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Vosem
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« on: December 15, 2010, 05:40:33 pm »
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The Second Term of Richard Nixon

On September 15, 1972, a grand jury indicted 7 men (Virgilio González, Bernard Baker, James McCord Jr., Eugenio Martinez, Frank Sturgis, Howard Hunt Jr., and Gordon Liddy) of conspiracy, burglary, and violation of wiretapping law, as that June they had broken in to the Watergate Hotel and wiretapped the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee.

They were convicted on January 30, 1973. All men were, after much investigation, found to be tied to a 1972 Committee to Re-elect the President. A letter from McCord to John Sirica implicated important government officials, including former Attorney General John Mitchell.

A Senate committee, chaired by Democrat Sam Ervin of North Carolina, was founded to investigate the break-in, and found it connected to top White House officials. On April 30, 1973, Nixon asked for the resignation of three of his most influential aides. All three would end up in prison.

On July 13, 1973, Alexander Butterfield told the Committee that there was system in the White House that automatically recorded everything said in most rooms, including the Oval Office, the Cabinet Room, and Nixon’s office in the Old Executive Office Building. These tapes were subpoenaed by special prosecutor Archibald Cox, but Nixon cited his executive privilege as President of the United States, and refused.

Cox refused to drop his subpoena. On October 20, 1973, Nixon asked Attorney General Elliot Richardson, Assistant Attorney General William Ruckelshaus, and Solicitor General Robert Bork to fire Cox. All three resigned.

Six days later, on October 26, 1973, the so-called ‘Smoking Gun’ tape was released, where-in Bob Haldeman (one of the three fired aides from April 30) details the Watergate break-in from Nixon and how he plans to derail the Senate investigation. Throughout the tape, Nixon approves.

On November 17, 1973, Nixon released all tapes and resigned from the Presidency.

However, the office of the Vice Presidency was vacant, as Vice President Spiro Agnew had resigned approximately two months earlier, on October 10, due to an unrelated scandal; in the mid-‘60s, Agnew had taken bribes as Governor of Maryland.

With both the offices of President and Vice President vacant, the provisions of the Presidential Succession Act of 1947 kicked in, and Speaker of the House Carl Albert, Democrat of Oklahoma, was inaugurated President of the United States.
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« Reply #1 on: December 15, 2010, 09:34:04 pm »
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This sounds interesting. Please continue.
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« Reply #2 on: December 15, 2010, 09:35:20 pm »
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I think I remember seeing a list for this on that 44 page "List of Alternate Presidents" thread.
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« Reply #3 on: December 19, 2010, 08:10:46 am »
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The First Term of Carl Albert

From the start, Albert’s position was precarious. He had not been elected President or Vice President; rather, he had been elected as U.S. Representative by the voters of Oklahoma’s 3rd congressional district, and had become President merely by a twist of fate.

Albert’s first move was to ensure that he would not be President for long. Tip O’Neill, a Democratic U.S. Representative from Massachusetts who succeeded Albert as Speaker, introduced the 27th Amendment, that moved all future presidential elections two years into the past (1976 to 1974, 1980 to 1978, 1984 to 1982, etc., etc.). The Amendment passed both houses of Congress with surprising speed and had been ratified by state legislatures by the end of January, in time for both parties to organize presidential primaries.

Albert neglected to appoint a Vice-President. For the office of Attorney General, Albert re-appointed Nixon’s ex-Attorney General, Elliot Richardson, who had resigned in protest during the Watergate Scandal.

Albert, additionally, pledged to sign only laws that garnered the support of a majority of both Congressional Republicans and Democrats.

In short, Albert was a do-nothing President and proud of it.

However, Albert would come to regret his pledge. On February 6, 1974, Senator Ted Kennedy, Democrat of Massachusetts, introduced the Comprehensive Health Insurance Act. After several months of debate, the bill was passed by the Senate and House in April of 1974, garnering the support of around sixty percent of both Houses – not quite enough to override a veto, but nevertheless an imposing majority. However, the Republican congressional delegation, by a narrow margin, voted against the bill.

In spite of the pleas of his party, Albert refused to break his pledge and sign the bill into law. He vetoed it in the hope that Congress might overturn the veto, and while the second time around the margin of support was greater, Senator Kennedy failed to convince Congress to overturn the veto.

Democratic Primaries

President Albert announced that he would not be seeking any office in 1974, and would indeed be leaving politics.

He left Ted Kennedy, of Massachusetts, as the overwhelming frontrunner. Kennedy easily won the nomination, in spite of a whole host of candidates, some of whom participated early in the primaries, then dropped out; some of whom dropped in to replace them; and some of whom (so-called ‘favorite sons’) participated only in their home states, and sometimes, border states.

Mo Udall carried Arizona and Wyoming; Jerry Brown carried California, Nevada, and on the other side of the country, New Jersey and Delaware; Frank Church carried Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Nebraska; George Wallace carried Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina; Hubert Humphrey carried Minnesota and North Dakota; Henry Jackson carried his home state of Washington, and, oddly enough, New York; Robert Byrd carried his home state of West Virginia; Adlai Stevenson III carried his home state of Illinois; Jimmy Carter carried his home state of Georgia.

These candidates all largely bickered with each other, and there was never any doubt that Kennedy would win the nomination. Riding on the wave of opposition to the health-care failure, Kennedy would be triumphantly nominated at the Convention and chose former Governor of North Carolina Terry Sanford (who had unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination in 1972) as his running mate, to appeal to Southern voters.

Republican Primaries

In 1974, the two most populous states in the U.S. were California and New York. The Governor of California, Ronald Reagan, was the leader of the conservative wing of the Republican Party; the Governor of New York, Nelson Rockefeller, was the leader of the liberal wing of the Republican Party. It was inevitable that these two titans would clash.

They did in 1974, both forgoing reelection to the Governor’s Mansion for a run at the presidency. Although Rockefeller had an early lead, Reagan was buoyed by a victory in North Carolina (he had been endorsed by local Senator Jesse Helms); afterwards, the two fought a long campaign which finally went to the Convention[1].

With no clear favorite, Reagan made the mistake of choosing liberal Republican Attorney General Elliot Richardson as his running mate. The move backfired as conservative support declined, allowing Rockefeller to win narrowly on the first ballot. Rockefeller selected conservative Governor of New Hampshire Meldrim Thomson as his running mate.

General Election

The long, drawn-out Republican fight left Rockefeller weak and without the support of conservative voters. Kennedy, on the other hand, had the total support of his party. Although Republicans across the nation tried to blame the nation’s economic troubles (the economy was, at this point, entering the Long Recession) on President Albert, and indeed this tactic buoyed many local Republicans, Kennedy of all Democrats had been unforgiving of Albert’s veto of the health-care bill, and was viewed as much of an opponent of Albert as the Republicans were (although this was simply not true).

Slates of unpledged electors ran very successfully in the South, which was not really willing to vote for either Kennedy or Rockefeller. Most Southerners held their noses and voted for Kennedy, although the unpledged-s would win victories in Mississippi and Alabama.



