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Marokai Besieged
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« on: November 29, 2008, 12:47:21 am »
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I had debated for awhile about posting this here, considering HappyWarriors (excellent) TL regarding the subject. The election of 1892 and the Populist Party is something i've always been obsessed with, and I've been writing a TL on another site for quite some time. Since I've been posting here more lately, I wanted to post it and update here as well, for feedback from a larger group.

If I've upset anyone or seem like a copycat for writing about a topic already going on, I apologize. I've been writing this for awhile and wasn't until recently aware of another thread on the topic. However, our TLs do go in different directions.

Either way, the premise is as such. The Populist Party forms earlier, and due to worse economic conditions than our TL, gains more traction. A result is a more organized, advertised, and more overall populist Populist movement.

Regardless, we start as follows in 1888 as usual, with Harrison winning, with all my already written updates coming shortly. (I have some color swapping to do, maps to make in the election updates, etc, but they will all be posted within minutes.

_______________________

[Introduction] General Election of 1888



Benjamin Harrison/Levi Parsons Morton (R), PV 48%, EV 233
Grover Cleveland/Allen Granberry Thurman (D), PV 49%, EV 168

Benjamin Harrison defeats Incumbent President Grover Cleveland after a heated debate over the course of the campaign season over tariffs and the economy. Cleveland proposed lowering tariffs to encourage more competition on the market, thus growing the economy, with Harrison proudly promising in one of the many speeches on his front porch in Indianapolis:

Quote from: Harrison Economy Speech in Indianapolis:
"...The Democrats will tell you that we must lower tariffs on goods to allow more 'competition.' I say no! These tariffs have protected American jobs in the past and they will protect American jobs into the future, and I promise to do my part to encourage more job security throughout my tenure as President should the great people of this nation entrust it's leadership with me!"

Congressional Election Results

Senate:

Republicans - 51
Democrats - 37

House of Representatives:

Republicans - 179
Democrats - 152
Labor - 1

With the Republicans winning, and capturing a majority in the House of Representatives and Senate, the argument for tariffs prevail, much to the disappointment of American farmers. The tariffs that had been put in place did nothing to halt sliding prices on agricultural goods, and only increased the prices on manufactured goods such as farming equipment, which crippled the agricultural communities of the country.

An organization known as the Farmer's Alliance, originally formed in Texas and later centered in Omaha, Nebraska, had been meeting and gaining members from disillusioned farmers and various employees in the agricultural field. The Farmer's Alliance had set up or had endorsed several publications throughout the country such as The Progressive Farmer published in North Carolina, The American Nonconformist widely read by Iowans, The Appeal to Reason from Kansas, as well as several others. Though the Farmer's Alliance was headquartered in Nebraska it had several branches throughout the Dakotas and the South, and was well respected by former slaves, most of which still worked in the agricultural field, an unusual alliance for the day.

Faced with the promise of increased tariffs under a Republican administration, and the Democratic Party's refusal to take up their causes because of the dominance of the pro-business wing of the party, the Farmers of the Alliance grew increasingly frustrated, and were left with only one option, form a political party and challenge the major parties for office. In early 1889, the Populist Party was born, and was widely endorsed by progressive publications throughout the West and South.
« Last Edit: December 20, 2008, 05:37:42 am by The Prince Was Never Raised For Sincerity »Logged

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« Reply #1 on: November 29, 2008, 12:48:29 am »
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[Introduction] The First Term of Benjamin Harrison (R-IN), 1889



Inaugurated on March 4th, 1889, President Harrison does not enter office well. Allegations of corrupt electors that put him over the top to win the Presidency hurts his popularity, the worsening economy, and the rising Populist Party in the West and Mid-West worries the president about the amount of support he will receive while in office, despite Republican majorities in both houses.

Immediately upon taking office he consults with his advisors and congressional allies about where to proceed with the economy on most Americans' minds. Senator Nelson Aldrich (R-RI), the Republican Party's foremost expert on economic policies, proposes updating tariffs with some minor provisions. A House ally, Representative William McKinley (R-OH), concurred, and following through on one of Harrison's most prominent campaign promises, introduces the McKinley Tariff of 1889, raising the average tariff on imports to nearly 49%. This further enraged American farmers, who were now forced to purchase even higher priced farming equipment, and sell their goods at low prices on unprotected markets. The increase in the tariff passes, albeit closer than originally expected, after President Harrison himself lobbies the Congress to support him on this matter.

On May 21st, in an attempt to quell the Populist movement, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act is proposed in Congress. The Act would require the government to increase the amount of silver it would be purchasing and coining every month. It passes, despite some Republican opposition, after Democrats threaten to withdraw any support for the President's economic policies until the 1890 Congressional Elections. It is widely speculated the Democrats only made such a stand due to uncomfortable amounts Populist influence in the South.

The Progressive Farmer calls the Act "A great step in the right direction, but nowhere near what is required to solve a farmer's woes." and goes on to say "This Act was motivated by nothing more than fear in Congress. Fear of the coming wave of Populism." The Appeal to Reason echoes this sentiment.

A drought persists throughout the rest of the year in the Western parts of the Nation, crippling farmers in the Dakota Territories, Iowa, Nebraska, and several other Midwestern areas.

President Harrison signs legislation approving the Statehood of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington in November, 1889. The President will sign legislation approving the Statehood of Wyoming and Idaho later in 1890.

President Harrison brokers an agreement with Canada over fishing/hunting rights along the Alaskan waters.

On February 4th, 1890, the Populist Party meets with several Farmers Alliances, such as the Colored Farmers Alliance from the South and the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association, centered in Illinois. Several farming newspapers and Populist publications as well as countless farming groups endorse the Populist Party, and it begins to field a mass of candidates for office, the strongest concentration of which seem to be in the Midwest, and the North/South border states of Virginia, North Carolina, and Missouri.

During the final day of the meeting they release a platform titled "The People's Principles" later dubbed the "Omaha Demands."

Quote from: The People's Principles
Farmers and working men are the backbone of this country and for too long we have been trampled and deemed insignificant, and we are here to change that. We demand the corrupt Harrison Administration implement these changes for if they do not we will call upon the people to vote a Populist in and do it for them.

1. We condemn the silver bill recently passed by Congress, and demand in lieu thereof the free and unlimited coinage of silver.
2. We propose the most rigid, honest and just state and national government control and supervision of the means of public communication and transportation, and if this control and supervision does not remove the abuse now existing, we demand the government ownership of such means of communication and transportation. 
3. We further demand a removal of the existing heavy tariff tax from the necessities of life, that the poor of our land must have.
4. We demand that the Congress of the United States submit an amendment to the Constitution providing for the election of United States Senators by direct vote of the people of each state.
5. We demand the passage of laws prohibiting alien ownership of land, and that Congress take prompt action to devise some plan to obtain all lands now owned by aliens and foreign syndicates; and that all lands now held by railroads and other corporations in excess of such as is actually used and needed by them be reclaimed by the government and held for actual settlers only.
6. We demand the curtailing of excessive government spending to those who do not require it, and propose government assistance for the farmers and laborers of America.
7. We further demand a just and equitable system of graduated tax on incomes.
8. We demand the abolition of national banks.

In the face of Populist opposition, and growing frustration in general, President Harrison supports the Sherman Anti-Trust Act on August 19th, 1890, which would provide basic Anti-Trust measures, proclaiming: “Every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a felony…” Populists are pleased but loudly claim it does not go far enough.

The People's Principles are widely published in areas outside of New England and North-East states, and is met with an outcry of support. Midwestern Democrats and Republicans begin to lose confidence in their party.

1890 Congressional Elections

With the Republicans losing popularity in the West and Midwest, the economic situation worsening considerably for farmers, and Populists gaining support along the borders of the old Confederacy, Republicans lose seats in several areas to the Democrats and Populists, who make surprise gains in the South, despite entrenched Democratic monopolies on political office.

Senate Results:

The Populists sweep elections inside the newly added states, winning several Senate seats.

Democrats - 44 (+7)
Republicans - 36 (-13)
Populists - 8 (+8)

House Results:

Populists cripple Republican power in the West and Midwest, and siphon votes from Republican candidates in swing districts, leading to unusual Republican losses.

Democrats - 199 (+47)
Republicans -  94 (-85)
Populists - 39 (+39)

Populists nearly sweep the Governorships of the new states, taking the Governor's office in Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and North Dakota. The Republicans squeak out a narrow victory for the Governorship in South Dakota. The Populists also wrestle a House seat from the Republican Party in Ohio, Jacob Coxey winning a seat for the Populist Party.
« Last Edit: May 15, 2009, 04:11:20 pm by AG Marokai Blue »Logged

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« Reply #2 on: November 29, 2008, 12:56:39 am »
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[Introduction] Events of 1890-1892


When the new congress convenes in Washington DC, President Harrison and his Administration are increasingly concerned. Republican gains were completely erased, and Republicans were swept in the West and Midwest. Couple this with whispering of Democratic and Republican defections for what was "The Voice of the People," articles appearing all over the countries newspapers praising greater than expected Populist gains, and the situation for any Republican looks very grim indeed.

