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« Reply #75 on: September 23, 2007, 03:43:00 pm »
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I really hope the king becomes fat and slovenly.
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« Reply #76 on: September 23, 2007, 03:49:38 pm »
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The American Monarchy: 1833 - 1836

When the Senate reconvened in April of 1833, Henry Clay and his party had a clear mandate from the Kingdom to continue their policies. However, in late 1833, Andrew Jackson called for the removal of Indians from Southern states. The Jacksonian party strongly supported this (with a few exceptions, such as Shadow Secretary of State David Crockett of Tennessee). Northern Nationals came out strongly against it. Many Nationals and Whigs were left undecided. Jackson’s planned called for the encouragement of migration of the “Five Civilized Tribes” to an unspecified “Indian Territory.” The bill saw weeks of debate and negotiation. Henry Clay was conflicted over the issue, personally against what he predicted would surely be an inhumane endeavor but at the same time wary of voting against something the public clearly supported.  In the end, however, he came out against the bill, and in a close vote, had it tabled until the Senate reconvened in 1834.

When the Senate met again in 1834, Indian removal was once again on the table. The Whig Party and Jacksonian parties had by this time mostly come out in support of the Jackson’s Indian Removal Act. Henry Clay, however, vowed to defeat it. In the end, the vote was incredibly close. The Indian Removal Act passed 133 to 124. George II made it clear that he would veto the bill hours after his passage. The King, now 53 years of age, had come to see himself as removed from the political squabbling of the Senate; instead, he saw himself as a protector of the nation’s legacy. As such, he refused to support an effort that he saw as abhorrent.1 The veto over-ride failed by 132 to 126. Nonetheless, Presley O’Bannon, leader of the Whig party, and Andrew Jackson threatened Henry Clay with a no confidence vote. Henry Clay famously remarked that “if [Jackson and O’Bannon] want to prove their foolishness in front of the Senate, then let them have at it.” In the fall of 1834, the no confidence motion was voted upon. Unfortunately for Jackson and O’Bannon, support for Indian Removal did not translate into votes against Clay. Splitting largely along party lines, the no confidence resolution failed 149 to 102.

In 1835, Henry Clay called for the admittance of Arkansas and Michigan as states. The Royal Council voted to admit both states later that year. Both states were admitted with one Senator. Arkansas territory was admitted as the state of Arkansas, while the state of Michigan was carved out of Michigan Territory (Michigan Territory was renamed Wisconsin Territory). The admittance of both states represented a halt, for the time-being at least, in the widening of the gap between free and slave states. However, the admittance of Michigan reflected the growing significance of the Great Lakes region, both politically and economically.

After the fight over the Indian Removal Act, Clay’s term progressed swimmingly, until war broke out in Texas. The Texan Revolution began in 1835, continuing into 1836. In the spring of 1836, Texas officially declared independence. Clay, while once intrigued with annexing Texas, was, by 1836, in no way inclined to help the Texians. The Jacksonians, however, saw Texas as an opportunity to gain political favor with the American populace and expand slave territories further South. Many southerners had become worried that the United States would expand further North into Canada, carving out more free states and eventually marginalizing the entire region; annexing Texas was seen as an opportunity to prevent that.

In the March of 1836, as war continued to rage in Texas, and the rebels slowly lost ground, Sam Houston (J-TN), the second-highest ranking Jacksonian and Andrew Jackson’s trusted friend, advisor and protégée, encouraged the Senate to appropriate funds for the invasion of Texas and Mexico, to secure Texian independence. George II met with Henry Clay days after Houston’s speech, and asked Clay whether the Senate would support a war effort. Clay responded that he would do his best to prevent a single cent from paying for an invasion of Texas or Mexico. The King, realizing that the war had no chance, did not ask the Royal Council for a declaration of war. Jackson was seemingly at an impasse; it seemed apparent to all that the idea of American intervention in the Texian Revolution was dead. However, surprisingly to all, in April of 1836, Secretary of State John C. Calhoun (N-SC), broke with Henry Clay over the Texas issue. Calhoun called for a vote of no confidence in his own party leader, unless Clay approved the funds for intervention in Texas. Clay refused, confident that he could survive another no-confidence motion. Following Clay’s refusal to appropriate funds, his government was brought down on April 23rd, 1836, by a close vote of 134 to 124. George II scheduled the elections to take place in June. John C. Calhoun, and his bloc of anti-Clay National Party Senators, did not stand for re-election, as they had no place in the National party, but were loathe to join the Jacksonians.

The Senate before the Election of 1836:
Whig Party: 46 Seats
Jacksonian Party: 52 Seats
National Party: 161 Seats
Total Seats: 259


State Delegations following the Election of 1836

The Senate after the Election of 1836:
Whig Party: 72 Seats (+26)
Jacksonian Party: 90 Seats (+38)
National Party: 102 Seats (-59)
Total Seats: 264

Henry Clay’s party took a beating throughout the country, as the Whigs and Jacksonians both claimed that the National Party was weak and unwilling to protect Americans in Texas. But when the Senate reconvened for an emergency session in July, the National Party still had a plurality of seats. Andrew Jackson and Presley O’Bannon, though bitter enemies, agreed to form a coalition government. The two parties were divided on most issues, but they both agreed that aiding the Texians in their struggle for independence was the most pressing issue before the country. Andrew Jackson, as leader of the larger party, became Prime Minister on the first ballot, at the age of 69. The next day, George II had the Royal Council declare war on Mexico.