Ted Kennedy/Terry Sanford (Democratic): 461 EV, 55.3% PV
Nelson Rockefeller/Meldrim Thomson (Republican): 61 EV, 42.4% PV
Unpledged Electors: 17 EV

The unpledged electors ended up choosing Alabama Governor George Wallace (who had run as an independent in 1968, and ran three times for the Democratic nomination – in 1964, 1972, and 1976) for President and North Carolina Senator Jesse Helms as Vice President.

Congressional Elections

Although Kennedy blew Rockefeller out of the water, down-ballot Democrats and Republicans ran basically equal.



Four incumbent Senators were defeated. Republicans Peter Dominick of Colorado and William Saxbe of Ohio were defeated, respectively, by Democrats Gary Hart and John Glenn; Democrats George McGovern of South Dakota and Birch Bayh of Indiana were defeated, respectively, by Republicans Leo Thorsness and Richard Lugar.

Additionally, two open seats changed hands. In Nevada, long-time Democratic Senator Alan Bible retired, and popular Republican Governor Paul Laxalt won his seat; in New Hampshire, long-time Republican Senator Norris Cotton retired; and the fall-out from the many gaffes produced by the state’s Republican Governor and 1974 vice-presidential nominee, Meldrim Thomson, was enough to swing the victory to little-known Democrat John Durkin.

Other prominent elections include Arkansas, where Democrat Dale Bumpers replaced retiring Democrat William Fulbright; Florida, where Republican Jack Eckerd replaced retiring Republican Edward Gurney; Iowa, where Democrat John Culver replaced retiring Democrat Harold Hughes; Kentucky, where Republican Senator Marlow Cook narrowly eked out a victory against his Democratic challenger, Wendell Ford; North Carolina, where Democrat Robert Morgan replaced retiring Democrat Sam Ervin; Utah, where Republican Jake Garn replaced retiring Republican Wallace Bennett; and Vermont, where Republican Richard Mallary replaced retiring Republican George Aiken.

The result was that the Senate net change was zero, and the Democrats retained their majority, 56-42 (with 2 independent Senators; one caucusing with the Democrats, one with the Republicans). In practice, their majority was 57-43.

In the House of Representatives, however, Kennedy’s coat-tails were more noticeable, if still less than one might expect them to be. Democrats ultimately picked up 10 seats, and upped their majority to 253-182. Speaker Tip O’Neill was reelected. As the Republican House leader, Gerald Ford of Michigan, had retired in 1974, he was replaced as Minority Leader by John Rhodes of Michigan.




[1] The map is exactly like OTL’s Ford v. Reagan match.
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« Reply #4 on: December 19, 2010, 08:20:15 am »
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Wow. That is a major change to the American electoral system. I'm hoping that Kennedy gets re-elected in 1978 and the Conservative Republicans tkae back Muric in 1982, and continue their dominance until 1994.
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« Reply #5 on: December 19, 2010, 11:02:59 am »
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I guess I know an inspiration (moved years of presidential elections) Wink
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« Reply #6 on: December 19, 2010, 02:38:16 pm »
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President Ted Kennedy!!! If that happened in RL, the USA would be (a lot) better country to live in
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« Reply #7 on: December 29, 2010, 01:57:43 am »
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Awesome, as a fan of the West Wing, I'd love to see this continued. Maybe a Martin Sheen presidency? Wink Anyways, please continue, and I want to see how President Kennedy's term goes.

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« Reply #8 on: December 29, 2010, 07:08:57 am »
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Sounds pretty cool. Does this tl actually have anything to do with the television series, West Wing, though?
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"...the media helped tip the scales. I didn't think the coverage in 2008 was especially fair..."

- Jake Tapper, Senior White House Correspondent for ABC News

"The media is very susceptible to doing what the Obama campaign wants."

 - Mark Halperin, author of 2008's 'Game Change.'
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« Reply #9 on: December 29, 2010, 07:27:52 am »
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Sounds pretty cool. Does this tl actually have anything to do with the television series, West Wing, though?

I guess the POD is supposed to explain why there were presidential elections in 1998 and 2002 in the West Wing universe?
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« Reply #10 on: December 29, 2010, 03:11:27 pm »
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The First Term of Ted Kennedy

Vice President: Terry Sanford
Chief of Staff: Sargent Shriver, Jr.
Secretary of State: Cyrus Vance
Secretary of the Treasury: Russell Long
Secretary of Defense: Benjamin Davis, Jr.
Attorney General: Roger Wilkins
Secretary of the Interior: Cecil Andrus
Secretary of Commerce: Daniel Inouye
Secretary of Labor: Ray Marshall
Secretary of Agriculture: Sissy Farenthold
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare: la Donna Harris
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development: Patricia R. Harris
Secretary of Transportation: Geraldine Ferraro
National Security Advisor: Zbigniew Brzezinski

Ted Kennedy was inaugurated President of the United States on January 21, 1975. He made it immediately clear that his very first priority was to pass universal health care legislation in the United States.

This was expected – it had been a major part of Kennedy's campaign. The new act was jointly introduced to the Senate by two freshmen – Paul Tsongas, who had been appointed to replace President Kennedy, and Spark Matsunaga, who had been appointed to replace Secretary Inouye. (The third Senator who left to join the Kennedy administration, Russell Long of Louisiana, was replaced by former Senator Elaine Edwards). The new act is far, far more ambitious than the one passed just several months earlier. In the House, it is personally introduced by Speaker O'Neill.

Being more ambitious, it receives much heavier opposition than the 1974 act. Nevertheless, in mid-March, the House passes the act, 235-200.

It receives even greater opposition in the Senate, however, where Republican Senators Roman Hruska of Nebraska and Strom Thurmond of South Carolina jointly filibuster the act.

On April 30, even worse news strikes for the President: the fall of Saigon. The Vietnam War is over (though America had long since withdrawn). The Communists had conquered Vietnam.

Throughout the summer of 1975, Senators continue to debate the health-care act, with Hruska and Thurmond continuing as its most fervent opponents. Meanwhile, as the economic picture gets steadily worse (the Long Recession has kicked in), so does the President's approval rating, which slowly goes downhill. Finally, on October 29, the health-care act is brought to a vote.

It fails by the narrow vote of 51-49.

The next day, President Kennedy gives his 'Philadelphia Address' (he was in Philadelphia at the time), regretting the Congress's failure to pass the bill, berating it for not caring about the average American, but also firmly establishing that it is time to move on. Kennedy looks shocked throughout the entire speech.

On December 23, 1975, Congress passes the Metric Conversion Act, formally shifting the United States government from using customary units to using the metric system the entire rest of the world uses. In the present day, every country in the world uses the metric system, with the sole exception of Burma.

1976, for the Kennedy administration, could be looked at several ways. On the one hand, it was legislatively certainly a more successful year than 1975, when Kennedy had spent the entire year trying to pass universal health-care only to narrowly fail in the end. But, on the other hand, it was also the year of rising inflation, a worsening unemployment picture, and a generally decreasing presidential approval rating.

