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Abdul the Damned
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« on: March 01, 2010, 09:36:23 pm »
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Since a very adoption of the United States Constitution, the issue of presidential incapacitation remained not clarified at all, although these situations happened before. It's hard to imagine more dangerous situation that a disabled President, who can't exercise his powers and duties, but there is no one who can legitimately acts on his behalf. Especially, when important and legitimate decisions are required.

When President Wilson suffered a massive stroke on October 2, 1919, a future of America and rest of the world were at stake. And the President himself was in a very center of a dispute regarding future American role in international affairs. Wilson's stroke, which was keep a secret at first, would effectively removed him from play and hand decision to hostile Senate, which was ready to bitterly oppose his ambitious plans and ideas.

Around mid-October most of cabinet officials were aware of the situation, as well as Democratic Party leaders, who saw an opportunity, since Wilson was more and more unpopular, to improve their damaged statute simply by having new, popular and "clean" President (or at least President in all but name) at place: Vice President Thomas R. Marshall, who was largely kept out of important affairs by Wilson, but who remained one of the most liked public figures.

Secretary of State Robert Lansing started to like the idea, but Wilson rejected to either resign from office or agree to hand over his responsibilities. Also, Marshall himself was reluctant to take the rein, but after several talks, despite bitter opposition from Edith Wilson and President's influential Secretary, Joseph Patrick Tumulty, on November 13, 1919 Wilson agreed under a heavy pressure to hand over his powers to formal second-in-command, although still refused to resign.

The same day, after breaking Marshall objections, which turned out to be even more difficult than Mrs. Wilson opposition, the Cabinet, in an unprecedented legally and historically move, declared him as the Acting President of the United States, meeting no opposition from courts and the Congress, whose leaders preferred to have weak Wilson as opponent, but avoided a clash with highly popular Vice President.

And thus the great legal test and the great historical challenge begun.


Thomas R. Marshall (D-IN)
Acting President of the United States
November 19, 1919 - ...

To be continued...
« Last Edit: September 13, 2011, 07:13:38 pm by Rick, Texas Ranger »Logged

tb78
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« Reply #1 on: March 01, 2010, 09:38:04 pm »
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Go President Marshall!
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« Reply #2 on: March 02, 2010, 11:10:18 pm »
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Continue, please.
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #3 on: March 03, 2010, 05:45:20 pm »
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The Acting Presidency of Thomas R. Marshall



Vice (and now Acting) President Marshall immediately found himself on a very uneasy position. While he certainly could count on broad public support, due to years of political isolation, imposed by Wilson, he lacked a political base within his own party.

Secretary of State Robert Lansing, who played a key role in "the coup" (as refereed by hard-die Wilson supporters, who now considered Marshall and an entire Cabinet as traitors), had a clear ambitions to play even more important role in the cabinet, as it's most powerful member, serving under a "weak" Acting President. His critics and friends alike called him sometimes, during first weeks, as "The Prime Minister".


Robert Lansing, an ambitious Secretary of State

Marshall himself was aware of the situation and initially planned to more "preside" over the entire machine of government, than "lead", giving more powerful Secretary this unofficial position. "I know my limits", Acting President commented in his close circle.

Marshall also wished to be still referred to as the "Vice President", instead "President". "I'm just a temporary deputy in charge", he explained. This respectful and low key approach only fueled his popularity.

For initial months he maintained this course, until Lansing crossed the line by making several important decisions regarding not only foreign, but also internal politics, especially with dealing with now Republican-controlled Congress. This prompted still reluctant Marshall to first ask Lansing to resign, and, after he refused to do so, to dismiss him on January 2, 1920, which move was uncontested despite lack of clear procedure following impeachment of President Andrew Johnson.

Thus, Marshall had now to take the rein firmly into his hand, as many important decisions were required as soon as just possible.
« Last Edit: September 13, 2011, 07:22:34 pm by Rick, Texas Ranger »Logged

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« Reply #4 on: March 03, 2010, 05:50:30 pm »
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Excellent, but the title is too long in my opinion. Cheesy
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« Reply #5 on: March 06, 2010, 12:06:53 am »
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Bump.
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #6 on: March 11, 2010, 07:56:27 pm »
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Marshall is intellectually unfit to be the President, disabled Woodrow Wilson complained at the White House residency, while his formal deputy was carrying out the duties of the office downstairs. This is going to be disaster, Edith, a disaster for the country. This small-town attorney will kill all our beloved dreams by simply being too little.