The Government as of July 1836:
Prime Minister: Andrew Jackson (J-TN)
Deputy Prime Minister: Presley O’Bannon (W-KY)
Majority Whip:  Sam Houston (J-TN)
Secretary of State: David Crockett (J-TN)
Secretary of the Treasury: Martin Van Buren (W-NY)
Secretary of War: Lewis Cass (W-MI)
Attorney General: Roger B. Taney (J-MD)

1King George II had also used this argument to forbid the owning of slaves by the Royal Family, in 1829. He had also used his considerable authority and social rank to push for the abolishment of slavery in the state of Virginia throughout the 1830s (though he was unsuccessful). The King’s enlightened position towards slavery swayed many wavering Americans throughout the nation.
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« Reply #77 on: September 23, 2007, 03:54:42 pm »
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List of American Prime Ministers:
Alexander Hamilton (R-NY): 1791-1803
James Madison (WR-VA): 1803-1811
Aaron Burr (WR-NY): 1811-1815
John Q. Adams (R-MA): 1815-1820
William H. Crawford (R-GA): 1820
James Monroe (WR-VA): 1820-1825
Daniel D. Tompkins (WR-NY): 1825-1826
Aaron Burr (WR-NY): 1826-1829
Henry Clay (N-KY): 1829-1836
Andrew Jackson (J-TN): 1836- ??

List of Opposition Leaders:
Thomas Jefferson (WR-VA): 1791-1799
Aaron Burr (WR-NY): 1799-1803
George Clinton (R-NY): 1803-1805
John Q. Adams (R-MA): 1805-1811
DeWitt Clinton (R-NY): 1811-1812
Rufus King (R-NY): 1812-1815
James Monroe (WR-VA): 1815-1820
Henry Clay (N-KY): 1820-1829
Andrew Jackson (J-TN): 1829-1836
Henry Clay (N-KY): 1836- ??

List of American Monarchs:
King George I: 1791-1799
    Prince George: 1791-1799
King George II: 1799- ??
    No heir: 1799-1831
    Prince Robert: 1831- ??
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« Reply #78 on: September 23, 2007, 10:12:31 pm »
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One of my favorites, simply amazing
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« Reply #79 on: September 24, 2007, 12:08:42 am »
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yes, this is playing out very plausibly and is quite interesting
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« Reply #80 on: September 25, 2007, 11:16:03 pm »
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Whens the next update?
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« Reply #81 on: September 25, 2007, 11:27:03 pm »
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Probably Friday. Too much school stuff to write anything during the week this week.
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« Reply #82 on: September 28, 2007, 11:53:10 pm »
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The American Monarchy: 1836 - 1841


Prime Minister Andrew Jackson

When Andrew Jackson came to power the country was unprepared for war. Henry Clay had cut military budgets in 1835, unwilling to possibly equip Jackson with an army able enough to conquer Mexico. At the same time, the few available American forces were busy fighting Seminoles in Florida and fighting Indians in the west. At the behest of King George II, Jackson’s party passed a number of bills calling for an increase in the size of the army. Two armies were created:  the Army of the West and the Army of the South. Prince Robert would lead the Army of the West, while veteran General Winfield Scott, hero of the Battle of York 30 years earlier, would lead the Army of the South. George II, Robert, and Gen. Scott decided on a two-pronged attack strategy: Scott would move south, into Texas, and reinforce the Texian Army, with an eventual goal of defeating Santa Anna. Robert would move west, into Nuevo Mexico and Alta California, conquering the vast, sparsely-defended expanses of northern Mexico.

The Texans were on the verge of defeat when Winfield Scott’s army of 3000 arrived in Texas in spring of 1837. The Texian army numbered at about 800, while Santa Anna’s forces in Texas numbered 5000. Scott first met up with about half of the Texian army, commanded by William B. Travis, in April of 1837, and immediately moved on San Antonio. Santa Anna had left 1000 soldiers in the city to defend and put down Texian and Tejano insurgents. The Mexican defensive force marched out of the city and met Scott in a field battle outside of San Antonio. After a day long battle, The Battle of San Antonio ended in a decisive American-Texian victory, with a large majority of Mexican troops captured or killed. Meanwhile, Juan Seguín, a Tejano fighting for independence, led 400 troops in southern Texas, harassing the marching columns of Santa Anna’s army. Santa Anna and Scott would meet in Southern Texas later that year, but their battles proved to be stalemates. Scott’s troops were of higher quality, but Santa Anna had a clear numerical advantage.

As all of this was going on, Prince Robert’s 1,500 man army had crossed into Nuevo Mexico and taken the city of Santa Fe, setting up a military government in the city. Robert then moved further west, into California. He was met with strong resistance from Mexican settlers, and the harsh desert environment forced him to retreat to Santa Fe. Prince Robert called for more volunteers; he contended that his small army was not enough to properly advance across the vast territory of the Mexican west. Hearing this, Jackson’s party passed a bill calling for the increase of the Army to a size of 70,000. Volunteers and regulars would soon cause the army’s size to swell to 30,000 by mid-1838 and 70,000 by the end of 1840. In 1838, twenty thousand soldiers were sent into Texas, and another five thousand met up with Prince Robert in Nuevo Mexico.

