orphanage (1881), Library (1961).  In the 1873 map it was shown as belong to George Power.  This suggests that Cross Street was built along the edge of the develop-able ground.  It would not be unexpected that an Alms House, or Insane Asylum would be located on the edge of the city.

East of Short Street and west of 3rd Street, the streets and buildings expand northward where the terrain is flatter.

Dugway Road east of the end of Mill Street is still listed in the New York State inventory of local streets.  Quite recently there was a grant proposal from the city for improving bike access between downtown and Harry Howard.  It would add bike lanes and signage on Front and Dock streets, signage on Mill Street, rebuild the pavement on "Old Dugway", and widen sidewalks along Harry Howard.

Harry Howard was a legendary New York City firefighter in the mid-1800s, rising to the position of chief engineer, which was the top position.  Portrait of Harry Howard restored.  The Harry Howard Square mentioned in the article is at Canal-Walker-Baxter in Chinatown.  The square is much diminished due to street widening.  It is now occupied by a information kiosk with a dragon on top.  



It would be interesting to know whether they know how to get to Harry Howard Square.

This is the eastern portion of Ward 4 in 1873.  Ward 4 would be split into Ward 4 and Ward 5 in 1886.



The map is oriented to get the maximum area on the plate.  Notice that the border is broken to show the extreme southeastern tip at Columbia Turnpike and Paul Avenue.   The Cedar Park Cemetery was not annexed until 1898, and the area east of Fairview (eg Aitken Avenue) was not annexed until 1915.

In 1873, Columbia Street only encompassed short portion between Public Square and the top of Academy Hill.  Within the gridded area it was Diamond Street, and the eastern end it was still known as Union Turnpike.  Note that this map also shows the southern Fairview as still being known as the Farmers Turnpike.

In 1873, buildings were concentrated at the junction of the turnpikes.  Ward 3 was built up to 8th Street but no further.  In a sense it is somewhat odd that area was not also placed into the 4th Ward since it is north of Warren.  There were no people living (nor living people) south of Columbia Turnpike.
73  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: June 27, 2015, 04:28:59 pm
This is a from an 1829 map of Columbia County.



David Rumsey Map Collection Search: Columbia County 1829

New York Public Library Digital Collections Search Columbia County 1829

Note the left and right are revised editions after Greenport had been separated.  The middle image is the 1829 version.   

The cartographer, David H. Burr, is a distant cousin of Vice President Aaron Burr.  Aaron Burr, Alexander Hamilton, and Martin Van Buren all tried cases in Claverack, before the county seat was moved to Hudson.  While he was Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton had an affair with Maria Reynolds, and was blackmailed by her husband.  When her husband was involved in a land speculation scandal, he implicated Hamilton.  Then-senator James Monroe investigated.  Hamilton admitted to adultery and blackmail, clearing himself from involvement in the land speculation, and gave Monroe the love letters.  Monroe passed the letter on to Thomas Jefferson.   Five years later they were leaked by Jefferson.  Maria Reynolds divorced her husband, with Aaron Burr her lawyer.  It is not true that Van Buren was Aaron Burr's illegitimate son.  Thomas Jefferson was elected president in Hudson.

When Hudson was set off from Claverack, it included what would become Greenport, as well part of Stockport.  Stockport was created in 1833, and Greenport was created in 1837.  The later versions of the map from 1841 thus was recolored to set Hudson off as being separate.

The four roads leading into Hudson were turnpikes.  A turnpike, is a pike mounted horizontally on a poll or log mounted vertically.  It could be rotated, permitting a wagon to pass after the toll had been paid.  In some instances, tollhouses were built alongside the roadway.  This widened the area around which someone evading the toll would have to drive (oxen are not fast), and where the tollkeeper could live.

Turnpikes were first chartered in New York around 1800.  The state didn't have any money for capital improvements, so they granted charters to private investors to build improved roads, with the investors recouping their money from tolls.  Farmers were responsible for maintaining free roads in their neighborhood, but were unlikely to have enough time maintain the roads much beyond widening a blazed path to 8 feet or so for a wagon.

The map shows four turnpikes coming into the eastern end of Hudson.

(1) The Columbia Turnpike which headed east to Claverack and Hillsdale and then tied into the system of turnpikes in Massachusetts.  New York 23B follows the route of Columbia Turnpike southeast of Hudson, except for the portion of 23B that has been realigned on Green Street.  The Columbia Turnpike was in service until 1907. 

The west tollhouse of the the turnpike is 0.9 miles from the intersection of Green and Fairview, immediately on the south side of the road.  West Tollgate - Collumbia Turnpike postcard

(2) The Union Turnpike which headed northeast to Ghent, Chatham, and Canaan where it intercepted the Albany and Eastern Turnpike which connected Albany to Massachusetts.  New York 66 follows the route of the Union Turnpike, and is still known as Union Turnpike except for the short portion on the eastern end of Columbia Street.

Hudson lawyer sues Unipn Turnpike 100 days to the day after they went out business.

(3) The Farmers Turnpike headed north parallel to the Hudson River to Troy.  US 9/Fairview follows the route of the Farmers Turnpike, except for the portion of Fairview between Green Street and Columbia Street.   That is, the Farmers Turnpike joined into the Union Turnpike just east of the junction of the Union and Columbia Turnpikes.   The Farmers Turnpike would have faced competition from the Hudson River, particularly after development of the steamboat.  So while the Columbia Turnpike provided a connection to a river port, the Farmers Turnpike was in essences competing with the river as a transportation route.