Meanwhile, Acting President Marshall begun his "effective (as dated since Lansing removal) rule" with some unusual, yet very symbolic gestures. A longtime death penalty foe, which was rather an "eccentric" political position back in those days, Marshall insisted no federal execution will take place as long as he's in charge of clemency/reprieves business. While the most of establishment at least would smile with an irony (as capital punishment was yet to become an important political issue) on "another weirdness of the ole Tom", the second matter was much more controversial.

Early in January 1920 Marshall gave a full pardon Socialist leader, Eugene Victor Debs, jailed by his antiwar stance, as well as many other, inprisonmed by the Wilson administration.

America have no right, at least for sake of our traditions, to jail people for political believes, the Acting President has stated. What is he doing for the Lord Almighty sake?!, Wilson screamed, when he was informed about that move. He's releasing these un-American traitors!  


Eugene V. Debs speaking to his supporters, moments after his release

Unfortunately, the number of Republicans and Democrats alike were not comfortable with "Red Eugene" release and Marshall accused "weakness on radicals". That might have become a huge problem for him, as he approached a really serious battle.
« Last Edit: September 13, 2011, 07:27:07 pm by Rick, Texas Ranger »Logged

Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #7 on: March 15, 2010, 10:53:24 am »
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During his entire political career, as prominent Democratic activist in Indiana, Governor and Vice President, Marshall has been known as an unbasched progressive.

He wasn’t also known for any ability to work with the legislative branches before, as Indiana House and Senate blocked most of his agenda, during his sit in the State House. Yet, somewhat ironically, due to his fun and easy-going personality, he enjoyed good personal relationship with many Republican and Democratic lawmakers alike. Democratic leaders certainly hoped that this may be a factor to sought more understantment and, possibly, common ground with Republican-dominated Congress, esspecially on a wake of infamous Wilson-Lodge feud.


Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (R-MA)

Now, key point of Marshall agenda in foreign affairs was to secure somehow a support to allow U.S. membership in the League of Nations. He gained a two valuable allies in persons of former Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft. Roosevelt shared Lodge wiev that U.S. need to be more involved in foreign policy and esspecially called for a much harsher policy toward defeated Germany, including heavy contributions and even military occupation presence.

Lodge naturally, as one of the earliers proponent of war entry, was not an isolationist, but was really catious toward bounding the United States into a international organizations.

By March 1920 Marshall, Lodge, Roosevelt and Senate Minority Leader Oscar Underwood (D-AL) comes with some sort compromise. U.S. shall join the League, but under more privledged terms than European powers, like for example being excluded from the Permanent Court of International Justice and International Labour Organization. U.S. also resevred a rights to make separate peace treaty with Germany, under conditions of harsher contributions and disarment, oversees by some of remaining in Europe U.S. troops. General Pershing went eventually to become first U.S. High Commissioner in Germany.


General of the Armies John J. Pershing, 1st United States High Commissioner in Germany (1921-)

Also, by the process, the United States, much of British displeasure, was assigned with one League Mandate in the Middle East: Mesopotamia.


John W. Davis, second Marshall’s Secretary of State (1920-1921) and the the first U.S. High Commissioner in Mandate of Mesopotamia (from 1921)

Formally, due to keeping a partial terms of the agreement made mostly by British before Arab revolts, territories of Mesopotamia, Palestine and Transjordan (as French mandate of Greater Syria was excluded) were formed into a new Hashemite Kingdom, under a rule of the Hussein bin Ali, the Sharif of Mecca and King of Hejaz, who uses a title of Caliph. In fact, for now, these territories were governed separately by foreign powers.





Brokering the agreement was the last success of former President Roosevelt, who died on a heart attack, while prepearing to another White House bid, on April 1, 1920.

Marshall Acting Presidency was of course preoccupied by maitaining the government working per se and foreign affairs, so he simply have to time to acheive any of his progressive ambitions in domectic front, with an sole exception of the passing new Child Labor Regulation Act in May.

Next: 1920 elections.
« Last Edit: September 13, 2011, 07:30:38 pm by Rick, Texas Ranger »Logged

Psychic Octopus
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« Reply #8 on: March 15, 2010, 01:08:20 pm »
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Interesting play on the Middle East.
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tb78
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« Reply #9 on: March 15, 2010, 02:17:40 pm »
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Let's hope Marshall get elected to another term.
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #10 on: March 15, 2010, 03:36:23 pm »
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Interesting play on the Middle East.