Kennedy passed many significant acts of legislation in 1976. These included IDEA (the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) that set up the way public schools would educate children with thirteen stated different kinds of disabilities. He also passed the U.S. Freedom of Information Act, that specified ten things the government could conceal from the people (generally military information), and required it to publish all else. The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 listed the chemical substances that could legally be privately owned in the United States; the Copyright Act of 1976 fundamentally altered U.S. copyright law (which had remained unchanged since 1909).

On October 21, 1976, largely due to the constant lobbying of Interior Secretary Cecil Andrus, three laws were passed; the Federal Land Policy and Management Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Forest Management Act.

Congressional Elections



The Republicans picked up 7 seats to the Democrats' 2 pickups, for a net Republican gain of 5 seats (it must be noted that, during the campaign, independent Senator James Buckley, who had already caucused with the Republicans, formally joined the Republican Party and was reelected as a Republican). The result was a Democratic majority of 51-48-1, with the 1 independent (Harry Byrd, Jr.) caucusing with the Democrats, so in effect the Democratic majority was 52-48.

Five incumbents were defeated for reelection. In California, Republican S.I. Hayakawa defeated incumbent Democrat John Tunney; in New Mexico, Republican Harrison Schmitt defeated incumbent Democrat Joseph Montoya; in Utah, Republican Orrin Hatch defeated incumbent Democrat Frank Moss; and in Wyoming, Republican Malcolm Wallop defeated incumbent Democrat Gale McGee. Additionally, in Maryland, Democrat Paul Sarbanes defeated incumbent Republican John G. Beall, Jr.

Three Republican pickups were open seats, as was one Democratic pickup. In Michigan, Republican Marvin Esch was elected to the open seat of Democrat Philip Hart; in Missouri, Republican John Danforth was elected to the open seat of Democrat Stuart Symington; and in Rhode Island, Republican John Chafee was elected to the open seat of Democrat John Pastore. In Hawaii, Democrat Patsy Mink was elected to the open seat of Republican Hiram Fong.

Other notable races included Arizona, where in a great upset Republican Sam Steiger defeated Democrat Dennis de Concini; Indiana, where in a similar upset incumbent Democratic Senator Vance Hartke was reelected; Hawaii, where in conjunction to Mink getting elected to Fong's seat appointed Senator Spark Matsunaga was reelected (the unique color of Hawaii on the map reflects one Democratic pickup, one hold); Louisiana, where appointed placeholder Senator Elaine Edwards retired, and fellow Democrat John McKeithen was elected to her seat; Massachusetts, where recently appointed Senator Paul Tsongas was reelected; Montana, where Democrat John Melcher was elected to replace retiring Democratic Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield; Nebraska, where Republican John McCollister was elected to replace  retiring Republican Roman Hruska; New York, where incumbent Republican Senator James Buckley was narrowly reelected over his Democratic challenger, Pat Moynihan; Ohio, where incumbent Republican Senator Robert Taft, Jr. was narrowly reelected over his Democratic challenger Howard Metzenbaum; Pennsylvania, where retiring Republican Senate Minority Leader Hugh Scott was replaced by fellow Republican John Heinz, Jr.; and Tennessee, where incumbent Republican Senator Bill Brock was reelected in a close race over his Democratic challenger, Jim Sasser.

The elections in the House of Representatives are similarly disastrous; Democrats lose 22 seats. Nevertheless, they maintain a majority of 231-204; Tip O'Neill continues as Speaker of the House, and John Rhodes continues as Minority Leader.

In the Senate, both party leaders, Democrat Mike Mansfield of Montana and Republican Hugh Scott of Pennsylvania, retired. Mansfield was replaced by Senator Walter Mondale of Minnesota, who became Senate Majority Leader; Scott was replaced by Senator Howard Baker of Tennessee, who becomes Senate Minority Leader.

Gubernatorial Elections

(too lazy to make a map; sorry 'bout the wall-o'-text)

The 1975 gubernatorial elections had gone fairly well for Democrats. In Kentucky and Louisiana, incumbent Democratic governors Julian Carroll and Edwin Edwards were easily reelected; however, a tea leaf for the upcoming 1976 disaster for the Democrats could be spotted in Mississippi, where Democratic Governor Bill Waller was term-limited, and Democratic nominee Cliff Finch defeated the totally unknown Republican candidate, Gil Carmichael, by a slim 2% margin.

The 1976 gubernatorial elections were an utter disaster for Democrats. In Arkansas, incumbent Democratic Governor David Pryor was reelected; in Delaware, incumbent Democratic Governor Sherman Tribbitt was defeated by Republican candidate Pierre du Pont IV; in Illinois, Democratic Governor Daniel Walker is defeated in a primary by Michael Howlett, who is in turn defeated by Republican candidate Jim Thompson; in Indiana, incumbent Republican Governor Otis Bowen is reelected; in Missouri, incumbent Republican Governor Kit Bond is reelected; in Montana, incumbent Democratic Governor Thomas L. Judge is reelected; in New Hampshire, incumbent Republican Governor (and 1974 Republican vice-presidential nominee) Meldrim Thomson, famous for his gaffes, is nevertheless reelected; in North Carolina, a bright spot for Democrats as Democrat Jim Hunt replaces Republican Governor James Holshouser, who was barred from seeking reelection; in North Dakota, Republican Allen Olson defeats incumbent Democratic Governor Arthur Link; in Rhode Island, after several recounts, Democratic candidate John Garrahy narrowly defeats totally unknown Republican candidate James Taft to replace incumbent Democratic Governor Philip Noel; in Utah, Republican Vernon Romney (cousin of prominent ex-Michigan Governor George Romney) replaces Democratic Governor Calvin Rampton, who was barred from seeking reelection; in Vermont, Republican Richard Snelling replaces Democrat Thomas Salmon; in Washington, Republican John Spellman replaces Republican Daniel Evans; and lastly in West Virginia, another Democratic bright spot, Democrat Jay Rockefeller replaces Republican Arch Moore, Jr.
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« Reply #11 on: December 29, 2010, 07:14:36 pm »
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No commentary?
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« Reply #12 on: December 29, 2010, 07:25:46 pm »
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Good update. I'm wondering if the emerging of a different wing of the Romney family will have any butterflies...
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« Reply #13 on: January 15, 2011, 09:10:52 am »
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The First Term of Ted Kennedy (cont.)

After the ‘shellacking’ his party took in the ’76 midterms (although it retained control of both House and Senate), Kennedy toned down his goals. After the successes of late ’76, environmentalism became a more prominent factor in the Kennedy administration.

This environmentalism contributed to the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (which regulated coal mining), the National Energy Conservation Policy Act; and the Clean Water Act, which mandated an extremely low amount of water pollution in the United States. In the mid-‘80s, the standards set by the CWA would be met, but the credit would largely go to Kennedy’s successor.