In August of 1838, Winfield Scott and Santa Anna met after months of skirmishes and delaying actions. Scott controlled all land north of the Guadalupe, and Santa Anna needed to break through the American lines. Their two armies clashed in the Battle of Victoria. Santa Anna’s forces had been reinforced, and numbered at about 20,000, while Scott’s forces numbered near 25,000, with roughly 2000 Texians used to screen his flanks and harass the Mexican line. Scott set up a defensive position and was able to easily repulse the first Mexican advances. But by mid-day, a detachment of Mexican troops had forded the Guadalupe a mile to the east, overwhelmed Texian defenders, and hit Scott’s left flank. The Mexican army gained the initiative and pushed the Americans back into the town of Victoria. There Scott regrouped, and repulsed the Mexican attack. Both armies rested for the day, and the battle resumed the next morning. This time, Scott took the offensive, using his better-equipped soldiers and numeric advantage to retake lost ground. By mid-day though, the two armies were once again at a standstill. The American army had incurred heavy losses, and the heat and weather had sent morale plunging, as many American soldiers were not used to the extreme temperatures of southern Texas. Realizing that the American army would not last another day of battle, William Travis and Juan Seguín led roughly 1500 Texians and 2000 Americans in a daring night-time raid on the Mexican camp. Nearly the entire Mexican army was caught sleeping, and was soon surrounded. In the ensuing chaos, over two-thousand Mexican soldiers were killed, and another five-thousand surrendered. Santa Anna escaped, and his army broke. Scott awoke the next morning with the realization that Santa Anna’s army had been crushed.

The Battle of Victoria was the turning point in the war, and the Mexican army enjoyed few successes thereafter. Political turmoil reigned in Mexico City, and after Santa Anna regrouped, he was forced to take most of his army south to quell a rebellion. In 1839, Prince Robert once again invaded California, this time with the support of the United States Royal Navy. He quickly defeated the Mexican army, and took the city of San Diego. General Zachary Taylor, fresh from success fighting the Seminoles in Florida, was dispatched to Nuevo Mexico, so as to invade Chihuahua and Sonora. Zachary Taylor won a number of battles in Sonora throughout 1839, and finished the year besieging the capital at Hermosillo. Hermosillo fell in the Spring of 1840, and with it the state of Sonora. After the fall of Hermosillo, the remaining Mexican forces in the region largely surrendered. A month earlier, Prince Robert had seized Tijuana, routing the Mexican forces in Baja California.

By summer of 1840, Winfield Scott had also pushed further south into Mexico. Santa Anna had quashed rebellions during 1839, and moved back north to fight Winfield Scott, who had crossed the Rio Grande. Santa Anna led a few thousand troops to the west, to defend Sonora, and left his remaining troops under the command of General Manuel Fernández Castrillón. The Mexican forces reinforced their position in the city of Monterrey. About 10,000 Mexican soldiers took their positions inside the fortifications of the city, with General Scott commanding an American army of 15,0001. American artillery was unable to break through the Mexican fortifications, and the Americans took heavy losses for a full week. On the 8th day of the Battle of Monterrey, the Americans broke through Gen. Castrillón’s western flank, and entered into the city. The battle devolved into chaotic hand to hand combat, with both sides taking heavy losses. The battle raged on into the night, though an unofficial armistice ended fighting by midnight. The Americans pushed forward into the city center the next morning, surrounding the Mexicans and forcing their surrender. With Scott’s victory at the Battle of Monterrey, the Mexican army had been all but eliminated. Rebellion tore through the country later that year, and by the time Scott reached Mexico City in 1841, after months of fighting rag-tag Mexican militias in various skirmishes, the country was in total anarchy. Santa Anna has escaped  to Cuba sometime in 1840, and General Miguel Barragán took control of the capital city. With over half of the country under American control and Mexican armies crushed, Barragán negotiated a ceasefire with Winfield Scott. The Mexican-Texan War was over.


Extent of American Forces by Year

1With the Mexican retreat from Texas, the Texians had gained de facto independence, and William B. Travis had disbanded the army and remained in San Antonio to create a government with Stephen F. Austin and other Texians.
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« Reply #83 on: September 29, 2007, 12:01:04 am »
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Another great update, can't wait until the next one!
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« Reply #84 on: September 29, 2007, 12:59:46 am »
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Lief once again a great update to this magnificent timeline. I love how much detail you put into the timeline, it's great. Like what HappyWarrior said, I can't wait until the next update.
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« Reply #85 on: September 29, 2007, 11:38:35 pm »
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The American Monarchy: 1841 - 1845
Backtracking a bit here, to look at domestic policy during the war.