The Populists, however, are elated with the mark they've made on the House of Representatives and the Senate and immediately push for legislation enacting the direct election of Senators, and a Farmer's Assistance Administration, which would give financial assistance to struggling farmers throughout the South and Midwest, who the Populists argue were the hardest hit by the McKinley Tariff of 1889 and previous tariff increases, which they also propose slashing considerably.

The Majority Party (Democrats) are torn on taking up the legislation. The pro-business wing of the party refuses to consider such legislation, citing the Democratic attacks on the "Billion Dollar Congress" as reasons to refuse additional spending, while the Pro-Populist factions of the party, centered in pockets of the South such as Florida, North Carolina, and Alabama, are sympathetic to legislation to assist farmers. When the Republican Party refuses to support such proposals, the Democratic Party breaks towards the same positions, and it looks like the Populist Party will have a long and unproductive two years in Washington.

Reports come to light in mid 1891, published in The Progressive Farmer and The New York Times that the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, passed in the previous year, is rife with loopholes, allowing corporations to control industries such as the sugar, tobacco, and railroad industries. This forced workers in certain areas of the country to work for large businesses for little pay and long hours. Head of the United States Civil Service Commission, Theodore Roosevelt, largely echoes Populist disappointment calling the report a "national tragedy."

Jacob Coxey (P-OH) is overheard in his district by reporters complaining about the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, calling it "a complete and utter sham" and remarking "It defines a corporation as a person! What manure! Combinations are tools of the state and of society."

The Chinese Exclusion Act is brought forward for renewal & revision in February 1892. It is renewed for ten years, once again suspending Chinese Immigration to the country. This Act is strongly supported by Labor Unions and Populists, who argue that Immigration lowers wages and hurts American jobs. Despite Republican opposition, most of whom label it "the legalization of racial discrimination" the extension passes 232-100.

The 52nd Congress is remarkably unproductive, accomplishing very little.

Populist Party Convention, 1892


The Populists meet in Omaha, Nebraska to nominate former Republican Congressman and Greenback Party nominee in 1880 James Weaver from Iowa, for President. Former Congressman Weaver selects Former Confederate General and Virginian James G. Field as his running mate and he is quickly confirmed by the Populist delegations.

Democratic Party Convention, 1892

The Democratic Party wrestles with Populist factions of the party but in the end favors renominating Grover Cleveland (D-NY). Adlai E. Stevenson (D-IL) is chosen to the the Vice Presidential Nominee.

Republican Party Convention, 1892

With Benjamin Harrison (R-IN) announcing he will again seek office, no other serious contender opposes him and he is renominated almost unanimously. Whitelaw Reid (R-NY) is nominated to replace Levi Morton as the Vice Presidential Nominee.

The General Election of 1892

James Weaver capitalizes on the unpopularity of Republicans and the declining economy, labeling himself a "commoner" and allies himself with Labor Unions. In a stunning development, memos from the usually apolitical American Federation of Labor reveal inside support of Populist Causes.

Benjamin Harrison plays to his base supporters, industry minded Republicans, and socially progressive Republicans of the New England area. Grover Cleveland plays himself as a friend of businesses nation-wide, and his support of lowering the tariffs plays well with some Populist leaning Democrats.

In alliance with blacks and Populist Democrats, as well as brokering a fusioning agreement with the Republican Party in North Carolina to support Republicans locally and Populists nationally, the Populists slice into Democratic votes in swing areas and make stunning gains in the Democratic Solid South. In cooperation with labor unions and mining organizations, as well as Democratic and Republican competition in the state, Weaver takes the state of California by a very narrow margin, something that will not again be achieved by the Populist Party for quite some time.

Republicans also manage to hold onto races in states previously thought lost, such as Wisconsin and New York, because of Populist vote stealing. As per the 12th Amendment to the United States Constitution, this race is heads straight for Congress.



Grover Cleveland/Adlai E. Stevenson (D), PV 39%, EV 171
Benjamin Harrison/Whitelaw Reid (R), PV 28%, EV 156
James Weaver/James G. Field (P), PV 33%, EV 117

In alliance with blacks and Populist Democrats, as well as brokering a fusioning agreement with the Republican Party in North Carolina to support Republicans locally and Populists nationally, the Populists slice into Democratic votes in swing areas and make stunning gains in the Democratic Solid South.

Republicans also manage to hold onto races in states previously thought lost, such as Wisconsin and New York, because of Populist vote stealing. As per the 12th Amendment to the United States Constitution, this race is heads straight for Congress.

Congressional Election Results

Senate:

Democrats - 34 (-10)
Populists - 30 (+22)
Republicans - 24 (-12)

Populists sweep state legislatures in Western and Midwestern states, and garner enough breakaway Democratic support to mass a sizable Senate result.

House:

Democrats -  149 (-50)
Populists - 124 (+85)
Republicans -  83 (-11)

Republicans manage to wrestle seats from the Democrats in the North, but it's not enough. Republicans in the West and Midwestern Democrats begin defecting en masse to the Populist candidates. Populist House of Representative breakthroughs sporadically appear in various Southern states, due to extensive support from local farming organizations and unions, as well as several areas in the Great Lakes states.
« Last Edit: May 15, 2009, 04:13:41 pm by AG Marokai Blue »Logged

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« Reply #3 on: November 29, 2008, 01:04:25 am »
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[Introduction] 1892 Presidential Election Resolution


Following the 12th Amendment to the Constitution, each state will be divided up into one vote in the House of Representatives to choose the President and the Senate does the same for the Vice President. A majority (23) of state votes is required.

1st House Ballot

On the first house ballot no agreements are made, the Populists hold firm as do the Democrats who are currently controlled by the Bourbon Democrat wing of the party. Populist House members (as well as Representative-elects) lobby existing delegations to support the Populists and the states that went for them. The Republicans make no concessions but are weak and know where the political strength of their opponents lay. Some Democrats and Republicans agree to vote as their state voted, out of respect for the results & process.



Populists - 17 States
Democrats - 16 States
Republicans - 11 States

2nd House Ballot

Populists reach out to the Democratic Party, and make an offer for their support, including almost eliminating the tariff and a promise for consideration of a compromise on the Gold Standard/Free Silver debate. In return, Democrats asked about dropping support for stronger anti-trust legislation and consideration of eliminating the party plank containing the nationalization of the railroad industry. Populists refuse immediately. With the Republicans holding firm at the behest of President Harrison, no change is made on the second ballot.



Populists - 17 States
Democrats - 16 States
Republicans - 11 States

3rd House Ballot

The Populists and the Republicans came together soon after the 2nd Ballot, knowing no progress was to be made on the Democratic front. The Republicans acted stubbornly but inside the party circles there was panic. They had been crippled in the Senate and House, and several of their Southern Republican friends had worked with the Populists to win election. Years of economic downturn had weakened the Republicans' positions on tariffs and taxes, and they were open to compromise, just as the Populists were on issues of Silver, although certainly by no means giving up the issue. They do however, agree to a serious compromise on the issue of National Banks.

With no desire to see the political processes strewn out longer than they already had been, with the firm realization that the Populists blamed them for the economic problems and the Democrats would never lend their support to the Northerners, the Republican party made an agreement which was to be discussed in more detail once the new congress convened after coming to the realization that Harrison would not retain the Presidency.



Populists - 28 States
Democrats - 16 States
Republicans - 0 States

1st Senate Ballot

Though the House Republicans supported James Weaver, in accordance with the 12th Amendment James Field could not receive votes for the Vice Presidency. In return for their support, Populist states somewhat hesitantly throw their support to Whitelaw Reid, favoring him over the Democratic candidate, and ardent supporter of the Gold Standard.



Populists - 0 States
Democrats - 16 States
Republicans - 28 States

James Weaver is inaugurated on March 4th.
« Last Edit: December 20, 2008, 05:38:50 am by The Prince Was Never Raised For Sincerity »Logged

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« Reply #4 on: November 29, 2008, 01:05:53 am »
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The First Term of James Weaver (P-IA), 1893



In January of 1893 a group of businessmen and politicians overthrow the government of Hawaii. President Harrison submits to congress a plan to annex Hawaii before President-Elect Weaver takes office.

The 53rd Congress convenes on March 4th, still under a slim Democratic Majority, and James Weaver swiftly begins consulting his congressional allies, Republicans included. Populists are eager to get to work, with an entire package of legislation in mind, and finally a sizable enough amount of Populists in Congress to get the ball rolling. The Republicans, however, are still reeling from their losses and immediately call the Populists to hammer out details on the deal they made after election day.