By 1977, the country was in the exact center of the Long Recession, which had begun in 1973 and showed no signs of coming to a halt. In order to bolster the economy, Kennedy passed the Community Reinvestment Act (a broad stimulus, but with most money going to particularly low-income neighborhoods); the Humphrey Full Employment Act, which was designed to increase American employment (it should be noted that ITTL Senators James Allen of Alabama and Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota are both alive (if not well) at the conclusion of this update).
 
Also, Kennedy passed the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978, replacing the old bankruptcy code, which had not been altered since the Nelson Act of 1898.

Nevertheless, such ‘economically stimulating’ acts were broadly failures, as Kennedy categorically failed to uplift the American economy, and the American people’s approval of him suffered because of it.

Kennedy would be remembered more positively for his continued efforts towards fairness and against discrimination. He passed the Ethics in Government Act, heavily restricting the abilities of incumbent members of Congress to lobby, among other things; and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, which not only forbids companies from not hiring on account of pregnancy, but mandates companies have a paid maternity leave.

Democratic Primaries

Despite his unpopularity, President Kennedy was not seriously opposed in the 1978 primaries. Although a ‘Draft Muskie’ movement, attempting to draft Maine Senator and 1968 vice-presidential nominee Edmund Muskie to run against Kennedy garnered much media attention, Muskie declined, endorsing Kennedy for re-election.

Republican Primaries

The Republican Party primaries certainly attracted more prominent candidates than the Democrats, even if they failed to garner much more competition. Former Governor Ronald Reagan of California was the frontrunner; he was opposed by Representative John Anderson of Illinois; Senate Minority Leader Howard Baker of Tennessee; former Governor John Connally of Texas; Representative Phil Crane, also of Illinois; Senator Bob Dole of Kansas; Senator Lowell Weicker of Connecticut; and former Governor Harold Stassen of Minnesota.

Reagan immediately established himself as the frontrunner. The fact that Baker and Dole dropped out before the primaries, opting to endorse Reagan, certainly did not hurt this image.

An odd trio came to represent the source of opposition to Reagan; they were all tied for second place in national polling, and it was clear that if one could break out, they would be a serious threat. These much-hyped candidates were Connally (representing the right), Anderson (representing the center), and Weicker (representing the left). The field was further cleared when Crane dropped out, endorsing Connally over Anderson.

The first two primaries were Iowa and New Hampshire. Iowa polling showed Reagan narrowly leading Connally; New Hampshire polling showed Reagan narrowly leading Weicker. Reagan pulled off narrow victories in both states. Connally, who had bankrupted his campaign for Iowa, dropped out; leaving Reagan, Weicker, Anderson, and Stassen. On March 4, Weicker carried Massachusetts and Connecticut; this was followed by an all-out blitz from Reagan, who would carry Illinois and most of the south over the next few days, although Weicker would carry Connecticut.

By now severely short on funds, Weicker dropped out on April 1, simultaneously losing Kansas and Wisconsin.

Weicker’s drop-out removed the last obstacle from Reagan’s path to nomination; Anderson and Stassen were non-entities. Or so it was thought.

They were correct about Stassen, who would take the race all the way to the convention, where he would get zero votes. Anderson, however, dropped out several days after Weicker, and declared his candidacy as an independent. Independent Maine Governor James Longley was his running mate.

Reagan was triumphantly nominated at the Republican Convention; he chose Pennsylvania Senator (and Weicker supporter) Richard Schweiker as his running mate. One comedian theorized that this was because the two names (Schweiker and Weicker) sounded similar and people would confuse the one for the other; this reference was largely forgotten until the publishing of Schweiker’s autobiography in 1994 revealed this was indeed the case.

Soon after the convention, Weicker would endorse Anderson.

General Election

The election began as a close race between Reagan and Kennedy, with Anderson as somewhat of a third wheel. Nevertheless, many realized that if the election went to the House, Anderson could end up a kingmaker, and indeed Anderson was, in the early stages of the campaign, negotiating with both the Reagan and Kennedy campaigns about the event of a House vote.

These negotiations broke off as Anderson’s poll numbers began to fall, his supporters fleeing in equal numbers to Reagan and Kennedy, who were thought possible winners, unlike Anderson. It was a self-fulfilling prophecy; the more Reagan and Kennedy seemed like winners, not Anderson, the more Anderson supporters left for Reagan and Kennedy, and the more Reagan and Kennedy seemed like winners. Et cetera.

The scheduled debate between Reagan and Kennedy was repeatedly delayed, as both Kennedy and Reagan were under the impression (largely false, though conventional wisdom at the time) that Anderson largely sucked up Reagan support. Therefore, Kennedy would only agree to a debate if Anderson was in it (gaining him more attention, and hopefully resurrecting his poll numbers), while Reagan had the opposite demand: he would debate Kennedy if Anderson was not included.

As Anderson’s support continued to drop, he increasingly shifted from the role of a potential kingmaker to the role of a minor-party candidate, and the Kennedy campaign’s demands to include Anderson became seen as petty. One week before the election, Kennedy agreed to a debate with Reagan.

The debate was a disaster for Kennedy, who appeared flustered and was seen as somewhat ‘mean’, repeatedly going negative. Reagan interrupted one Kennedy tirade, with the phrase, “There you go again,” pointing out the various benefits Californians received during his Governorship. At the end, he turned and faced the audience. “Are you better off now than you were four years ago?”

On Election Day, the answer is overwhelmingly ‘no’. Reagan is elected in a landslide, and his victory also brings coat-tails down-ballot, electing many Republicans thought to be unknown or to have no chance of victory.


Ronald Reagan/Richard Schweiker (Republican) 489 EV, 50.7% PV
Ted Kennedy/Terry Sanford (Democratic) 49 EV, 40.0% PV
John Anderson/James Longley (Independent) 0 EV, 7.6% PV
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« Reply #14 on: January 15, 2011, 09:12:16 am »
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Congressional Elections



Democrats failed to pick up any seats whatsoever in the Senate in 1978, whereas Republicans picked up 8 seats, taking the Senate majority 56-43-1, with the independent, Harry Byrd Jr. of Virginia, caucusing with the Democrats, so in effect a majority of 56-44. Howard Baker of Tennessee became Senate Majority Leader, while his Democratic counterpart, Walter Mondale of Minnesota (one of the 8 Democratic Senate victories of 1978) became Senate Minority Leader.

Three Republican pickups were open seats; Republicans defeated five Democratic incumbents. In Colorado, William Armstrong defeated Floyd Haskell; in Iowa, Roger Jepsen defeated Dick Clark; in Maine, William Cohen defeated William Hathaway; New Hampshire, Gordon Humphrey defeated Thomas McIntyre; and in West Virginia, Arch Moore Jr. defeated Jennings Randolph.

In Alabama, Republican James Martin was elected to the open seat left by the retirement of John Sparkman; in Mississippi, Thad Cochran was elected to James Eastland’s seat; and in South Dakota Larry Pressler was elected to James Abourezk’s seat.