As the war raged in 1837, Andrew Jackson quietly passed his Indian Removal Act. Jackson also labored to have the National Bank once again defunded, but his coalition partners, the Whigs, as well as the National Party were firmly against it, especially in a time of high-spending during the war. The Whig Party was very wary to support any of Jackson’s radical plans, especially during a time of war. As the war persisted into 1838, it became apparent to the leaders of Congress that the conflict would not be resolved speedily, and the possibility that it would last past the five-year maximum Senate term was very real. Andrew Jackson and Presley O’Bannon both agreed that it would be improper to possibly change government in the middle of the war. Realizing this, they proposed a constitutional amendment allowing the King to extend the Senate’s term “during periods of warfare or national distress, with the condition that the Senate be speedily dissolved when such crisis has subsided.” Henry Clay saw this move as a power-grab by Andrew Jackson, but he nonetheless agreed with amendment. With support from all three parties, the amendment passed overwhelmingly, and was ratified as the 13th Amendment by 1840.

In 1838, the United States officially recognized the Kingdom of Texas as a state. The nation’s constitution had been modeled almost exactly on the American one, and Stephen F. Austin had been crowned King Stephen I.  William B. Travis was elected as the first Prime Minister. Eager to solidify ties between the two nations, George II arranged the marriage of Cornelia Jefferson Randolph (granddaughter of Thomas Jefferson, sister of Queen Consort Eleanor, and adopted into the Royal Family by Royal Decree) to King Stephen I, who was unmarried at the time.

When Gen. Winfield Scott reported the Mexican surrender in 1841, the country and the Senate were ecstatic. But when the time came to write a formal treaty, the country was much divided. Andrew Jackson and many in his party called for the complete annexation of Mexico. The Whigs saw this as an impossible endeavor, due to the huge cultural differences between the population of Mexico and the United States. The prospect of such a large influx of Spanish-speaking, Catholics angered many Americans. There was a small number of Americans who wanted no annexation; the freedom of Texas, they argued, had been the war’s only goal. Finally, Henry Clay proposed a compromise: the United States would annex Nuevo Mexico, both Californias, Sonora and Chihuahua, and return the remainder of occupied Mexican land to Mexico.

David Crockett returned to the United States in 1841 with the Crockett-Bravo Treaty, in which Mexico surrendered the land to the United States and recognized fully Texas’s independence, in return for $20 million from the United States. As the Senate debated the treaty, Henry Clay suggested an amendment, banning slavery in the new newly admitted territories. Jackson and his supporters were livid:  Jacksonian James K. Polk, of Tennessee, chided Clay for using the treaty for political posturing. The Whigs were also opposed to slavery in the new territories, though not wholly to the degree that Henry Clay’s Nationals were. Matters became worse for Jackson when a small banking crisis hit numerous banks in the Mid-Atlantic States at the close of the year 1841. George II had promised to not dissolve parliament until the treaty had been signed, but in 1842, Clay led a no-confidence vote against Jackson, which passed by a vote of 150-114. Elections were to be held in April of 1842.

Andrew Jackson, with failing health, declined to run again, and in a long and divisive convention, dark-horse James K. Polk of Tennessee beat David Crockett to become Jacksonian Party leader1. A furious Crockett walked out of the convention with his supporters. With Jackson gone, some suggested the party be renamed, but Polk thought it disrespectful. Presley O’Bannon also stepped down as Whig Party leader, and in an un-surprising vote, Martin Van Buren took control of the party and delivered a rousing speech at the convention in New York City. Henry Clay, still wildly popular, promised his party that they would retake the Senate in a confident and triumphant convention.

The election turned out to be a rout for the National Party. Polk’s hard-line pro-slavery chances hurt his party in some states, but more damaging was the Banking Crisis of 1842, which Americans feared would spread to the entire country, and which Henry Clay blamed chiefly on the Jacksonian’s anti-bank policies. The Whig party came out of the election largely unscathed, with a net loss of only 1 seat. When the Senate reconvened in May 1842, Henry Clay was elected Prime Minister was the second time.

The Senate before the Election of 1842:
Whig Party: 72 Seats
Jacksonian Party: 90 Seats
National Party: 102 Seats
Total Seats: 264



The Senate after the Election of 1842:
Whig Party: 71 Seats (-1)
Jacksonian Party: 41 seats (-49)
National Party: 144 Seats (+42)
Total Seats: 2562

The Government as of May 1842:
Prime Minister: Henry Clay (N-KY)
Deputy Prime Minister: Daniel Webster (N-MA)
Majority Whip:  Millard Fillmore (N-NY)
Secretary of State: William H. Harrison (N-IN)
Secretary of the Treasury: John White (N-KY)
Secretary of War: George Edmund Badger (N-NC)
Attorney General: Theodore Frelinghuysen (N-NJ)

With his majority, Henry Clay was able to pass the Clay Amendment in the summer of 1842, banning slavery in the newly annexed territory. With the passage of this amendment, the Crockett-Bravo Treaty was ratified in late 1842. In 1843, Henry Clay set about do “undo the damage done by Jackson”, in his own words. The National Bank was once again re-chartered in 1843, and there was some talk within the National Party of passing a constitutional amendment to prevent the future abolition of the bank, though Daniel Webster advised Clay against it.