On March 28th, President Weaver appoints Theodore Roosevelt (R-NY) as head of the Bureau of Labor, calling him "One of the greatest friends to the working man and man of conscience."

House Minority Leader Jerry Simpson (P-KS) meets with second Minority Leader William Draper (R-MA) to discuss tariffs, currency, the banking system and legislation for businesses in general. The Populists agree to the compromises they made with the Republican Party in order to win the Presidency, and the Republicans do the same concerning tariffs and agree to make considerations regarding the overhaul of the United States financial system. Republicans stand firm however in their opposition to abolishing National Banks (as do the Democrats on a later date) forcing the Populists to dump it from their platform. During the deliberations between the two parties, Populist representatives release some plans to the press, chronicled as follows in The Commoner's Voice:

Quote from: Excerpt of the Populist Legislative Package
- Institution of an income tax which is graduated based on personal income past a certain amount.

- Nationalization of the railroads.

- Creation of a government agency titled the Farmer & Labor Assistance Administration which will allow struggling Farms to recieve financial assistance in times of turmoil, such as droughts, excessive debt, crop failure, and so on.

- Motions to support labor unions and define a work day as consisting of a maximum of eight hours, not including farmers.

- An end to the unfair currency currently circulating, and a new source of cheap money with which all people will become more prosperous and pay of debt more easily.

- Restrictions on all Asian immigration, which lowers wages, eliminates good jobs for American workers, as well as cripples corporate accountability by allowing businesses to bypass strikes and hire cheap labor.

- A proposal to put forward a Constitutional Amendment requiring the popular election of Senators from each state, two from each state, for two year terms.

It is later remarked by some that Populists did not specify "silver" as the source of cheap currency. Democrats are horrified at the thought of such extensive "anti-business" legislation, among other things, and rally together in opposition to the Populists as well as free silver. Republicans remain split.

On April 14th, 1893, Populists begin their legislative push. President Weaver announces his support for the first piece of Populist legislation to go under debate in the House of Representatives. The Farmer/Labor Relief Act is put forward by Minority Leader Simpson (P-KS) which would create the aforementioned Farmer & Labor Assistance Administration to grant immediate relief to struggling farms and laborers all over the country. Debate begins in the House on April 16th, and the debate is swiftly drawn upon partisan lines. Populists unanimously support the legislation, while Democrats are equally opposed. William Aldrich (P-AL) argues the FLRA will revive struggling farmers and revitalize the agricultural and manufacturing markets, while the Democratic Majority Leader Samuel Cooper (D-TX) responds by saying it increases frivolous spending on something better left untouched by the government.

Democrats are not entirely unopposed to the idea of limited assistance, however, since 1890 they have attempted to win the banner of fiscal responsibility, vowing to cut the excesses of the Republican Congress of years ago. Republicans are split on the issue, leaning slightly in favor of the legislation. Populists hold firm and a vote is finally held on May 3rd, resulting in a razor thin passage of the Act, 185-174.

The Farmer/Labor Relief Act is sent to the Senate, where an equally heated debate ensues. Senator Matthew Butler (D-SC) accuses the Populists of "Initiating one of many things in what may very well be the downfall of the United States financial system!" Newly elected Populist Senator, and former Republican, Henry Teller (P-CO) responds with disappointment, remarking "I am increasingly befuddled at the disowning of the Farmers, who are the backbone of the nation, by the Democratic Party. I knew most the Democratic Party to be much more honorable than this."

In an alliance with New England Republicans, Populists manage to push through the FLRA in the Senate, by and equally close vote of 46-42, with all but three Democratic Senators voting against. Populist publication, The American Nonconformist, hails the passage of the Act as "The first accomplishment for the common man in many many years." Omaha World-Herald, one of the remaining voices of Democratic Populism and edited by William Jennings Bryan, concurs, as do many others.

Towards the last months of 1893, President Weaver works with Democrats on legislative matters, and Majority Leader Cooper introduces legislation entitled the Tariff Reform Act of 1893 on October 6th, to more than halve the average tariff on imported goods. Populists largely support this, although some complain the reduction is not enough. The TRA passes the House 257-99, the opposition largely composed of disgruntled Populists and Republicans. It goes on to easily pass the Senate as well. The average tariff on imported goods falls to 21%, from the previous 49% enacted under the McKinley Tariff of 1889.

Farming and Labor Assistance money begins reaching struggling farmers in Nebraska, Montana, North & South Dakota, and Iowa. Democrats denounce the cost of the program but President Weaver praises it as the beginning of farming revitalization. Vice President Reid (R-NY) is privately concerned about the cost as well.

Utah again applies for Statehood. President Weaver promises to grant it to them if Congress will act swiftly. Democrats joke the only reason Weaver wants such speedy entry into the Union for Utah is because of Populist strength in the West, or what is later termed by the Democrats as the "New State Advantage."

Before Congress leaves for the start of Winter, on November 11th Democrats and Populists introduce the American Economic Protection Act which would restrict immigration from most countries in Asia, with the exception of Japan, as well as heavier immigration restrictions on immigrants from Eastern Europe. The socially progressive tendencies of Northern Republicans cause them to be shocked and appalled, and unanimously line up in opposition to it, threatening the overall alliance between Populists and Republicans on other matters. President Weaver and House Minority Leader Jerry Simpson (P-KS) argue the AEP will protect American wages and jobs in times of rising unemployment, and note that immigration will remain untouched in more developed nations such as Western Europe. The nativist tendencies of the Democratic Party lead them to vote with the populists, and the Act easily passes both the House and the Senate, infuriating Vice President Reid, who is spotted by reporters storming out of the White House after a confrontation with President Weaver.

On November 27th, The Pullman Palace Car Company begins consideration of wage cuts in the face of increased economic downturn.

After skirting the issue for most of the year, President Weaver and the Populists promise to bring the issue of currency to the forefront when Congress reconvenes in January, 1894.
« Last Edit: December 20, 2008, 05:39:29 am by The Prince Was Never Raised For Sincerity »Logged

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« Reply #5 on: November 29, 2008, 01:07:52 am »
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Events of 1894


Former President Harrison's plan to annex Hawaii goes without notice by the Congress in favor of the more pressing concerns over the economy, though President Weaver promised Harrison consideration, and it expires.

Congress meets again mid-March, though later than President Weaver appreciated, and begins to set it's agenda for the coming weeks. Populists immediately want to move to the issue of currency, however, fearing what the Populists would propose and whether they had the strength to oppose them at the moment, the Democrats decide to pick up statehood of Utah, allowing more time to consult with other members of the Democratic party before debate over economic concerns begins.

An application for statehood was previously ignored, due to the lack of an anti-polygamy law of any sort. This problem has been remedied now however, and most politicians of any party supports granting statehood. It swiftly passes through Congress with widespread support and on March 20th, 1894, the State of Utah is born.

Inside the White House, there is considerable debate taking place between Weaver and his advisers, as well as Populist leaders. Most of the party is prepared to follow Weaver's lead, however, the President is concerned about the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, passed under President Harrison in 1889. Though it led to increased purchasing in silver it further accelerated economic panic, and the nation's gold reserves were being depleted rapidly. Entrenched business interests were also lobbying for the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. President Weaver, a former Greenback Party leader, begins consideration of a new plan, harkening back to Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War, and issuing a government ordered currency of greenbacks, and restricting (if not eliminating all-together) trade in for gold.

President Weaver argues to his advisers that this plan would allow money to flow to the market more easily, allow farmers to pay off their debt more easily, and would eliminate the frequent contractions of the market from the privately owned banks, which he viewed as manipulating the financial system. Weaver's cabinet is concerns this plan would lose him support in the mountains and cripple him in Nevada, where silver mining was a key industry. President Weaver shrugs off these concerns, and is set on introducing the plan to congress accompanied with a written address to the public.

Quote from: Excerpt of Weaver's "Greenback Address"
...A system of government ordered greenbacks would allow credit to flow more easily, more consistently, and without the manipulation of private banks and corporations. It is well known the slow market movement of gold, and more recently, the seeming mutual exclusivity of the Gold Standard and Silver Coining. This system would abolish this archaic and market unfriendly policy, and turn silver and gold into market industries of their own, instead of currency, and allow a greenback's value to be determined by the government.

This creates more money, allowing all people of this nation to become more prosperous and successful, and those in grave amounts of debt to escape such perilous circumstances with much greater ease, as it did during the Civil War. Many economic contractions have wrapped their claws around this nation's neck under the current system, and this is due in no small part to the paltry amount of money in circulation compared to what could be under a system of United States "Greenback" Dollars!...