Other notable races included Arkansas, where Democrat David Pryor was elected to Kaneaster Hodges’s seat (Hodges being a placeholder after the death of John McClellan); Kansas, where Republican Nancy Kassebaum, the daughter of former governor and 1936 presidential candidate Alf Landon, was elected to the open seat of James Pearson; Massachusetts and Michigan, where incumbent Republicans Edward Brooke and Robert Griffin triumphed in close races largely due to the wave; Minnesota, where Democrat Walter Mondale was extremely narrowly reelected; Montana, where Democrat Max Baucus was elected to Paul Hatfield’s seat (Hatfield, like Hodges, was a placeholder appointed after the death of Lee Metcalf); Nebraska, where incumbent Republican Carl Curtis reneged on his previous decision to retire and was reelected; New Jersey, where conservative Republican Jeffrey Bell defeated liberal Republican incumbent Clifford Case in the primary before beating back a Democratic challenge; Oklahoma, where Republican Dewey Bartlett narrowly triumphed over his Democratic challenger, David Boren, largely due to the wave; Virginia, where Republican John Warner was elected to the open seat of fellow Republican William Scott; and Wyoming, where Republican Alan Simpson was elected to the open seat of fellow Republican Clifford Hansen.

The picture was no less bleak in the House. Democrats lost 35 seats, and Republicans picked up the majority 239-196; Republican John Rhodes of Arizona became Speaker, while Speaker Tip O’Neill became Minority Leader. In both houses, it was the first Republican majority since 1954.

List of Governors of the Fifty U.S. States After the Elections of 1978



Alabama: Fob James (Democratic)
Alaska: Jay Hammond (Republican)
Arizona: Evan Mecham (Republican)

Arkansas: Bill Clinton (Democratic)
California: Jerry Brown (Democratic)
Colorado: Richard Lamm (Democratic)
Connecticut: Ella Grasso (Democratic)

Delaware: Pierre du Pont IV (Republican)
Florida: Paula Hawkins (Republican)

Georgia: George Busbee (Democratic)
Hawaii: John Leopold (Republican)
Idaho: John Evans (Democratic)
Illinois: James Thompson (Republican)
Indiana: Otis Bowen (Republican)
Iowa: Robert Ray (Republican)
Kansas: Robert Bennett (Republican)
Maine: David Emery (Republican)

Maryland: Harry Hughes (Democratic)
Massachusetts: John Sears (Republican)
Michigan: William Milliken (Republican)
Minnesota: Al Quie (Republican)
Missouri: Kit Bond (Republican)

Montana: Thomas Judge (Democratic)
Nebraska: Charles Thone (Republican)
Nevada: Robert List (Republican)
New Hampshire: Meldrim Thomson (Republican)
New Jersey: Ray Bateman (Republican)
New Mexico: Joe Skeen (Republican)
New York: Perry Duryea (Republican)

North Carolina: Jim Hunt (Democratic)
North Dakota: Allen Olson (Republican)
Ohio: Jim Rhodes (Republican)

Oklahoma: George Nigh (Democratic)
Oregon: Victor Atiyeh (Republican)
Pennsylvania: Dick Thornburgh (Republican)

Rhode Island: John Garrahy (Democratic)
South Carolina: Edward Young (Republican)
South Dakota: Bill Janklow (Republican)
Tennessee: Lamar Alexander (Republican)
Texas: Bill Clements (Republican)
Utah: Vernon Romney (Republican)
Vermont: Richard Snelling (Republican)
Virginia: John Dalton (Republican)
Washington: John Spellman (Republican)

West Virginia: Jay Rockefeller (Democratic)
Wisconsin: Bob Kasten (Republican)
Wyoming: John Ostlund (Republican)

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« Reply #15 on: July 11, 2011, 10:08:53 am »
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The First Term of Ronald Reagan

Vice President: Richard Schweiker
Secretary of State: Nelson Rockefeller
Secretary of the Treasury: Donald Regan
Secretary of Defense: Henry Kissinger
Attorney General: Edward Levi
Secretary of the Interior: Elizabeth Dole
Secretary of Commerce: Elliot Richardson
Secretary of Labor: George Shultz
Secretary of Agriculture: John R. Block
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare: Caspar Weinberger
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development: Carla A. Hills
Secretary of Transportation: William T. Coleman, Jr.
Chief of Staff: James Baker

Reagan was blessed with the first Congressional Republican majority since Eisenhower, and he immediately brought it to use. He began with a sweeping, tax cut, which had been proposed by Representative Jack Kemp of New York. It passed easily[1] due to the Republican majority in both Houses. Some would call it a failure – just a year later, in 1980, a so-called 'Fiscal Responsibility Act' repealed large sections of the Kemp cuts, although tax rates remained dramatically lower.

However, tax increases were also passed by the 96th Congress. The Secretary of Transportation, William Thaddeus Coleman, pioneered a four-cent gas tax increase, in order to fund repairs on interstate highways.

Also, Democratic Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin enacted the Regulatory Flexibility Act, which demands that regulatory agencies must 'solicit the views of affected small entities and of the Office of Small Business Advocacy' before doing anything that would 'significantly impact' small businesses.

Also in 1979, incumbent Secretary of State Nelson Rockefeller died in office. Rockefeller and Reagan had been rivals ever since the presidential primaries of 1974, and the nomination was a successful attempt at conciliation. Secretary of Defense Henry Kissinger, who had formerly held the office of SecState, was promoted, and the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe, Alexander M. Haig, was given the office of Secretary of Defense.  

Senator Jake Garn of Utah wrote the Depository Institutions Act, which also passed in 1980, deregulating savings and loans and allowing banks to adjust mortgage rates as they saw fit. The DIA passed with broad majorities in both Houses, although it was later criticized.

Deregulation was a major theme of the 96th Congress. In addition to the RFA and the DIA, Representative Harley Staggers (Democrat-West Virginia) wrote the Rail Act of 1980; Senator Howard Cannon (Democrat-Nevada) wrote the Airline Deregulation Act of 1979; and Senator Paul Tsongas (Democrat-Massachusetts) wrote the Motor Carrier Act of 1980, which deregulated the trucking industry

Another prominent bill passed was the Dole Act of 1980, named after its sponsor, Senator Robert Dole of Kansas. The Dole Act gave inventors “intellectual property control” of their inventions, rather than the government.

In foreign affairs, Congress passed the Taiwan Act. The Act recognizes two states, one the “People's Republic of China” and one the “Republic of China”; it defines the “Republic of China”'s territory as comprising the island of Taiwan, the Island of Itu Aba, the Penghu Islands, the Kinmen Islands, the Matsu Islands, and the Pratas Islands.[2]

Nevertheless, the economy remained poor, as the nation was entering the end of the Long Recession, which lasted from 1973 till 1981.[3] Additionally, the bad news of the Soviet invasion of Iran[4] came just a week before the 1980 midterms.