Orginally I planned do to an international what-if timeline about that, but as no one would give a damn, I injected that to Marshall timeline I planned as well.

Expect Middle East to play a HUGE role there Smiley
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #11 on: March 15, 2010, 04:51:13 pm »
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Even while brokering a deal with Marshall adminstration, Republicans remained a highly confident about their chances to retake the White House in 1920. Marshall was widely thought to be a relucant, yet pretty effective, caretaker, who’d rather want to retire, than mount a campaign. And, frankly speaking, he was the only formidable, by popularity standards, Democrat who could possibly be competentive and come out from a shadow of disabled, yet very unpopular nationwidely Wilson.

Until his death, former President Theodore Roosevelt was considered a front-runner for the nomination and the surest from sure bets in general, but his death cut off these calculations shorthy.

The 1920 Republican National Convention with two initial frontrunners: General Leonard Wood and former Illinois Governor Frank Lowden stucked and it took over 80 ballots to choose a compromise candidate in a person of Conservative Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge, who became nationally recognized figure following putting down Boston Police Strike. Senator Lodge was instrumental in securing the nomination. Vice Presidential nod went to 1912 “replacement” nominee, Columbia University President Nicholas M. Butler.


Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, Republican Party presidential nominee


Columbia University President Nicholas M. Butler, Republican Party vice presidential nominee

The 1920 Democratic National Convention went into the same chaos. Marshall earlier announced he’s not seeking the nomination and intially former Secretary of the Treasury and Wilson own son-in-law William Gibbs McAdoo was considered frontrunner. Yet, former Secretary of State and three-time failed presidential nominee William Jennings Bryan injected himself in again, preventing McAgoo from winning.

Then disabled yet aware, President Wilson make his last, desperate political effort by sending to the convention an adress, proposing to nominate him for the third time, although it was widely understood he’s neither able to campaign and govern, yet to win. But that move broke up McAdoo camp, yet not give Bryan a majority needed. Wilson after the fiasco tried also to recruit either Governor James M. Cox of Ohio or Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer as “his candidates”, but unsuccesfully.

That prompted party elders to approach Acting President again with arguments, that he’s literally the only hope for Democrats to win, as McAdoo is unelectable ue to close ties with Wilson and Bryan is just a “professional loser”. It was really hard to pressure Marshall to accept draft movement, but efforts succeeded and in 48th ballot he was nominated.

Democrats nominated a suprise somewhat candidate for the Vice Presidency: 38-year old longtime Wilson protege and former Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York. An energetic Roosevelt seemed to be valuable “campaigning” add to the ticket.


Former Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt, Democratic Party vice presidential nominee.

Although general feelings of the country were Republican-dominated, Coolidge made a grevious mistake by taking it for granted and doing almost no campaigning. Marshall, on the other side, was excellent in public meetings and was able to ulitize his great personal popularity, togehter with active Roosevelt campaign. Finally, after the League deal, Republicans were unable to use isolationist theme as well. That all allowed Democrats to acheive rather narrow, but historic win,

Also, there was another shock of the election night; a stronger even than in 1912 performance of Socialist Eugene V. Debs, who additionally won electoral votes in Wisconsin[/color]



Acting President Thomas R. Marshall of Indiana/Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York (Democratic): 279 electoral votes, 47% popular vote
Governor J. Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts/Nicholas M. Butler of New York (Republican): 239 electoral votes, 45% of popular vote
Eugene V, Debs/Seymour Stedman of Illinois (Socialist Party): 13 electoral votes, 7% of popular vote
Others: 1% of popular vote
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #12 on: March 15, 2010, 04:57:29 pm »
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Presidents:

28th: T. Woodrow Wilson (D-NJ), March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921
Acting: Thomas R. Marshal (D-IN), November 19, 1919 – March 4, 1921
29th: Thomas R. Marshall (D-IN), March 4, 1921 – present

Vice Presidents:

28th: Thomas R. Marshall (D-IN), March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921
29th: Franklin D. Roosevelt (D-NY), March 4, 1921 – present
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tb78
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« Reply #13 on: March 15, 2010, 05:04:32 pm »
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Glad to see Marshall elected Smiley
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #14 on: March 15, 2010, 07:17:15 pm »
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Presidency of Thomas R. Marshall


Thomas R. Marshall (D-IN), 29th President of the United States
March 4, 1921 – present

Aiming finally to push his desired progressive agenda, now offcial-President Marshall was able, despite some intial low exceptations, to forge a unofficial coallition with Progressive Republicans, namely William E. Borah, Robert La Follette and Hiram W. Johnson.