Legislation entitled the Greenback Financial Reform Act is brought to the floor of the House of Representatives. Though President Weaver makes a good impression of the plan to the public, elected officials remain skeptical, and powerful businessmen across the nation voice their concern and opposition. Some Populists are bothered at the exclusion of silver from any financial reform, but most pledge to support the legislation. Democrats are largely adamantly opposed to the legislation, labeling it "the single most foolish and radical piece of legislation this country will likely ever see." However, the remaining populist-leaning Democrats offer to give the plan consideration.

Republicans are predictably split on the matter. Forces that supported the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1889 leans towards the legislation, however, more conservative and "business friendly" Republicans in the Great lakes region are opposed, siding with Democrats, despite Populist influence in certain parts of that area. Debate lasts for many week in the House, before finally approaching a vote on May 16th. Populists lobby other members of congress intensely and appeal to the public in support of the legislation. Because of the Panic of 1893, the public is receptive to the message, and a vote finally begins on the 18th after more attempts to extend debate.

By a vote of 179-177, the Greenback Financial Reform Act passes the United States House of Representatives after small amounts of Republicans and Democrats vote Aye. Populists are emboldened by their incredibly victory, and the Act goes to the Senate, where it faces a tougher challenge. Though Populists have a strong margin in the Senate, it is not as strong in the House. Despite several more weeks of debate, moderate Republicans and small amounts of Democratic defections, and with a small majority of the American public on their side, the Act stalls in a 44-44 tie with no apparent resolution. Vice President Whitelaw Reid (R-NY) enters the Senate to make the deciding vote, and after consultation with Republican leaders and New York businessmen, votes against the Greenback Financial Reform Act, causing it to fail, and Populists erupt in a fury. Vice President Reid makes it out of town without being assaulted. President Weaver makes public his extreme disappointment in Vice President Reid, and tells him he ought not come near the White House for quite awhile.

The Pullman Palace Car Company makes severe wage cuts and eliminates roughly 100 jobs, causing union leaders to react in disgust. The American Railway Union beings meeting to discuss potential options. They seem to be leaning towards a strike.

Despite Democratic attempts to lock the proposal away, Populists propose a Constitutional Amendment in the Senate to institute the direct popular election of Senators from each state, with re-election slated for 2 year terms. The proposal is debated for a week before failing, 43-45. To pass, it would have required 58 votes.

The Congressional elections approach, with Democrats promising to uphold the banner of fiscal responsibility, Republicans pledge to continue meeting middle ground between the needs of working men, and business men. Populists make a promise to bring up legislation concerning labor unions, the railroad industry, and to immediately put forward a proposal to enact a 8 hour work day.

1894 Congressional Elections

Senate:

Populists - 33 (+3)
Democrats - 32 (-1)
Republicans - 24 (-)

In accordance with the famed "New State Advantage" Populists take the Senate seats of Utah and nearly all state-wide government positions. Republicans are unusually strong in this state however. Republicans hold all seats. The Populists take the majority for the first time.

House:

Democrats -  140 (-9)
Populists - 131 (+7)
Republicans -  86 (+3)

Populists take the newly opened seat from Utah, as expected, and manage to take a few seats from Populist-leaning Democratic candidates. Republicans also make a few gains against the Democrats in the Great Lakes region. Not many seats change hands and there are troubling reports of a new political party forming from Nevada.
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« Reply #6 on: November 29, 2008, 01:10:26 am »
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Events of 1895


President Weaver and the Populists are delighted at the new Populist majority in the United States Senate, though still bitter over their defeat by the hands of Vice President Reid. This jubilation does not last long, however, as the Nation is still mired as much as ever in labor and financial problems. The New Congress meets in March, and the process of agenda making begins for yet another year. Populists now have a hand in making the agenda in the Senate, and are still powerful in the House, and immediately begin to push for the re-introduction of the Greenback Financial Reform Act, believing it can now be passed. However, other matters distract them.

The Pullman Palace Car Company, a powerful railroad car manufacturer is now being targeted by a strike from the American Railway Union, with the support of the American Federation of Labor and led by Eugene Debs. The Pullman Company claims the strike was brought on by necessary changes for survival, and that their choices were paying less for their employees, or going out of business. Unions, in turn, claim that the wage cuts were severe, and many people were put off of work and their families starving. They go on to say that they have been forced to work for long hours in unsafe working conditions, and that these wage cuts are just one of many policies that have crippled workers.

_______________________

The Pullman Strike of 1895


President Weaver is hesitant to intervene, but the situation worsens considerably on April 3rd, 1895, when a riot led by Eugene Debs causes severe damage on several Pullman cars. Private security forces hired by the Pullman Company begin attacking strikers, and two people die, several more are injured. Democrats are outraged, and the pressure on President Weaver to do something to resolve the crisis reaches a tipping point, and Weaver bends to the pressure, but not in the way the Democrats appreciated.

Weaver deploys 10,000 United States Army troops to Pullman, Chicago, under the command of Nelson Miles, in support of no one, merely to keep the peace. Highly unusual for the time, President Weaver refuses to break up the strike, but warns Eugene Debs to cease all violent activity until the situation can be resolved and appoints head of the Bureau of Labor Theodore Roosevelt (R-NY) as a mediator between the American Railway Union and the Pullman Palace Car Company. This act is almost universally denounced by the Democrats, but the Republican Governor of Illinois John P. Altgeld applauds the fairness of President Weaver, and urges the Populists and Illinois Republicans to work together to improve working conditions for all workers.

During mediation, Populists propose the Labor Fairness Act of 1895 on April 10th. The LFA would institute an 8 hour work day for all laborers (farmers being the exception) and require additional pay for overtime work, allow for ten days a year of paid leave a day, primarily for illness and disabilities, restrict child labor in various industries, and the very first federally established minimum wage of 30 cents an hour. The Act is cheered by unions and Eugene Debs himself as "the answer to the working man's problems." House Democrats, however, remain firmly opposed to a federally established minimum wage, arguing that the Government's responsibility should be the safety of the workplace, not the prosperity of a working place. Populists disagree, arguing that it would correct the serious problems abused workers undergo everyday.

The Act reaches a vote on April 29th, and by a vote of 169-188 it fails in the House. Populists immediately re-introduce the legislation without the minimum wage. Unions are displeased, but still hopeful. The Revised Labor Fairness Act of 1895 gains Republican support and by a vote of 207-150, it passes the House. Populists are pleased with the compromise, and it goes on to pass the U.S. Senate by 55-35.

Theodore Roosevelt, Eugene Debs, and the Pullman Car Company announce a deal on May 20th, which includes better safety standards for workers, a smaller wage cut (11% instead of 25%), and full compliance with the Labor Fairness Act. Eugene Debs and Theodore Roosevelt praise the Weaver Administration's handling of the situation, and both consider supporting the Populist Party in the upcoming election.
______________________

On June 26th, with the Pullman Strike firmly behind them and all strikers back to work, the Populists begin to move on to issues from 1894. House Minority Leader Simpson (P-KS) reintroduces the Greenback Financial Reform Act. It is virtually identical to the Act of the previous year, with an amendment to the bill that introduced an 8% tax on income directed towards the 15% most wealthy of the nation (whoever that may be at any given period) after news that the sharp reduction in tariffs led to budget shortfalls, especially in the face of the Farmer & Labor Assistance Administration. An expected vicious debate in the House ensues. Despite the arguments, the Act falls back on roughly the same amount of support it had in the previous year, and it passes by the narrow vote of 183-175.

Vice President Reid returns to Washington as the Act heads for the Senate, in expectation of a possible tie. His return is met with scorn by Populists and President Weaver deliberately avoids him. Senate Democrats, though weakened from the previous year, once again claim the bill will "Spell doom for the economy of this nation!" Populists retort by once again proclaiming the act will eliminate the slow movement of the market by putting more money into circulation, private banks and corporations could no longer massively affect the value of currency because of government ordered value, and it would eliminate the frequent contractions of the market that led to so many economic panics in the last few years. After nearly a month of debate in the more deliberative body of the Senate, the Greenback Financial Reform Act reaches a vote, and by a vote of 46-44, passes and is swiftly and proudly signed into law by President Weaver.

In response to the passage of the Greenback Financial Reform Act, the Silver Party forms in the West on September 12th, it's strength almost entirely concentrated in Nevada and parts of Colorado. They begin organizing for the 1896 elections.

Several businesses in the North and Northeast threaten lockouts over the recently passed financial overhaul. President Weaver threatens to deploy troops to run those businesses for them if they do. Very few businesses actually do such, and Local & State officials handle the temporary occupation of businesses on their own. After short mediation, employers return to their businesses.

Shortly before the departure of Congress for the Fall and Winter months after an exhaustive year, on October the United States Supreme Court lays down a ruling severely limiting the Congress' authority to levy income taxes on anyone. The House of Representatives brings forward a Constitutional Amendment to circumvent the court decision. The proposal to implement the Constitutional Amendment passes the house easily 279-78. The Income Tax Amendment passes the Senate by closer, but safe margins of 64-26.