Incumbent Deaths During the 96th Congress

Three Senators died during the 96th Congress, and one resigned.

Senator Richard Schweiker had resigned during the waning days of 1978, as he had been elected to the office of Vice President of the United States. The incumbent Republican Governor of Pennsylvania, Dick Thornburgh, nominated former Pennsylvania district attorney Arlen Specter to the Senate. This was compared to Reagan's nomination of Rockefeller for Secretary of State – Thornburgh and Specter had ran against each other in the Republican primary for Governor of Pennsylvania earlier that year.

Senator Dewey Bartlett of Oklahoma, a Republican, died on March 1, 1979. Democratic state Governor George Nigh chose to appoint a Democrat, former Governor David Boren, to Bartlett's seat. This Democratic pickup was later cancelled out by the death of Hubert Humphrey.

Senator James Allen of Alabama, a Democrat, died on June 1, 1979. Democratic Alabama Governor Fob James nominated his widow, Maryon Pittman Allen, to serve until his term's conclusion.

Prominent Senator Hubert Humphrey died on January 13, 1980, of bladder cancer in Waverly, Minnesota. Humphrey, who had served as Vice President and been the Democratic nominee for President in 1968, was mourned by all. Politically, his death resulted in a Republican pickup, as Governor Quie nominated David Durenberger to Humphrey's seat. Durenberger, a political unknown, had been the sacrificial-lamb Republican nominee against Walter Mondale in 1978, and came from behind to nearly beat him.
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« Reply #16 on: July 11, 2011, 10:09:26 am »
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Congressional Elections



Democrats picked up 7 seats in the midterms of 1980, resulting in a Senate split 50-49-1, with independent Harry Byrd, Jr., of Virginia siding with the Democrats, resulting in what was effectively a Democratic majority of 51-49. Walter Mondale, of Minnesota, regained his old office of Senate Majority Leader.

What was even more astounding was that six of the seven Democratic pickups were defeats of incumbents. In Florida, state Treasurer Bill Gunter defeated incumbent Senator Jack Eckerd; in Kentucky, the mayor of Louisville, Harvey Sloane, defeated incumbent Senator Marlow Cook; in the Minnesota special election, former Governor Wendell Anderson defeated appointed Republican Senator David Durenberger; in New York, Congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman defeated liberal Republican Jacob Javits, who had insisted on running for reelection in spite of being on his deathbed; in Oregon, little-known state Senator Ted Kulongoski defeated incumbent Republican Bob Packwood; and finally, in Pennsylvania, former Mayor of Pittsburgh and nearly-successful 1978 gubernatorial candidate Pete Flaherty defeated appointed Senator Arlen Specter.

Oklahoma's unique shade signifies one Democratic pickup and one Democratic hold. Appointed Senator David Boren won the special election, whereas in the regularly-scheduled election, incumbent Republican Senator Henry Bellmon retired and a heartbreaker election occurred between the Democratic Mayor of Oklahoma City, Andy Coats, and Republican state Senator (and Bartlett protege) Don Nickles. By a margin of less than 200 votes, Coats defeated Nickles – this result took several recounts to determine, and, as the matchup also decided control of the Senate, the recounts received nationwide attention.

Other prominent elections occurred in Alabama, where appointed Democratic placeholder Maryon P. Allen startled the state by running for reelection and winning; Alaska, where Mike Gravel won a primary and then the general election in two extremely close races; Connecticut, where Democratic U.S. Representative Chris Dodd was elected to the seat of retiring Democratic senator Abraham Ribicoff; Georgia, where segregationist Democrat Herman Talmadge was nevertheless easily reelected; Idaho, where respected Democratic senator Frank Church was also easily reelected; and Illinois, where state Secretary of State Alan Dixon replaced retiring Senator Adlai Stevenson III (some speculated Stevenson had retired to mount a challenge to Reagan in 1982...)

Still other prominent elections occurred in Indiana, where Republican senator Richard Lugar was easily reelected; Iowa, where Democratic senator John Culver successfully beat back an energetic Republican challenger; New Hampshire, where Democratic senator John Durkin did likewise; North Carolina, where Democrat Robert B. Morgan was easily reelected; North Dakota, where longtime U.S. Representative Mark Andrews was elected to the senate to replace longtime now-retiring senator Milton Young; South Dakota, where incumbent Republican Leo Thorsness did not face a significant challenge; Vermont, where Republican Richard Mallary was also not seriously challenged; Washington, where longtime Senator Warren Magnuson was almost defeated in what would have been a stunning upset, had it occurred; and finally Wisconsin, where Senator Gaylord Nelson was easily reelected.

The picture was similarly bad for the Republicans in the House, where the Democrats gained 30 seats to retake the chamber, 226-209; Tip O'Neill again became Speaker of the House.

Gubernatorial Elections

The 1979 elections failed to appreciatively forecast the upcoming disaster for Republicans. In Kentucky and Mississippi, incumbent Democratic governors Julian Carroll and Cliff Finch were term-limited, and were replaced by Kentucky Fried Chicken CEO John Brown, Jr., and former lieutenant governor William Winter, respectively; but in Louisiana, term-limited Democratic governor Edwin Edwards was replaced by Republican U.S. Representative Dave Treen, a left-over from the success of 1978.



Democrats also picked up 4 Governors' Mansions. In Missouri, incumbent Republican Govenor Kit Bond was term-limited, and he was replaced by Democratic former Jackson County Prosecuting Attorney Joe Teasdale. It was Teasdale's third run for the Govenor's Mansion. In New Hampshire, state Representative Hugh Gallen upset incumbent Republican Governor Meldrim Thomson (who had been the vice-presidential nominee in 1974); in North Dakota, former Governor Arthur Link returned after four years to defeat incumbent Republican Allen Olson; and in Washington, state Senator Jim McDermott defeated incumbent Republican governor John Spellman.

Other races were less exciting. In Arkansas and Delaware, incumbent Governors Clinton and du Pont won reelection; in Indiana, term-limited Otis Bowen was replaced by fellow Republican Robert Orr after a Democratic recruiting failue. In Montana, term-limited governor Judge was replaced by fellow Democrat Ted Schwinden; in North Carolina, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, and West Virginia, Governors Hunt, Garrahy, Romney, Snelling, and Rockefeller were reelected (respectively).

Footnotes

[1] Note that this is two years earlier and is more substantial than OTL, as they to not have to appease a  Democratic House majority.

[2] Again, this is more extreme than OTL; the U.S. Has not, since 1979, used the phrase “Republic of China” (only “Taiwan”); it does not conduct formal relations with Taiwan, and it only recognizes its claim to Taiwan itself and the Penghu Islands.

[3] The definition of recession is somewhat more broad ITTL.

[4] The foreign affairs update will follow the 1982 presidential election.
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« Reply #17 on: July 11, 2011, 11:06:06 am »
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Keep this up, man!
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« Reply #18 on: July 11, 2011, 11:55:42 am »
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It's back! Keep it up! Any chance your "different decade" tl could continue? Also, would you mind if I put both in the timeline index I'm working on?
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« Reply #19 on: July 11, 2011, 12:13:52 pm »
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It's back! Keep it up! Any chance your "different decade" tl could continue? Also, would you mind if I put both in the timeline index I'm working on?