In January 1844, Prince Robert and Princess Maria had their third child (two daughters had been born in 1832 and 1834, but only the second, Martha Anne Lee-Washington, had survived), a boy, who was named William Henry George Custis Lee-Washington. The King was growing older and his health was declining, so much of the nation was relieved that the future monarch, Prince Robert, would have an heir. George, following the conclusion of the war, had invested himself heavily in ending slavery in the United States. In a letter to his daughter, Maria, in 1844, he remarked that if slavery still existed in the kingdom when he died, he would regard his reign as a failure. George II had used his considerable influence to convince the governments in Maryland and Missouri to ban slavery in 1844 and 1846 respectively. While not a supporter of rapid abolition, George II during the 1840s still advocated a gradual abolition of slavery, and was committed to working towards that goal. Abolitionists rallied around George II, though his popularity in the South steadily plunged.

1Polk represented the pro-slavery bloc of the party, and vehemently supported the expansion of slave territory into the west. Crockett was much more moderate, and favored Clay’s compromise.
2The size of the Senate became 256 following the 1840 census.
« Last Edit: October 01, 2007, 08:30:04 pm by Lief »Logged

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« Reply #86 on: September 30, 2007, 10:33:25 am »
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Another great update!  You are one of, if not the best What-If writers on this forum.  I hope this continues for a long time to come.  I really liked the compromise bill.  I hope Crocket can be even more important in this TL.
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« Reply #87 on: September 30, 2007, 11:17:57 am »
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Very interesting--keep up the good work.

I have just one quibble:  if a swollen Kingdom of America declared war on Mexico, wouldn't Britain  and France intervene to preserve the balance of power in the New World? (At least a naval blockade of American ports seems likely). 

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« Reply #88 on: September 30, 2007, 04:35:20 pm »
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Very interesting--keep up the good work.

I have just one quibble:  if a swollen Kingdom of America declared war on Mexico, wouldn't Britain  and France intervene to preserve the balance of power in the New World? (At least a naval blockade of American ports seems likely). 



well, we went to war against Mexico anyways in the 1840's, so I dont see why the Brisish and French would act any differently towards the US.

By the way, this is a GREAT timeline, keep it up.
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« Reply #89 on: October 01, 2007, 10:21:29 pm »
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When we goin to see the next update?  I'm so excited :-D
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« Reply #90 on: October 02, 2007, 08:48:00 pm »
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The American Monarchy: 1845 - 1847

The year 1845 saw the admission of two more states: Iowa (three Senators) and Florida (one Senator). It also saw the discovery of vast deposits of iron and copper in the Upper Peninsula, part of Wisconsin territory. Clay’s National Party passed legislation encouraging settlement of the area and internal improvements to improve transportation and mining infrastructure in the region. The National Party was determined to re-focus American growth in the North after the vast expansion following the war in Mexico. Daniel Webster, in particular, was adamant about expanding north into Canada, even if it meant eventual conflict with the British.

Conflict did break out in late 1845. American settlers in Oregon country had crossed the 49th parallel earlier in the year to set up a fur trading post. They met a group of British fur traders and battle ensued. The British settlers pushed back the Americans, but a month later American settlers, armed with rifles, once again crossed the border and burned Fort Langley to the ground. British diplomats in the Royal District of Washington were furious, and demanded American action. Many Senators demanded war against Great Britain; “50th or war!” was a popular anti-British slogan, the 50th parallel being one degree above the official border at the 49th parallel, as well as a border that would encompass the burnt Fort Langley. James K. Polk denounced the conflict as yet another trick to expand further North, to further marginalize the South. He challenged that the National and Whig parties wanted nothing more than to turn the kingdom into the “United States of Canada.”

As tensions increased, Henry Clay sent Daniel Webster and William H. Harrison to the British colonial government in the Maritimes to prevent war. The British demanded that the border between American and British Oregon be pushed down to the 42nd parallel after the attack on Fort Langley. Webster flat-out refused, as a border at the 42nd parallel would put the entirety of the Columbia River in British territory. Webster and Harrison, in turn, demanded the annexation of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The British refused. Daniel Webster and William H. Harrison left Halifax in spring 1846 without a resolution to the conflict. With the possibility of war looming, Henry Clay dissolved the Senate after the summer recess in 1846, with elections scheduled for September.

At the National Party convention, sixty-nine-year-old Henry Clay was once again confirmed as party leader. He gave a fiery speech, defending the values of the National Party and promising to defend American interests. The retiring William Henry Harrison also gave a stirring speech. At the Whig Party convention, Martin Van Buren lost in an upset to freshman Senator Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois. The young Senator demanded that his party take a stronger stance against the expansion of slavery. Senator Lincoln had been one of the major opponents of the Texan war, calling it imperialist aggression, and was against any coming conflict with Britain. At the Jacksonian convention, James K. Polk was once again renominated, though Samuel Houston, a moderate from Tennessee, nearly beat him. Polk again denounced Northern expansion, and called for a repeal of the Clay Amendment banning slavery in the Mexican territories. Finally, a new party emerged, styling themselves the Liberation Party. Compromised of abolitionists, the party, led by William Lloyd Garrison of Massachusetts, called for, principally, the abolition of slavery, as well as temperance and woman’s suffrage. Their members had chiefly been inspired by the actions of King George II.