Marshall frequently travelled and adressed the people all around the country, becoming one of the first Presidents ever to use such a technique on that level to gain a support for his policies.

Marshall pushed to establish the Bureau of Veteran Affairs in order to take care primarly of these returning from European battlegrounds. That particular initiative was passed with a broad support.

In a notheworthy gesture, day after formally taking an office, Marshall commuted all death sentences imposed by federal courts, and routinely continued to commute the newer.

As of more controversial initiatives, the President, throught the series of the executive orders overhauled severeal Government agencies.

Ironically a Democrat who couldn’t been elected without the Solid South votes become one of the first Presidents since the 19th century to adress Civil Rights Issue. Some attributed this to his own lack of poltical fear about consequences. Marshall is not planning to be President for long and he cares more about those damn Negroes than our glorious party!, Wilson commented at retirement. However due to Southern filibuster a anty-lynching legislation, proposed by the White House, failed short, with an unofficial support from Vice President Roosevelt, who already planned his own bid. Marshall, however, banned racial segregation in the D.C. Government offices.

A lifelong opponent of the eugenics, just like while Governor, Marshall ordered federal institutions against performing certaing practicies and called for a clear legislative ban, which also didn’t happened.

As of key successes, togehter with Senate Minority Leader Oscard Underwood and La Follette the Supporting Act of 1921, in a wake of shortived recession, was passed and signed into a law. That become a philar of future Social Security System. Another successsful measured passed to combat sharp recession inclused Job Acts of 1921.

Another important act was a Wilderness Conservation Act, passed also in 1921. Another intention behind the act was also to fight unemployment.

Ironically, however, foreign policy of the Marshall administration turned out to be much more eventful.
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« Reply #15 on: March 15, 2010, 07:28:44 pm »
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Glad to see Debs do well, and Marshall's win as well.
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #16 on: March 15, 2010, 07:44:47 pm »
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Glad to see Debs do well, and Marshall's win as well.

Debs will play a major role here Smiley
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #17 on: March 15, 2010, 08:35:43 pm »
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Post World War I United States-British relations were not as good as used to be. But United States-French relations turned out to be the best since the times Rochambeau and La Fayette fought along with American colonist.

Washington and Paris shared a desire to give defeated Germany a “serious treatment” and to put them into a real control. Both sides also cooperated actively in the Middle Eastern mandates. By 1921, press term of “Washington-Paris Axis” had been coined. British were dissapointed both by strenghtening French statute in Europe and denying them a vital Meshopotamia.

According to the terms, late that year U.S. and the Weimar Republic signed a separate peace treaty, which legitimized a presence of U.S./French supervisory troops, imposed harshed contributions to be given to France and disarment.

Bavaria, where many of U.S. troops stationed, became an area of real troubles and fight between right-wing Freikorpses, Government forces and communists. In January 1922 the former attempted to install, trying to ignore American presence, a new government via some-kind coup. American troops stood firmly on Berlin side and helped to put the uprising down. Most of the leaders were imprisoned by Weimar authorities, but two of the most extremist, alligned with minor National Socialist Party, Anton Dexler and Adolf Hitler, an Austrian native, were convicted by U.S. field court for a death of two servicemen and hanged.

In the Middle East meanwhile...
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #18 on: March 15, 2010, 08:49:25 pm »
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It’s hard indeed to imagine a person worse suited for this job than John W. Davis, wrote historian Arthur Schlesinger in his book about U.S. policy on the Middle East in 1960s. A brilliant lawyer and diplomat on the European courts, yes, but who had no slightest idea about the region and it’s people. French and British, who have already an experience with the region, filled the supervisory posts with an experts. But Middle East was novum for the Americans. Yet, that was not a justification. David acted in his Baghdad palace like he would act in New York chancellery or on Washigton exclusive parties, ignoring all local traditions and reality. He refused to get interested even a little. While he was Ambassador in London, he acted like a diplomat, but was also committed that Arabs and Muslims are inferior, so he don’t bother with any forms and learn anything. Davis openly told Caliph Hussein, who nominally rules the entire empire, but his real power lies in Najaz, outside divided Mandates, to stay away. Mecca Sharif described him, pretty truthfully, as an arrogant son of a dog.