Of course, put both in. And as for A Different Decade...it'll happen one day. I kinda lost interest, and it was nearing its conclusion anyway. Carter in '08 will almost certainly continue.
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« Reply #20 on: July 11, 2011, 12:37:33 pm »
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I wonder what A West Wing TL would look like if RFK was president. Where would the divergence from OTL be there?
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« Reply #21 on: July 13, 2011, 07:59:12 am »
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I made one change to the list of Governors. Who can spot it?
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« Reply #22 on: July 13, 2011, 11:32:34 am »
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The First Term of Ronald Reagan (cont.)

After the hit Reagan's party took in the 1980 midterms, with Democrats taking both Houses of Congress, the 97th Congress was largely a do-nothing Congress, as disagreement between the President and Congress served as a roadblock to legislation.

With hindsight, probably the most important bill passed by the 97th Congress was the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, which was passed on January 7, 1982; it regulated the disposal of nuclear waste, both existing and waste which was projected to be brought into existence in the future.

A major controversy during the 97th Congress was that of the Equal Rights Amendment. Passed by the Senate in 1973, with a deadline of ratification in 1979, in 1978 the Democratic-controlled Congress saw fit to extend the deadline to 1982. Finally, after nine years, the ERA was added to the Constitution in 1981.

But only temporarily, for just several days later the Supreme Court ruled that the 1978 deadline had been unconstitutional; and that since the Amendment had not been passed by 1979, it was not a part of the Constitution.

The uproar over this decision was tremendous; indeed, in 1981, Congress (controlled by Democrats) again passed the selfsame Amendment, again with a five-year deadline – that is, the Amendment had to be passed at 1986. President Reagan remained neutral; noting merely that he would respect the decisions of the Supreme Court. Notably, Reagan nominated Sandra Day O'Connor, a woman, to replace retiring Justice Potter Stewart. O'Connor was the second woman ever nominated to the Supreme Court; the first, Shirley Hufstedler, had been appointed by President Kennedy to replace Justice Bill Douglas in 1975.

The air traffic controllers strike also occurred during the 97th Congress, beginning on August 3, 1981. Reagan gave the controllers 48 hours to return to work or forfeit their jobs. After they failed to return, on August 5 Reagan fired them all and banned them from ever again working for the federal government – though Reagan himself later lifted the ban in 1986.

However, the 97th Congress was the beginning of a better 1980s, as the Long Recession is considered to have ended in October of 1981. Reagan's popularity rose, and when the presidential election came along, Reagan was considered at least a slight favorite over the Democratic field.

Republican Primaries

The most prominent Republican to run against Reagan was the former Governor of Minnesota, Harold Stassen. Reagan would win every primary with over 90% of the vote; he and Vice President Schweiker were triumphantly, near-unanimously nominated at the Convention. (A single delegate voted for Reagan's appointed Ambassador to the United Nations, Jeane Kirkpatrick).

Democratic Primaries

The Democratic primaries, on the other hand, were more chaotic. Eight candidates ran for the nomination; former Vice President Terry Sanford, of North Carolina; Senator Gary Hart, of Colorado; Senator Elizabeth Holtzman, of New York; Senator John Glenn, of Ohio; former Senator and 1972 nominee George McGovern, of South Dakota; Senator Ernest Hollings, of South Carolina; former Governor Reubin Askew, of Florida; and lastly, Senator Scoop Jackson of Washington decided to try for a last hurrah.

After former President Ted Kennedy chose not to run, there was absolutely no frontrunner whatsoever. Most early polls showed Sanford, Jackson, and Glenn tied for first place, with Hart and Holtzman not far behind. Although seen as a serious candidate, Senator Hollings dropped out early on in favor of Sanford; as did Askew. McGovern, after doing very poorly in several early primaries, also chose to drop out.

Iowa, a close contest between Sanford and Hart, decided itself in favor of Sanford. In New Hampshire, where Holtzman was seen as favored, Jackson unexpectedly upset her; later on, Holtzman won Vermont while Hart would win Wyoming.

Five primaries held on March 13 would see Sanford's first victories, in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia, while Holtzman won Massachusetts and Jackson Rhode Island. Having failed to gain even a single victory, Glenn at this point dropped out, leaving four seemingly evenly matched candidates: Sanford, Holtzman, Hart, and Jackson.

Jackson won a surprise victory in Illinois, only to have Holtzman win Connecticut. Unfortunately for Holtzman, Jackson would narrowly edge her out in her home state of New York; prompting Holtzman to drop out and giving Jackson the title of seeming frontrunner. (Ironically, on that same day, Holtzman won a surprise victory in Wisconsin).

On April 10, the Pennsylvania primary occurred, with Jackson, Sanford, and Hart the only remaining candidates. Sanford very narrowly defeated Jackson. The next day, Sanford won Tennessee whereas Hart triumphed in the District of Columbia primary.

On May 5, Sanford won Louisiana; four primaries on the 8th saw Hart win Maryland and Ohio, while Jackson won Indiana and Sanford utterly dominated in his home state of North Carolina.

On May 15, the Idaho and Nebraska went to Hart, but, Jackson won Oregon. There was then a long pause until the next series of primaries, which were to occur on June 5. Unfortunately, on June 1, 1982, Henry “Scoop” Jackson died suddenly at the age of 70 of an aortic aneurysm.[1] Jackson's widow, Helen, would endorse Sanford.

Campaigning halted as all men across the political spectrum mourned the death of the Senator from Washington. Politically, Sanford had more delegates than Hart, and so became the frontrunner. On June 5, Sanford won California, New Jersey, and West Virginia, while Hart won the lesser contests of Montana, New Mexico, and South Dakota. On June 12, Sanford won an upset victory in North Dakota, prompting Hart to drop out and endorse Sanford.

A divided convention saw Sanford win on the first ballot, with many delegates voting for Hart, Holtzman, or even Jackson, in spite of them having dropped out or, in Jackson's case, died. Sanford's initial choice for the vice-presidential nomination was the Governor of Connecticut, Ella Grasso. However, Grasso was forced to drop out after she was diagnosed on August 31 with ovarian cancer.

Sanford, after some thought, ultimately replaced her with a U.S. Representative from Wisconsin, Les Aspin. Aspin, although not female or a minority as Sanford had wanted his running mate to be, was nevertheless good on defense (a weak spot of Sanford's), and hailed from the swing region known as the Midwest.

General Election

During the summer, Sanford was narrowly behind the President. Although Reagan's lead slowly expanded, the so-called 'Grasso bump' from sympathy votes was enough to give Sanford a substantial lead at the beginning of September. However, various Reagan ads (the two most famous of which are 'Morning in America' and 'Bear in the Forest') and a stellar performance at the presidential debate gave Reagan a large lead over Sanford that Sanford was never able to effectively combat; finally, Reagan won a landslide victory over Sanford.