The Senate before the Election of 1846:
Whig Party: 71 Seats
Jacksonian Party: 41 seats
National Party: 144 Seats
Total Seats: 256



The Senate after the Election of 1846
Whig Party: 67 Seats (-4)
Jacksonian Party: 49 seats (+8)
National Party: 122 Seats (-22)
Liberation: 22 Seats (+22)
Total Seats: 260

Polk’s party gained a few seats in the Upper South, but was still far below the Whig Party. The Whigs were decimated in New England, a region that was very pro-expansion, but gained heavily in other regions of the country. The Liberation party, as expected, gained only a few seats, mostly in the Canadian states and New England. The National Party was attacked by the three other parties, only gaining seats in the pro-expansion New England states. When the Senate reconvened in November, Clay’s party had lost their majority, so every party leader set out looking for a coalition. While there was talk of a grand Whig-Jacksonian-Liberation coalition, it quickly became apparent that such a coalition would never form. After weeks of negotiations, Henry Clay convinced William Lloyd Garrison (L-MA) to join in a National-Liberation coalition, which Garrison agreed to, eager to give his new party a place in government.

The Government as of November 1846:
Prime Minister: Henry Clay (N-KY)
Deputy Prime Minister: William Lloyd Garrison (L-MA)
Majority Whip:  Millard Fillmore (N-NY)
Secretary of State: Daniel Webster (N-MA)
Secretary of the Treasury: John White (N-KY)
Secretary of War: George Edmund Badger (N-NC)
Attorney General: Charles F. Adams (L-MA)

By 1847, the situation in Oregon Country was still not resolved, with towns and forts on both sides of the border regularly raided and pillaged. George II ordered military forces to move into Oregon Country and the Canadian and Northeastern states, to prepare for war. Daniel Webster was again sent to Halifax, to negotiate the country’s way out of impending war. The British again rebuked his initial demands of the Maritimes provinces, and he rebuked the British demands for a border at the 42nd parallel. Webster and Governor-General James Bruce, Earl of Elgin had no wish for war, but when they were unable to come to an agreement, both knew that war was soon at hand.
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« Reply #91 on: October 02, 2007, 09:19:03 pm »
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Another great update.  Abe Lincoln is finally in!  Whoot!  I can't wait for the next one.
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« Reply #92 on: October 02, 2007, 09:52:46 pm »
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No politicians from Ontario or Quebec? Sad

And what happened to the Atlantic provinces?
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« Reply #93 on: October 02, 2007, 10:06:19 pm »
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Ontario has 11 Senators and Quebec has 13, though there aren't currently any Canadians in the National Party leadership.

The Atlantic Provinces still belong to Great Britain, though there has been increased American immigration into New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and America would very much like to have those provinces.
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« Reply #94 on: October 02, 2007, 10:13:37 pm »
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Just a small quibble, Florida would probably have been admitted as West Florida [everything below MS and AL] and (East) Florida rather than one state.
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« Reply #95 on: October 07, 2007, 05:25:14 pm »
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The American Monarchy: 1847 - 1851

With no peace reached between the United States and Great Britain, Prince Robert moved an army into Oregon territory in the spring of 1847 to defend American settlements in the area. He fought a number of inconclusive battles against British militia, but the presence of American troops in the province just escalated matters further. By July of 1847, a frail George II was being told by the Royal Council that a declaration of war was needed against Great Britain. The 66-year-old king was in poor health after an entire adulthood of leading the country, but pressed Henry Clay to resolve the conflict peacefully. Nonetheless, by the fall of 1847, Prince Robert’s troops had crossed the Columbia River and were setting up camp in de facto British territory.

Clay tried a final time for peace in 1848. He personally visited Halifax with William Lloyd Garrison, and met with the British Governor-General, who was again unreceptive and unwilling to compromise. However, Clay also met with Joseph Howe, a leading politician in Nova Scotia. Clay promised Howe American support if he would declare Nova Scotia and New Brunswick’s independence from the British. Howe and a number of similar minded politicians were elected to Nova Scotia’s newly created parliament later that year, where they declared independence. There was widespread support for independence, from Irish and American immigrants, as well as British Canadians who felt that Great Britain had ignored them since the War of 1807. New Brunswick declared independence a month later. The Senate recognized the two provinces’ independence later that year, by a vote of 134 to 107.

Britain immediately declared war on the rebellious provinces and British troops departed from Newfoundland to Nova Scotia. A majority in both provinces were supportive of independence, especially after the British invaded. Newspapers in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick both pointed out the hypocrisy of the British abandoning them in 1810 and paying no attention to the provinces for the last 38 years, then suddenly invading now. George II, with the advice of Henry Clay, approved the transportation of rifles, cannon and ammunition to the rebels in Nova Scotia. In response, the British blockaded the Atlantic coast of the United States, and ended all trade with America. This blockade hit the Southern states especially hard, while the rapidly industrializing North was not affected nearly as severely. Prince Robert continued to fight British traders and militias in Oregon country, as well as a number of Indian tribes allied with the British. The Jacksonian party (with the support of Southern Nationals) blamed Clay for disastrously affecting the Southern economy, all in pursuit of further Southern marginalization.