Quote from: Proposed 16th Amendment
The Congress shall have authority to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

The Proposed Amendment goes on to the states for ratification. One state (Nebraska) ratifies the Amendment before the end of the year, with many other States planning on taking it up in 1896 and 1897. Though nationalization of railroads has not been proposed during the year of 1895, President Weaver swears to make it his first proposal in the following year.
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« Reply #7 on: November 29, 2008, 01:12:02 am »
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Events of 1896, Pre-Election



Populists return to work happily in early 1896, emboldened from previous victories and compromises, still pleased with their Senate majority, and with President Weaver's growing popularity in the Great Lakes states. Some worry still lingers, though, concerning the Silver Party in the West, which claims they have been "betrayed" by the Populist Party. In response President Weaver claims the Silvers are "misguided" and "do not fully understand all that we have done will benefit them in the end."

Most of the first month and ahalf of Congress' session is done by congressional delegations communicating with their home states in an effort to ratify the 16th Amendment. Several states were preparing to ratify the proposed Amendment, with 35 required to amend the United States Constitution and Nebraska being the first and so far, only, state to ratify it.

The Governor of Illinois issues pardons to those involved in the Pullman Strike.

President Weaver in conjunction with the Populists in the Senate finally get to setting up serious proposals, the first of which is the nationalization of the railroad industry. The Railroad Industry Control Act is proposed in the United States Senate by the Populists. The plan would put all railroads and all rail companies with the exception of railroad manufacturers under the control of the US Government and railroad towns would be entitled to federal assistance for manufacturing, agriculture, and employment assistance. The RICA would also raise certain fees associated with rail travel and will enforce labor and safety standards.

Democrats and most Republicans are opposed to nationalization, Democrats arguing that such a large industry should be left to it's own and that "Populists are once against attempting to undermine the fabric of the American economy." Newly elected Senate Minority Leader Newton Blanchard (D-LA) denounces the act, recognizing "I realize the plight of many railway workers, but I will remain opposed until death to seizing such an industry and forcing it under federal control. Such an act could lead to perilous circumstances." Republicans largely back the Democratic Party on the issue and the Railroad Industry Control Act reaches a vote on April 24th, 1896. The Act fails badly, 38-52.

Refusing to accept defeat, Populists acknowledge nationalization did not play well, and propose a new piece of legislation for the Senate on April 28th, which improves working conditions for all rail-car operators and rail-car manufacturers titled The Railway Fair Standards Act. The American Railway Union publicly supports the legislation and campaigns in support of it in Illinois. This new proposal would eliminate child labor completely in all railroad related industries, require breaks for rail-car operators, and institutes a modest tax on railway fees which would be used to improve the infrastructure of railroad towns. Senator Blanchard responds to the new proposal as "The second go-around of a failed idea" and attempts to rally Republicans against railroad legislation for a second time. This time, however, they are more receptive to the moderated Populist plan. Debate goes on at the urging of Democrats who use the additional time to rally opposition, and a vote is reached on May 18th.

The Senate votes 48-42 on The Railway Fair Standards Act and it passes onto the House of Representatives. Democrats again rally against the bill, with House Majority Leader Samuel Cooper (D-TX) attempting to take advantage to the weaker margins of the Populists in the House. The majority of moderate Republicans again support the Populists, and the RFSA passes with a vote of 184-173.

Theodore Roosevelt (R-NY), long proponent of improved labor standards for workers and anti-trust legislation and a leader of the moderate Republicans, changes his party registration to Populist, saying "I have long devoted my life to the Republican Party, for it has been the home in the passed of well-meaning individuals who would support the working man. Gone are the days of any distinctive positions on issues of importance and nigh are the days of responsible management and better conditions for all. I switch my support not because the Republican Party disgusts me, not in the slightest, but I switch because the Populists simply better represent me, and I look forward to working on their behalf." William Jennings Bryan (D-NE) follows suit, his newspaper the Omaha World-Herald reporting that this was a long-time coming, as the Democratic Party no longer represents him.

President Weaver announces he will seek a second term.

By June 3rd, 1896, nine states have ratified the 16th Amendment: Nebraska, Alabama, Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Kansas, Texas, and North Carolina. Twenty-six more states are required.

President Weaver makes a proposal to his Party leaders about the need for projects devoted to long-term improvement of farmers, agricultural infrastructure, and proper irrigation in the West. Representative Jacob Coxey (P-OH) introduces the Irrigation & Farming Support Act of 1896, which would set up publicly funded irrigation construction and maintenance projects throughout the West. Some object to additional expenses however Populists respond by saying some of the funds would be taken from the defense budget. It passes with widespread support, 263-94. It passes the Senate by an equally wide margin of 65-25. Weaver happily signs it into law.

Populists toy with the idea of nationalization of the telegraph companies. This is abandoned to avoid bad publicity in an election year and the upcoming Party Conventions.
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« Reply #8 on: November 29, 2008, 01:20:37 am »
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1896 General Election Season


Populist Party Convention, 1896

Knowing President Weaver seeks re-election, he goes into the convention unopposed. The debate rages on however over the choice of a Vice Presidential candidate. Before Weaver writes his address to the convention delegates, as he will not attend this year because of a mild illness and fatigue from the past two years' extensive work. Weaver approaches Theodore Roosevelt (P-NY) in New York, who was considering running for office there. Theodore Roosevelt is unsure, and some of Weaver's advisers are concerned how the pick of a former moderate Republican will affect his standing with the Silvers. Weaver casts off these concerns, and Roosevelt accepts the offer for the Vice President.

Meeting together in July 13th, Populist delegates gathered together and begin considering candidates. The Silver faction greets Weaver's letter announcing his choice of Theodore Roosevelt with reluctance and some are upset the principles of the Populist party will be violated. Though it is fought initially, Populist delegates confirm the choice of Theodore Roosevelt as the Vice Presidential Candidate.

Republican Party Convention, 1896

Republicans are still damaged from the departure of Theodore Roosevelt, and are losing support in the Western States in the Great Lakes region and Jacob Coxey (P-OH) leads the Populist charges within Ohio. Feeling the need to solidify the North-East before the wave of Populist and Democrat supports reaches them, Republicans nominate Garret Hobart (R-NJ) a prominent businessman and former member of the Republican National Committee and popular centrist Republican figure of New Jersey.


Hobart and Republican delegates nominate Senator Henry Lodge (R-MA) as the Vice Presidential candidate.

Democratic Party Convention, 1896

Democrats meet on August 1st and begin discussion of the proper direction to take in the face of rising Populist support in the Great Lakes region and Roosevelt's defection. Democrats decide to pick reformist & conservative Democrat Robert Pattison (D-PA) the former Governor of Pennsylvania. Unions greet the nomination with hesitancy, due to Pattison's use of the militia to break of a strike during his second term. Pattison chooses Senator Stephen White (D-CA) as his Vice Presidential Candidate.

Silver Party Convention, 1896

Somewhat reluctant to put forth candidates for the White House, Silvers decide to go for it, still outraged over what they view as Populist betrayal. Weaver's popularity and Roosevelt's defection make their impact somewhat more lessened than they expect, however. Meeting in Nevada shortly after the Democratic convention, Silvers nominate Representative Francis Newlands (P-NV), who helped found the party, and he chooses former Republican and city attorney of Denver, Colorado, John Shafroth.

The General Election of 1896

President Weaver campaigns only somewhat in areas around the Western areas of the Great Lakes region, and coordinates with Representatives and Populist officials in various states such as Nevada and Missouri to make sure to knock on doors and distribute fliers.  Roosevelt is still a very popular figure in the Republican Party and attracts moderate Republicans in the Midwestern/Great Lakes states.

Democrats campaign vigorously in Pennsylvania and New York, steering clear of New Jersey, which they view as a disadvantage for them. They feverishly try to expand their ground outside of the South, taking advantage of the rapidly weakening Republicans, who focus mainly on New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, and New England states. Democratic Nominee Pattison lambasts the excesses of the Populists, explaining that while he sympathizes with the working man, he cannot support policies that will "send us into extreme debt and cripple businesses."

Cartoons float with Roosevelt and Weaver proclaiming you get "Two parties with one vote! Weaver/Roosevelt!"

Weaver and Roosevelt pledge to continue the policies that will assist the working man, and Roosevelt makes public promises for stronger Anti-Trust legislation with Weaver as President. Republican strongholds in the Great Lakes region are being flanked from both sides by powerful political forces, and they have a very bad election night with the Republican Governor of Illinois (formerly involved in the Pullman Strike) supporting Roosevelt and Weaver, and the Silvers making a few surprises of their own.