Ronald Reagan/Richard Schweiker (Republican) 412 EV, 54.8% PV
Terry Sanford/Les Aspin (Democratic) 126 EV, 44.1% PV
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« Reply #23 on: July 13, 2011, 11:33:54 am »
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Congressional Elections



Republicans picked up 6 Senate seats in the election of 1982, but Democrats countered with 2 pickups of their own, resulting in an overall result of 4 Republican pickups, and Republican control of the Senate, 53-47. Howard Baker returned to the position of Majority Leader, Walter Mondale regressing to Minority Leader.

Four of the Republican pickups were defeats of incumbent Senators; two pickups were made in the aftermath of a Democratic retirement – in Virginia, where Republican U.S. Representative Paul Trible, Jr., was elected to replace outgoing Independent/Democratic Senator Harry Reid, Jr., and Washington, where incumbent Senator Scoop Jackson had vacated the race in order to run for President, and then died, rendering him incapable of running for office. The Republican nominee, former Governor Daniel Evans, was elected to replace Jackson.

Obviously, four Democratic incumbents were also defeated. In Indiana, U.S. Representative Dan Quayle defeated incumbent Senator Vance Hartke; in Minnesota, Rudy Boschwitz, the founder of Plywood Minnesota, defeated incumbent Senator Wendell Anderson; in Nevada, former state Senator Chic Hecht defeated Senator Howard Cannon; and in New Jersey, scandal-ridden incumbent Democrat Harrison Williams was defeated by liberal, feminist Republican Congresswoman Millicent Fenwick.

Democrats defeated two incumbents, in New York and Tennessee. In New York, the former Mayor of New York City, Mario Cuomo (ITTL, the 1977 Democratic primary runoff was between Cuomo and Beame, rather than Cuomo and Koch; ITTL, Cuomo won and served a single term as Mayor, 1977-1981, before unexpectedly stepping out; in 1981, after another confusing Democratic primary, a runoff occurred between Bella Abzug and Koch, which Abzug won; as of now in the timeline, Bella Abzug is Mayor of New York) defeated incumbent conservative Republican James Buckley; in Tennessee, Democratic U.S. Representative Al Gore, Jr., successfully sought to avenge incumbent Republican Senator Bill Brock's defeat of his father twelve years earlier.

Other notable races included Arizona, where controversial Republican Sam Steiger was narrowly reelected; California, where Republican U.S. Representative Pete Wilson replaced incumbent Republican Senator S.I. Hayakawa, who retired after a single term; Hawaii, where Senator Patsy Mink was reelected; Maine, where Senator Edmund Muskie was reelected; Maryland, where Democratic U.S. Representative Jim Shannon was elected to replace outgoing Democrat Paul Tsongas; Michigan, where Republican Marvin Esch was reelected; Nebraska, where incumbent Republican Senator John McCollister was easily reelected; New Mexico, where incumbent Republican Senator Harrison Schmitt was narrowly reelected following an extremely close race; and Ohio, where Republican Robert Taft, Jr., successfully sought reelection in spite of health problems.

Republicans also picked up a net 17 seats in the House, enough to flip margins exactly; the House went from a 226-209 Democratic majority to a 226-209 Republican majority. Former Speaker John Rhodes of Arizona having retired, Republicans inaugurated Bob Michel of Illinois as Speaker of the House.

Gubernatorial Elections

The gubernatorial elections of 1981 resulted in a single Democratic pickup, as in New Jersey incumbent Republican Ray Bateman was elected to his second term, whereas in Virginia incumbent Republican John N. Dalton was term-limited, and Democrat Chuck Robb was elected to replace him.



The gubernatorial elections of 1982 were stalemated, as Republicans and Democrats picked up 5 statehouses each, canceling each other out.

[wall-o'-text starts now; read it if you want]

In Alabama, Republican Mayor of Montgomery Emory Folmar defeated incumbent Democratic governor Fob James; in Alaska, Republican former Speaker of the state House of Representatives, Tom Fink, was elected to replace term-limited incumbent Republican Governor Jay Hammond; in Arizona, Democratic state Attorney General Dennis de Concini defeated scandal-plagued incumbent Republican Governor Evan Mecham; in Arkansas, Republican near-successful 1980 gubernatorial candidate Frank White defeated incumbent Democrat Bill Clinton; in California, Republican state Attorney General George Deukmejian replaced incumbent Democratic governor Jerry Brown, who had launched an (unsuccessful) run for the U.S. Senate; in Colorado, Dick Lamm was reelected; in Connecticut, Democratic Lieutenant Governor William O'Neill replaced term-limited (and deathly ill) Democratic incumbent Ella Grasso; in Florida, Republican Governor Paula Hawkins was easily reelected; in Georgia, Democratic state Representative Joe Frank Harris replaced term-limited incumbent Democrat George Busbee; in Hawaii, incumbent Republican John Leopold was reelected; in Idaho, Republican Lieutenant Governor Phil Batt defeated Democratic Governor John Evans; in Illinois, Republican Governor Big Jim Thompson was reelected; in Iowa, Lieutenant Governor Terry Branstad replaced incumbent Governor Robert Ray, who chose not to seek another term; in Kansas, term-limited Republican Robert Bennett was replaced by Democratic state Treasurer Joan Finney; in Maine, Republican incumbent David Emery was reelected; in Maryland, Democratic incumbent Harry Hughes was reelected; in Massachusetts, former Governor Michael Dukakis returned after four years to defeat Republican Governor John Sears; in Michigan, ex-George Romney advisor Richard Headlee was successfully elected Governor, after ex-George Romney Lieutenant Governor (turned Governor) William Milliken chose not to seek another term; in Minnesota, ex-Lieutenant Governor (and failed 1978 candidate) Rudy Perpich was elected after incumbent Republican Al Quie chose to limit his gubernatorial tenure to one term; in Nebraska and Nevada, incumbent Republican Governors Charles Thone and Robert List were reelected; in New Hampshire, former Governor Meldrim Thomson came back to beat incumbent Democrat Hugh Gallen, who had beaten him in 1980 (and had been previously beaten by Thomson in 1978); in New Mexico and New York, incumbent Republican Governors Joe Skeen and Perry Duryea were reelected; in Ohio, former Director of the Peace Corps (and former U.S. Representative) Dick Celeste was elected to replace unpopular term-limited Republican Jim Rhodes; in  Oklahoma, Democrat George Nigh was reelected; in Oregon and Pennsylvania, incumbent Republican Governors Victor Atiyeh and Dick Thornburgh were reelected; in Rhode Island, incumbent Democrat John Garrahy was reelected; in South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, incumbent Republican Governors Edward Young, Bill Janklow, Lamar Alexander, Bill Clements, Richard Snelling, Bob Kasten, and John Ostlund were reelected.
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« Reply #24 on: July 22, 2011, 01:40:15 pm »
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