Matters were made worse when Wisconsin territory petitioned for statehood in 1849 as the 31st state. Since the mining boom in the Upper Peninsula of the territory in the early 1840s, the territory had grown greatly. John C. Calhoun, who had been appointed to the Royal Council from South Carolina, and was now leader of the body, led a number of Southern senators to vote against Wisconsin’s inclusion, and Wisconsin’s admission failed 16-12, with two Royal Councilors not attending the vote1. The elderly Calhoun promised to stall Wisconsin’s admission until equity had been reached between the states. He and his followers claimed that the South had fallen by the wayside, and was now being punished for the North’s war. Fueled by Calhoun’s rhetoric, a number of independent rebellions sprung up throughout Southern towns, though they were quickly dealt with.

With the nation unraveling around him, Clay offered the Compromise Bill of 1850. It would divide Florida into West and Eat Florida, adding another slave state, repeal the ban on slavery in the Mexican cession, and force the United States would negotiate a compromise with Britain. In return, Calhoun would support the inclusion of Wisconsin territory. The Senate passed the measure quickly, with the National and Jacksonian party offering the bill's main support. Later that year, representatives from Britain, the United States, and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, met in London, where the Treaty of London was signed. America would cede Oregon country north of the 42nd parallel to the British, while Britain would recognize the limited independence of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, with the two provinces moving towards full independence by the year 1859. British fishing rights  in the North Atlantic would be protected as well. The treaty was overwhelmingly ratified, (with Whig, National and Jacksonian support, and the Liberation Party firmly against it). West Florida was separated from Florida later that year by the Royal Council, and Wisconsin was admitted as the 32nd state in 1851. However, the work behind the compromise took its toll on Henry Clay’s health. Falling ill in June of 1850, Clay resigned from the Senate. He would die on October 3rd, 1850 at the age of 722.

With Clay’s death, the Deputy Prime Minister was supposed to become Prime Minister (as had been done after James Monroe’s death while Prime Minister). But William Lloyd Garrison was not part of the National party, and his Liberation party was a small part of the ruling coalition. For a week after Clay’s death, the Senate (and the country) had no leader. Eventually, Webster and Garrison agreed that Daniel Webster would become Prime Minister, and Webster won a vote from the Senate, but nearly half the Liberation caucus abstained. Webster was Prime Minister for only two months; he fell sick and died in March of 1851, a week after the Senate first convened for the year. George II requested that the Senate dissolve, the National-Liberation coalition fractured, and the Whig, Jacksonian and Liberation Party Senators all voted no confidence. George II called for elections in May.

1The Royal Council needed a 3/5 majority to admit a new state to the country.
2Henry Clay would be remembered as one of, if not the, greatest Prime Ministers to ever serve. When he died, he was the longest serving Prime Minister, serving for 15 years, and four terms. He had led the National Party for 40 years, and served as opposition leader for a total of 15 years. He was remembered as a masterful orator, a firm leader, and gifted politician, always striving to do what was best for the nation. His headstone reads simply: “Here lies Henry Clay, leader of a Nation.”
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« Reply #96 on: October 07, 2007, 10:19:42 pm »
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great update!
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« Reply #97 on: October 08, 2007, 01:08:01 pm »
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The American Monarchy: 1851 - 1855

The Jacksonian Party held its convention first, in Richmond, Virginia. Their convention was a triumphant, bombastic affair, and James K. Polk promised a resounding victory in May. The party was also renamed the Constitution party, so as to appeal to Westerners and those in the Mid-Atlantic states who had been turned off by Andrew Jackson. The Whig Party’s convention was held in Toronto, Ontario, a first for the city. Abraham Lincoln was re-elected easily, and reaffirmed his commitment to prevent the “Slave Power” from taking control of the Senate. The Liberation party once again nominated William Lloyd Garrison, in the city of Boston, and on the suggestion of James G. Birney, a candidate running in Kentucky, renamed themselves the Liberty Party. The National Party convention was held in New York City. The broken National Party squabbled over leadership and policy. The deaths of Webster and Clay, two leaders of the party since its inception had thrown everything into chaos. Millard Fillmore (N-NY) was the early frontrunner, but John Bell (N-TN) and Thomas Hart Benton (N-MO) challenged Fillmore. After a week of balloting, conservative John Bell had secured the nomination, with the endorsement of Benton. National Party morale was broken, and many National voters in Northern and Western states switched to the Whig or Liberty parties.

The election of 1851 saw a crushing National defeat, with the Constitution Party coming out on top for the first time.

The Senate before the Election of 1851
Whig Party: 67 Seats
Constitution Party:  49 seats
National Party: 122 Seats
Liberty: 22 Seats
Total Seats: 260



The Senate after the Election of 1851
Whig Party: 64 Seats (-3)
Constitution Party: 108 seats (+59)
National Party: 52 Seats (-70)
Liberty: 38 Seats (+16)
Total Seats: 262

The Constitution Party could claim a clear electoral victory, but they lacked a majority. Coalition negotiations were fruitless, and for the first time in many years, the vote for Prime Minister on the first day of the new Senate’s term was up in the air.

First Ballot:
James K. Polk (C-TN): 108 votes
Abraham Lincoln (W-IL): 64 votes
John Bell (N-TN): 52 votes
William Lloyd Garrison (L-MA): 38 votes
Needed to win: 133

The respective party leaders held on to their parties for the next two ballots, but before the fourth, Garrison dropped out and endorsed Lincoln.