Robert Pattison/Stephen White (D), PV 39%, EV 194
James Weaver/Theodore Roosevelt (P), PV 39%, EV 188

Garret Hobart/Henry Lodge (R), PV 18%, EV 52
Francis Newlands/John Shafroth (S), PV 4% EV 3

Democrats manage to steal enough electoral votes to, at least for now, put them on top. Populists make serious Great Lakes gains, but lose California and Texas due to less Republican influence and Democratic rallying. Republicans get slaughtered, and the election goes to the House and Senate for the second time in a row. 224 EVs were needed.

Congressional Election Results

Senate:

Populists - 40 (+7)
Democrats - 35 (+3)
Republicans - 13 (-11)
Silvers - 2 (+2)

House:

Populists - 154 (+23)
Democrats -  142 (+2)
Republicans -  59 (-27)
Silvers - 2 (+2)
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« Reply #9 on: November 29, 2008, 01:26:48 am »
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1896 Presidential Election Resolution

Following the 12th Amendment, the top three Presidential Candidates can be considered in the House of Representatives and the top two Vice Presidential Candidates can be considered in the Senate. Silvers are not represented due to not finishing within the top three and have no power in the current Congress. 23 States are required.

1st House Ballot

Before the initial vote, all sides attempt a showing of strength and make no deals, though Populists and Democrats are preparing to reach out to the weakest party, the Republicans, to put them over the top.



Populists - 18 States
Democrats - 15 States
Republicans - 12 States

2nd House Ballot

Democrats and Populists reach out to Republican leaders and Garret Hobart in an effort to put them over the 23 states required in the vote. Pattison promises some moderation and fiscal responsibility, but Garret is reluctant to support Democrats, and Republican leaders are generally bitter towards both parties at the moment because of their dwindling strength. Theodore Roosevelt approaches the Republicans on the behalf of James Weaver and attempts to broker some sort of compromise deal.

Roosevelt is still a well respected progressive Republican figure and many Great Lakes and New England Republicans are receptive to promises made by Roosevelt to respect Republican leadership and give Republican causes great consideration in office. Garret Hobart and Republican leaders release their delegates and most endorse the Weaver/Roosevelt ticket, who are both former Republicans.



Populists - 27 States
Democrats - 18 States
Republicans - 0 States

1st Senate Ballot

Due to the 12th Amendment, Republican Henry Lodge (R-MA) cannot be considered.

Theodore Roosevelt is a well respected former Republican (As was James Weaver a Republican Congressman from Iowa once) and Republicans support him over Stephen White.



Populists - 28 States
Democrats - 17 States
Republicans - 0 States

For the second time, Republicans default to the Populists and Weaver will soon take office for his second term, and for the first time, it is a straight Populist ticket. Roosevelt promises to be a friendly liaison between Populists and Republicans, and Silvers promise their constituents in Colorado and Nevada to push for recognizing silver in some fashion.
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« Reply #10 on: November 29, 2008, 01:29:06 am »
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The Second Term of James Weaver (P-IA), 1897



Sworn in for his second term on March 4th, 1897, President Weaver and Vice President Roosevelt begin discussion of their initial plans. Roosevelt wants a packaged plan introduced to Congress, which is now dominated by Populists in both houses. Roosevelt proposes to Weaver several new ideas for anti-trust efforts, railroad regulation, and tighter regulations on the meat industry, among other things, such as proper labeling on all foods and institution of a national minimum wage. Weaver is very receptive to such proposals, as is his cabinet.

On March 14th, after much work with Roosevelt and the cabinet, Weaver unveils a proposal he and Roosevelt term the "Square Deal."

Quote from: Excerpt from Weaver's March 14th Address
..My Vice President believes, as I do, that for too long, powerful corporations and businesses have gotten away with many things, such as misleading information on food and medicines, wage cuts and various forms of worker exploitation, as well as predatory pricing or combining with other businesses to form a monopoly on certain industries. Railroad travel has been dominated by companies that practice favoritism towards certain shipping companies that use them. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was a step in the right direction when it was passed in my predecessor's administration. It is now, however, far too little.

We will work to provide a Square Deal for all Americans, and correct the loopholes and shortfalls of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

We propose requiring proper labeling on food and drugs, and instituting regulations to protect the sanitation and cleanliness of the meat packing industry, and protect the consumer of such products.

We propose again a Constitutional Amendment requiring the direct election of United States Senators.

We propose once again the removal of the railways from private hands, and into the hands of the federal government, to properly observe the safe and fair treatment of all travelers and workers.

We propose the institution of a national minimum wage for all workers, who have gone underpaid and overworked for far too long.

We propose the lifting of the Department of Agriculture to a cabinet-level position to protect the long term growth of farmers and farm owners, as do we propose creating the Department of Labor to the cabinet position, replacing the Bureau of Labor.

We will protect the Farmer & Labor Assistance Administration, and increase the funding for it.

These reforms are essential to fair and just economic growth in this country, and the proper centralization of regulatory institutions...

Vice President Roosevelt claims it is the proper time for the government to begin playing a key role in the development of the economy.

Populists introduce the Clean Livestock & Meat Act on March 27th in the House, which would require inspections of all livestock to assure proper feeding and cleaning conditions, and would institute standards for meat packing industries such as requiring proper sanitation and labeling on meat products. The Act garners no serious opposition and it passes both the House and the Senate by considerable margins.

Silvers attempt to introduce the Free Silver Act of 1897, but fail to do so because of Populist and Democratic blockage of the legislation.

In the second proposal from the Square Deal, Senate Populists propose the Fair Advertising Standards Act which would ban misleading or false advertisements and labels on all food and medicine products in the country. Government fines would be severe and repeat offenses from the same business could eventually lead to the busting of that business. Roosevelt is a staunch supporter of the legislation, asserting that the government must stand firm in opposition to exploitation and misleading advertisements from businesses, and ensure fairness and justice for all consumers.

While Democrats are receptive to stricter standards for fair labeling, they are opposed to threats of such strong government action against businesses. When the bill reaches a vote on June 18th, it passes, 54-36, the opposition mostly composed of Democrats. The Act moves to the House, where it passes by a slightly smaller margin of 190-167.

Democrats and Republicans raise serious concerns of the plight of the Cubans under Spanish rule. Cubans have been engaged in a rebellion with the ultimate goal of independence against Spain for well over a year and ahalf. Though the press had covered the 'Cuban War for Independence' for a couple years now, troubling reports of Spanish concentration camps had being to spring up in newspapers, with as much as 260,000 reported to have been imprisoned there. Democrats began to push for some sort of involvement, perhaps even military action, to protect American interests on the island of Cuba.

Populists are adamantly opposed to military involvement but agree to a compromise to send a small team of envoys to Cuba to engage with the Spanish there. Vice President Roosevelt volunteers to head the diplomatic involvement, who is speculated to be a force for involvement behind the scenes. The team departs the United States aboard the U.S.S. New Hampshire on July 30th.

By August 17th, twenty-four states have ratified the 16th Amendment: Nebraska, Alabama, Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Kansas, Texas, North Carolina, Kentucky, Montana, Ohio, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, Utah, Colorado, Nevada, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Missouri. 11 More states are required for total ratification.

Theodore Roosevelt begins talks with the Spanish clarifying the status of the Cuban Rebellion and the treatment of prisoners. Populists led by William Jennings Bryan (P-NE) condemn Spanish treatment of the Cubans but refuse to support involvement.

Populist Charles Hartman (P-MT) in the House of Representatives proposes the Hartman Cabinet Reorganization Act of 1897 which would elevate the Department of Agriculture to a cabinet-level position, and would transfer and expand the Bureau of Labor's operations to a newly created Department of Labor, also at cabinet level. Though some Southern Democrats oppose the expansion of government agencies, it passes the House easily, 255-102. It goes on to pass the Senate after a very short debate session, 66-24. President Weaver signs it into law on September 1st, and hails it as something that would "advance the causes of farmers and laborers nation-wide."

Throughout September, 1897, Cuban rebel forces win a string of battles against the Spanish Army, eventually resulting in the surrender of the town of Las Tunas. This provokes a vicious response from the Spanish, despite American diplomats being opposed, to engage in mass executions of random individuals from innocent villages, destruction of farms, and increased relocation. Spanish General Valeriano Weyler fails to properly care for the hundreds of thousands in concentration camps, and thousands die of starvation and disease. Pictures are leaked to the American press, and the public has a horrified reaction to such conditions. Roosevelt warns the Spanish to halt such behavior immediately.