“An arrogant son of a dog”.

The only reason of course Davis get that position was his own statue within establishment. “Boy”, Marshall said himself, after signing the nomination. “John know about the Middle East as much as me, which means nothing, but do I have anyone else to appoint there?”

We need to remember that Marshall since very start was lukewarm toward taking Mesopotamia mandate. “We’re getting into something and I don’t like it”, but expansionist pressed on so he couldn’t, even with his courage, fight that. And we were getting closer and closer into our nightmare...
.
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Dallasfan65
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« Reply #19 on: March 15, 2010, 09:02:39 pm »
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Excellent update.
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« Reply #20 on: March 16, 2010, 10:47:21 am »
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Nice to see you back in the formal TL gig Kal lol, with a very interesting POD at that as well. My 20 year curse senses are flaring lol, will President Marshall's heart take the stresses and high workload of the Presidenency or could we see an incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt come the 1924 Election lol...Keep it comming
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« Reply #21 on: March 16, 2010, 11:27:52 am »
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I'm suprised Marshall managed to win with over 10% uenmployment, evne if Coolidge didn't campaign.
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Dallasfan65
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« Reply #22 on: March 16, 2010, 11:35:08 am »
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If the 20's remain Democratic, then... Vandenberg in '32!!!
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Abdul the Damned
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« Reply #23 on: March 16, 2010, 08:41:50 pm »
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Even when Mesopotamia was, briefly, under British control, the new, European, rulers hadn’t to wait long to experience first serious “problems”.

Naturally, Arab population of newly-established mandates, who started a fight against Ottoman rule desiring for regaining, finally, an independence and free identity, feel used and tricked, as Europeans and now Americans too, imposed the new colonial rule instead.

French in the Greater Syria and British in Palestine performed little better, as they already have an experience in the region. Americans, on the other hand, who took over the largest and richest area, seemed to take it just like they did with Phillipines or any other posession. With the same fateful mistakes.

Commissioner Davis had an ambitious plans to improve the economy and administration of Mesopotamia, but possesed a mentioned, infamous inability to see local environment . While British and French tried to reach for powerful tribal and local leaders and remained aware of the sensitive cultural issues.

Davis didn’t believed he need to think about support from local tribal and urban leaders. Davis didn’t cared if in order to build a new factory he have to damage an aicent heritage. Davis didn’t tolerated men wearing traditional Arab clothes near to him. Sad truth was that this great attorney and diplomat was a closed-minded xenophobe and simply a blue-blood ignorant, when it comes to Iraq, then-Captain Dwight Eisenhower, who was stationing in Mesopotamia at the time in no other place, but in Commissioner’s Office, wrote in his memories. He just acted like people from the Manifest Destiny era used to act, believing that he can impose American system on diffrent culture and that he’s 100 per cents right.

Indeed, most expansionist circles in Washington mounted a campaign to annex a Mesopotamia. We’re going to rebuild this land and it natural, we would then like to admitt it to the great American family, Senator Albert Fall, a Republican of New Mexico called openly during a speech. And there is a lot of place for Americans, who are looking for something new there. Now I see that clearly that our duty is to civilize these Arabs and convert them to the Christianity, Senator J. Thomas Heflin, a Democrat of Alabama added.

I have really a bad feelings about that, President Marshall commented privately to his wife, Lois. I never saw a purpouse of going into there but that was a part of the deal.

Indeed, despite full of confience assurements from the side of Vice President Roosevelt, who traveled to the Mandate in Summer 1921, just few days later, after a lot of another stupid missteps, an regular uprising broke in Basra, being followed by fights in other parts of the country.

Terrified President Marshall decided to recall Davis from the post, but that could not stop the chain of events.
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« Reply #24 on: March 19, 2010, 09:21:41 am »
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Oh Damn, Nothing like an uncompromising Southernor, to F*** things up in the Middle East lol. Maybe President Marshal should try to appointing GOP Senate Majority Leader Charles Curtis to the post, as an Native Amrican, he atleast would now how important it was to maintain tribal/cutural traditions. Can't wait to see what else is instor for his Presidency...Keep it comming Kal!!!
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