I did find a road named Farmers Turnpike in Stuyvesant.  I had speculated that the straightness of US 9 along Fairview represented a more modern alignment, as compared to Joslen Blvd.   This is true, but I was off by more than a century.  There is a farmhouse about 1/4 mile west of Joslen Blvd that was built in 1700.  The straighter route north happened about 100 years later.  US 9 simply adopted the more direct route north.

(4) The Hudson Branch Turnpike headed southeast from Hudson to the Ancram Turnpike, also known as the Ancram and Catskill Turnpike, or more ambitiously, the Ancram and Susquehanna Turnpike.  From Ancram you can continue southeast into Connecticut.  I think that the "branch" in the name may have simply referred to a branch into Hudson, from the main route to Catskill.  Catskill Station is on the east bank of the river, and there was a ferry to Catskill.  US 9/Worth Avenue follows the route of the Houston Branch Turnpike. 

Incidentally, Worth Avenue and Fort Worth are both named for General William Jenkins Worth, a native Hudsonian.   The Hamilton $10 bills are printed in Fort Worth.   When Hamilton is deprecated, some of the production will move to Washington, D.C.

The 1829 map shows the gridded portion of Hudson as being built up, as well as an extension of settlement along the Union Turnpike.  The map is inaccurate in that it shows Columbia Turnpike directly aligning with the main street grid.  The reason for the slight turn to the north is to avoid Reservoir Hill, which is an extension of the Becraft Hills south of Hudson.  Academy Hill was thus a less elevated route over the shoulder of the hill.   The Hudson Branch (Worth Avenue) runs along the west side of the Becraft Hills, while the other three turnpikes enter the city near Academy Hill.

It would be natural to have some settlement near this junction.  Drovers might want to pasture their livestock.  Hudson had both packing plants and tanneries.  A farmer might want to stay on the edge of city, and conduct his business, avoiding a more expensive hotel or inn, and there might have been some traffic between the turnpikes.

The division of the city into four wards occurred sometime before the 1870 census, and used Warren and 3rd streets to quarter the city.  While there was little north and south of the street grid so that the extension of the 3rd Street was reasonable.  There was development to the east of where Warren Street ended at Public Square.   The route along the Columbia Turnpike is the natural extension of Warren as a north-south dividing line between wards.  Not only is it the law, it made sense, at least when the ward lines were initially set.

The renaming of portions of the Columbia Turnpike and Union Turnpike to Columbia Street, and then the later application of the name "Columbia Street" to Diamond Street obscures that the Columbia Turnpike was the logical extension of Warren Street as a north-south divider. 

In addition, the routing of US 9 onto Green Street makes the relationship even less obvious.  When US 9 was first designated, it used Prospect Avenue from the intersection of Worth Avenue (Hudson Branch Turnpike) and Warren Street, to a quick jog on Columbia Street (Union Turnpike) and on to Fairview (Farmers Turnpike).   I suspect that the modern circuitous route had something to do with businesses wanting more traffic, rather than prosaic concerns such as traffic safety or land acquisition.
74  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: June 26, 2015, 08:38:15 pm
This is the 1940 Census map.  Note the alignment between 11-33 and 11-35 (North 5th Street extended), and 11-37 and 11-39 along Columbia Turnpike.
This is the map that I submitted to the Common Council as frosting on the cake. They vote on whether to proceed with an Article 78 action forcing the BOE to correct the ward voter rolls at the next Council meeting. The Legal Committee recommended proceeding with the lawsuit this last Wednesday. We are making a real difference out there Jimboy. Smiley
Did you ever find out whether the tax maps show the wards?

Columbia County Real Property Tax Service Agency



75  General Politics / Political Geography & Demographics / Re: City of Hudson's weighed voting system under scrutiny on: June 26, 2015, 12:03:21 pm
This is the 1940 Census map.  Note the alignment between 11-33 and 11-35 (North 5th Street extended), and 11-37 and 11-39 along Columbia Turnpike.



The original is quite large, 3000x3000 pixels, and can be found at National Archives1940 Census website.

The following schedules show the definitions of the enumeration districts (ED) for Ward 4 and Ward 5.  Note the first column is the ED number for the 1930 Census, while the second column for the 1940 Census.  The typewritten population figure is for the 1930 Census, the handwritten total is the 1940 populations.  The population of 1742 for Ward 4, and 2936 for Ward 5 match the published totals in census reports.



For ED 11-33, note the reversed order for the east and west boundaries, as the bounds are given in clockwise order from 3rd and State St.   While the Firemen's Home is enumerated separately in ED 11-34 as part of Ward 4, the houses along the south side of Harry Howard with street addresses, just north of Underhill Pond, were enumerated in 11-33.   The enumerator at a later date recorded two houses without street number on Harry Howard, and explicitly noted that they were in Ward 5.  This note was apparently ignored by those who calculated the ward populations.



For 11-36, note that the definition of the southern boundary includes Columbia St, ward line, and Warren St.  The ward boundary diagonally traverses Public Square (modern 7th Street Park), from the the corner of Warren and 7th to Columbia Street.  While the RR tracks also cross the square, they are not on the diagonal.  A careful examination of the detailed maps will show this.  Note the 1891 Hudson River Atlas fudges this boundary a bit with the green tint for the 3rd Ward, and Orange tint for the 5th Ward separating.

11-37 shows that Columbia Turnpike is the boundary of Ward 5.  Houses with odd addresses (south side of street) in the 900 block of Columbia Street are included in the enumeration of 11;37.
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