On the homefront, Democrats spearhead a movement to organize the armed forces and modernize weapons and armor. Populists are mostly opposed, and Weaver and Roosevelt are split on the issue. Senator Thomas Turley (D-TN) proposes legislation to modernize the army's equipment, to increase funding for the United States Navy and require increased production of ammunition and artillery. The Turley Act of 1897 immediately provoked opposition from almost all Populists, who Majority Leader James Kyle (P-SD) labels the act "Unnecessary, inflammatory, and entirely irresponsible. Such an act will do nothing but increase tensions between the Spanish and American governments."

Populists, fueled by their isolationist tendencies, refuse to even consider compromise legislation, and debate lasts for weeks. At first, it looked as if the legislation would not pass due to Populist majorities in both houses of congress and Silvers joining with them, however, shortly before the end of debate, Republicans and Roosevelt Populists break towards the Democratic Party's position, and the vote is reached on November 13th, resulting in narrow passage, 46-44. The Turley Act goes into the House of Representatives, where, despite Populist rallying, passes 185-172. President Weaver vetoes the Act, despite warnings from his cabinet of the potential consequences, resulting in rising congressional opposition.

Roosevelt leaves a trusted aide in charge of communications between American envoys in Cuba and begins his return to the United States to speak with Weaver on how to proceed and to push for the advancement of the Square Deal proposals. He is reported as saying "Though President Weaver and I disagree in several areas with how to proceed regarding Spain's needless aggression to the Cuban people, he is my President, and I respect decisions that he makes."

Congress goes into extended recess for the Winter, with Senate Democrats promising to reintroduce the Turley Act as soon as possible.
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« Reply #11 on: November 29, 2008, 01:32:12 am »
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Events of 1898


On January 20th, American diplomats manage to convince the Spanish, after several Rebel victories and increased resentment towards them, to cease the relocation of Cubans and Spain makes the decision to withdraw General Weyler from Cuba. They begin to set up a new government in Havana in an effort to please the rebels. More than half the country is under rebel control or contested, however.

When President Weaver returns to deal with congress in March, they are not as receptive as they once had been. His veto in the previous year had weakened his standing with congressional Democrats considerably, and Republicans were beginning to waver. Vice President Roosevelt advises beginning the year with more Square Deal proposals, in an effort to get the focus more on domestic issues and re-establish the Populist-Republican friendship.

Following this advice, House Majority Leader Jerry Simpson (P-KS) proposes the Simpson Fair Wages Act of 1898 which would institute a national minimum wage for all workers of .30 an hour. The act has widespread Populist and labor union support, but Democrats are concerned about instituting a minimum wage for all workers, claiming it could hurt smaller businesses and eventually cripple economic growth. Republicans are receptive, and play into Roosevelt's plan to re-establish the Republican and Populist alliance. The Simpson Fair Wages Act of 1898 arrives at a vote on March 23rd and passes 203-154, the opposition mostly composed of Democrats. The Act goes on to the Senate in the following week and also passed despite Democratic attempts to bring the Republicans to their side (which prove futile) by a vote of 59-31.

Cuban rebels being recruiting forces, including blacks, to a force preparing to assault Havana, where the Spanish had set up the center of the new government. Rebel leaders refused to acknowledge the new government and continue to condemn Spanish oppression. American public opinion is in favor of helping Cubans in their fight for freedom.


Democrats once again propose the Turley Act in the Senate on May 1st. Thomas Turley (D-TN) defends the Act, saying "We are not preparing for war. But should armed conflict become a reality we must be able to defend ourselves and assure we are properly equipped." The act would expand funding for the navy and require increased production of artillery and ammunition, as well as it would modernize standard issue weaponry. Populists once again decry the legislation as "fiscally irresponsible and designed to inflame tensions between the Spanish and American governments."

Populists' standing is weakened this time around, however, and they lose two votes to the opposing side of Republicans and Democrats. 48-42, the Turley Act of 1898 heads for the House. President Weaver and House Populists rally together in opposition, and claim the Democrats have "a hunger for war." After tireless lobbying of their congressional allies, Populists fail to stop the legislation but pick up five votes from the previous year. It passes, 180-177, and President Weaver subsequently vetoes the Act for the second time.

Eager to put the controversial Turley Act behind them before opinions cement, Roosevelt pushes House Populists to introduce new and strong anti-trust legislation. Representative John Bell (P-CO) proposes the Bell Anti-Trust Act of 1898 on April 4th, which would correct many loopholes from previous anti-trust legislation, as well as the follows, chronicled by The Progressive Farmer:

Quote from: Bell Anti-Trust Act of 1898
-Prohibits companies from selling products at unreasonably low prices which is either designed to facilitate, or has the effect of, eliminating competition or a competitor.

-Prohibits discriminatory pricing towards any consumers, and prohibits company favoritism and rebates to favored partners.

-Prohibits any one person from being the director of more than one business or corporation.

-Prohibits mergers or acquisitions which may lead to substantially weakened competition in any industry.


Democrats are split on the bill, with some Southern Democrats worried for the future of the market under such strict conditions. Roosevelt claims it is "the cause of my life and I must see the protection of every worker, of every consumer, and of every farmer, in my lifetime. Markets must remain competitive to survive and flourish. When combinations of businesses are allowed to form it leads to the inevitable death of capitalism as we know it."

Republicans are split as the Democrats, but Populists and Silvers line up in support of the Bell Anti-Trust Act and it passes handily in the House, 241-116. It passes the Senate by equally wide margins, and President Weaver signs the Act into law happily, partly for the protection of workers and consumers, and partly for a largely publicized Populist victory in Congress.

The 16th Amendment is officially ratified by 35 states on April 29th, 1898: Nebraska, Alabama, Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Kansas, Texas, North Carolina, Kentucky, Montana, Ohio, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, Utah, Colorado, Nevada, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Missouri, California, Indiana, Illinois, Georgia, Mississippi, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Wyoming, Louisiana, Maryland, and New Jersey. Connecticut later ratified it after the required states were met.

Three states rejected the 16th Amendment: Rhode Island, Florida, South Carolina. The remaining states never took up the Amendment.

Anarchist groups are reported as having terrorized neighborhoods in Illinois, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. They claim to be opposed to what they view as "tyrannical Populist leadership." Roosevelt denounces such groups, but warns against biased law enforcement, saying: "Murder is murder. It is not rendered one whit better by the allegation that it is committed on behalf of a cause."

On June 7th, the Cubans succeed in their third major attack on Havana, and cause the withdrawl of the Spanish there. Spain makes the decision to send additional naval and land forces, preparing for one of their largest counter-offensives yet. Spanish commanders inside the Island are instructed from Madrid to resume attacks on random villages, despite American diplomatic efforts to get them to decide against such action. Once again a wave of public disapproval against Spain strikes the capitol, and Democrats are forced to once again take action. They contemplate a revised version of the Turley Act, just as the Populists were about to propose a Constitutional Amendment providing for the direct election of senators.

Two weeks later, Senate and House Populists are stunned when Democrats approach them with an offer, after the previous two attempts at the Turley Act indicated no Democratic willingness to compromise. Democratic leaders promise to urge Democrats in both houses to support the 17th Amendment, in return for Populist support for the newly proposed American Readiness Act of 1898, essentially a copy of the Turley Act with an accompanying petition from Democrats and some Republicans to send some form of aid in the form of food and medicine. Most Populists agree, though some are worried of the slippery slope of the accompanying petition from the Democratic Party, with Weaver's reiteration that no military action will be taken against Spain.

The proposal for the direct election of senators entitled the Direct Senatorial Elections Amendment passes with the agreement of conditional support from Democrats, and Republicans who are eager at an attempt to expand their law making power outside of New England. The proposed Amendment would require the direct popular election of Senators, two from each state, every election year for two year terms, just as the House of Representatives. The Amendment passes the Senate 71-19, and the House 308-49. It requires 35 states for ratification, with urging from Populists to their respective states to ratify it as soon as possible.

The American Readiness Act of 1898 is proposed immediately thereafter on July 14th, a literal copy of the previous Turley Act. Many Populists support it, as does Weaver, as a reasonable compromise, after several months of public bashing of the Populists weaken their strong stand on the issue. With a moderate amount of Populists still opposed, the American Readiness Act passes the Senate 62-28, and passes the House of Representatives 240-117. President Weaver reluctantly signs it into law, and makes sure to assert himself as Commander in Chief to opposition leaders.
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« Reply #12 on: November 29, 2008, 01:32:43 am »
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1898 Continuation


On August 19th, the first state to ratify the 17th Amendment is again Nebraska, a Populist stronghold.

Spain engages in mass executions in the face of continuous rebel harassment. American diplomats and President Weaver strongly condemns the actions of the Spanish, and in response, Spain cuts all diplomatic ties. President Weaver begins worrying about Americans' safety on Cuba and contemplates what possible action he could take without provoking the Spanish.