Fourth Ballot:
James K. Polk (C-TN): 108 votes
Abraham Lincoln (W-IL): 102 votes
John Bell (N-TN): 52 votes
Needed to win: 133

At this point, John Bell realized he would be king-maker. The Senate adjourned for the day, and Bell met with Polk, a man with whom he shared more beliefs than Lincoln. Bell was promised Secretary of State, arguably the most important government position, and the next day he instructed the Nationals to support Polk. However, many Nationals, still bitter from the convention, were led by Millard Fillmore to support Lincoln. In the end, Polk was able to claim a slim majority and form a government.

Fifth Ballot:
James K. Polk (C-TN): 144 votes
Abraham Lincoln (W-IL): 118 votes
Needed to win: 133


Prime Minister James K. Polk

The Government as of May 1851:
Prime Minister: James K. Polk (C-TN)
Deputy Prime Minister: Sam Houston (C-TN)
Majority Whip:  David Crockett (C-TN)
Secretary of State: John Bell (N-MO)
Secretary of the Treasury: Stephen A. Douglas (N-IL)
Secretary of War: Franklin Pierce (C-NH)
Attorney General: Roger B. Taney (C-MD)

Right off the bat, Prime Minister Polk promised reform throughout the country. In 1851, the Constitution Party passed major tariff reform, slashing the high budgets of the 1840s. By 1852, they passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1852, increasing fines and punishments throughout the country for anyone aiding escaped slaves or failing to apprehend them. George II vetoed the bill, calling it a gross violation of states’ rights and a step towards undoing the progress he made in abolishing slavery throughout the country. Prime Minister Polk tried to over-ride the veto, but Lincoln’s coalition was able to easily to block the over-ride.

George II’s veto would prove to be the final official act of his reign. In January 1853, he King died after a short illness, at the age of 71. Prince Robert ordered a month of mourning, before he would officially be crowned on February 4th, 1853. Most Americans had known no other king but George II. King Robert I ascended the throne largely as an unknown: he had been a hero of the war in Mexico and conflict in Oregon country, but had been largely quiet about the issue of slavery. The 46-year-old King was relatively handsome, with a stark white beard, a first among American monarchs. His nine-year-old son, William Henry George Custis Lee, became Crown Prince William. Besides the nine-year-old heir and their 19-year-old daughter, Princess Martha, King Robert and his wife Queen Consort Maria had another son (Robert Edward Lee, Jr., born 1846) and another daughter (Maria Ellen Custis Lee, born 1847).


King Robert I

After his inauguration, King Robert made it clear to the Prime Minister that he would not take a hard-line stance against slavery: he did not see it as the despicable practice that George II had, and believed that the Almighty would end it in His own time. With the new King’s assurance, Polk once again put the fugitive slave law before the Senate, where it was once more passed. The Fugitive Slave Law of 1853 was the first bill King Robert signed into law. Fresh off this earlier success, Polk then pushed for passage of the Popular Sovereignty Affirmation Act. Secretary of the Treasury, Stephen A. Douglas (N-IL), had championed the idea proposed by many back-bench Nationals and Constitutions. The act would abolish all laws regarding the existence of slavery in the territories, and allow all territories to decide for themselves on the issue. The plan was supported by most of the Senate, with many in Abraham Lincoln’s coalition willing to vote for what was seen as a compromise and an end to the slave issue once and for all. The bill passed 159-97, and King Robert signed it into law.

In 1854, Justice Benjamin Curtis, Henry Clay’s attorney general who King George II has appointed, resigned from the Supreme Court. King Robert, as George II had done before him, asked the Prime Minister for suggestions for a new justice, and Polk suggested his attorney general, Roger B. Taney.  Lincoln’s coalition was fiercely opposed to the nomination, but in the end, Polk’s majority government was able to confirm the nomination of Roger Taney as Associate Justice to the Supreme Court. Later that year, the Chief Justice, Theodore Frelinghuysen, died of cholera. Abraham Lincoln privately met with King Robert, and begged the monarch to appoint a Whig to Chief Justice, to balance the appointment of Taney. Robert obliged Lincoln, and chose Associate Justice John McClean for Chief Justice, and Whig Senator from Ohio Salmon P. Chase to fill McClean’s position. Both were anti-slavery. As the year 1855 began, James K. Polk made it clear that we would prevent the appointment of both McClean and Chase, no matter what.
« Last Edit: October 08, 2007, 07:34:14 pm by Lief »Logged

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« Reply #98 on: October 08, 2007, 01:47:57 pm »
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Wisconsin and Minnesota are one state?  Woah.  This is a great update man.  Can't wait til the civil war.  If there is one that is Wink
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« Reply #99 on: October 08, 2007, 05:00:44 pm »
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I don't really see why the Jacksonian's would rename themselves the Republicans as republicanism, in the sense of opposing the monarchy, would seem to be a very dead subject as it seems that most Americans like and respect the monarchy. By naming themselves Republicans they actively state that they are against monarchy, as that is by its very nature republicanism. I would actually have suggested a name like the American Party or the Constitutional Party would be more appropriate and more in line with the patriotic and pro-monarchy sentiments of the time.
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