On September 11th, the Populists begin moving once again on an old party plank, nationalization of the railroads. They propose the Railroad Federalization & Protection Act which would phase out the railroad travel industry from private hands and into the government's hands. Rail-car manufacturers would remain private but they would sell their products directly to the United States Government. Democrats and Republicans are opposed to such action, once again, and it fails in the Senate, 49-41. Roosevelt and Weaver refuse to drop the issue and pledge to campaign together in support of such proposals during the Winter.

Wanting to pass one final major piece of legislation before the election, Populists and Republicans propose the Tax Reconstruction Act of 1898 on October 1st in the House which would implement a progressive tax system, weighted towards those to the top to pay more and those at the bottom of the income brackets to pay the least. It would implement a 6% tax rate for the top tax bracket and a 1% tax rate on the bottom bracket, with tax rates in between varying based on income. Some Democrats are worried about the ramifications of such taxes but do not stand in serious opposition and passes 267-90. It passes the Senate later that week on October 4th by 68-22.

1898 Congressional Elections

Democratic candidates campaign on promising to push for support of the Cuban "freedom fighters" against the Spanish, but shy away from supporting direct military involvement and on Populist "naivete on economic infrastructure." Republicans try to campaign on the issue of Cuba but do not manage to gain the amount of traction the newly moderated Democrats do.

Populists attempt to defend their actions, but Weavers refusal to get directly involved between the Spanish and the Cubans simply cannot be ignored and the people make sure to remind them of it on election night. With Populist isolationism under serious assault in the court of public opinion, and steel reeling from their defeat, Democrats manage to beat the Populist Party back for the first time. Silvers lose steam and lose one Senate seat and one House seat to the Populist Party.

Senate:

Democrats - 42 (+7)
Populists - 35 (-5)
Republicans - 12 (-1)
Silvers - 1 (-1)

House:

Democrats -  156 (+14)
Populists - 143 (-11)
Republicans -  57 (-2)
Silvers - 1 (-1)

______________________

Winter Mourning

President Weaver and Vice President Roosevelt are disheartened by the election results, but stand firm in their positions. Roosevelt advises Weaver behind the scenes to begin consideration of sending resources to the Cubans, while Weaver is hesitant to do such.

On December 2nd, their last stop in New York on a string of events to promote awareness of Populist causes, mainly railroad nationalization, Theodore Roosevelt and James Weaver say:

Quote from: Excerpt of Weaver and Roosevelt New York Nationalization Speech, December 2nd
The railroad industry is perhaps one of the biggest offenders outside of the mining businesses. They overwork their laborers, they practice favoritism to manufacturers and shipping companies that use them frequently, they underpay their workers, and safety conditions aboard any engineering section of a train is abysmal even in the best of lights. All of this must stop, and can stop!

The handing over of the railroad into federal hands can assure the safe and fair treatment for all workers, and all businesses that use the railways. It can promise safe working conditions in every train, and fair fees for all consumers!


Near the end of the speech, gunshots are heard from the middle of the crowd and continue for several seconds. Several in the crowd are shot, but those were not the main targets. James Weaver and Theodore Roosevelt were shot, Roosevelt repeatedly, by a group of anarchists, headed by Leon Czolgosz.

Police immediately spring into action as soon as the shots are heard, and apprehend those responsible, and Weaver and Roosevelt are rushed to the nearest hospital. Weaver survives with minor injuries to his left arm and shoulder, however, Vice President Roosevelt had taken many bullets to the chest. After many attempts to remove the bullets and resuscitate Roosevelt, he is pronounced dead on the night of December the 2nd, 1898. So began the Winter of Mourning.
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« Reply #13 on: November 29, 2008, 01:36:33 am »
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Events of 1899


On January 29th, President Weaver consults with his advisers about readying the Navy. The group is split, half favoring isolationism in Populist style, but the rest wavering from those past position and favoring readying the armed forces.

President Weaver returns to work with the congress once they convene on March 4th. For the first time in several election cycles the Populists have lost ground and their expansion into the Southern and Great Lake regions have been repelled. They are demoralized from Theodore Roosevelt's death, and Democrats are energized and pledge to make good on their promises to push for action in aid of the Cuban Rebellion. Newton Blanchard (D-LA) is elevated from Senate Minority Leader to Senate Majority Leader, and Former Senate Majority Leader James Kyle is voted as Minority Leader.

As the first order of congress, Senate Minority Leader James Kyle (P-KS) proposes the Theodore Roosevelt Day Proclamation on March 11th. The bill would proclaim December 2nd simply as a day of remembrance in the late Vice President's honor. It passes almost unanimously in both the Senate and House of Representatives. President Weaver signs the bill into law and hopes it can ease hard feelings between the three parties.

On May 3rd, 1899, after weeks of resisting calls from the Democratic Party and popular opinion swinging steadily against him, Weaver orders the Navy to prepare for aid missions to Cuba. Spain declares any such missions found in operation will be impeded by the "full force of the Spanish navy." Democrats are unsatisfied with simple aid missions, but Weaver refuses to get involved in a war, merely support the Cuban Rebels in their effort to expel the Spanish from the island. Rebel progress had been mostly hampered by no support from the outside and dwindling resources.

Democratic leaders from both houses of congress meet on May 5th to discuss where to proceed on the homefront. Democratic plans are mainly focused on foreign affairs, though there are calls in the party to repeal the minimum wage and curtail certain Populist legislation. Senator Blanchard proposes a non binding resolution (realizing none would be signed by President Weaver) to officially condemn Spanish aggression and issue a statement of support for the Cuban rebels.

The Cuban Freedom Resolution of 1899 is adopted in the Senate the following day, and Populists recoil in horror. Minority Leader Kyle decries the resolution saying "We have already readied ourselves for aid missions to the Cubans, what more do the Democrats want! I'll tell you what they want, my colleagues, they want war!" Senate Democrats respond by claiming all they want is to "give moral support to the Cubans and declare we stand for freedom from oppression for all." The resolution goes onto a vote after several blocking attempts from the Populists, and passes, 52-38, unanimously opposed by the Populists after James Kyle's rallying.

The resolution heads to the House, where Populists hope they will have more supporters to fight against it. House Minority Leader Jerry Simpson (P-KS) remarks "We have not been attacked, there have been no foreign declaration of war against us, thus there is no reason to provoke one!" The Populists line up in opposition, joined by the Silver Party Representative from Nevada, and attempt to lobby sympathetic Republicans. This effort proves futile, however, and Republicans counter by poaching several "Great Lake Populists" to their side. Cuban Freedom Resolution of 1899 approaches after a week of debate, and on May 14th the resolution passes 202-155. Though Populists manage to gain support from Missouri and Georgia Democratic Representatives, Republicans and Ohio Populists support the Democratic Party, explaining why the Populists failed by larger margins than expected.

In response to the Cuban Freedom Resolution of 1899, Spain declares that any American interference in the conflict between Spain and the Cuban Rebels would be taken as an act of aggression. The Spanish Navy had been stretched much up until this point, but Spain sends it's remaining spare ships to bolster it's surrounding of the island of Cuba, particularly, Havana, where they had recently retaken the city because of naval dominance.

On July 20th, President Weaver, though an isolationist, refuses to back down from the Spanish threats, and continues with his plans to send food, medicine, and ammunition to the Cuban rebels. Small groups of Frigates are loaded with supplies and guarded by several Cruisers and the Battleship USS Missouri. Weaver decides it is prudent to put into consideration with his military advisers plans to organize the North Atlantic Squadron for battle. Weaver places Captain Henry Glass in charge of the mission.

15,000 heavily armed Spanish troops arrive in Santiago, Cuba, accompanied by large amounts of heavy artillery and smokeless powder for concealed fire. The Spanish Army begins to fortify parts of South-Eastern Cuba. This is largely believed to be a final burst of military strength against the Cuban rebels after consecutive loss of land against the rebels.

The aid mission is ordered to proceed to just outside the rebel controlled town of Matanzas, where they will distribute supplies to the rebel forces preparing to attack Havana. Captain Glass manages to carefully evade the Spanish naval forces and arrives on July 29th. Supplies begin to be distributed to the rebels on July 30th.

On August 13th Democrats in the House propose the Wage Reformation Act of 1899 which would reduce the federally mandated minimum wage to .23 from .30, which Democrats considered too high and too heavy a burden on businesses nation-wide. Populists are opposed, as are several Republicans. Democrats contend that a burden on the economy could hurt our national defense, and that America "must remain economically vibrant in the face of international crisis." On August 20th, the Wage Reformation Act of 1899 reaches a vote and is defeated, 197-160.

In mid-September, after assisting the rebels with medical supplies and food, and instructing many rebel leaders in Matanzas on giving medical attention and basic instructions on handling certain artillery, Henry Glass readies his ships for departure. Shortly thereafter, a reasonably large Spanish contingent of Cruisers spot them and head to intercept. Captain Glass immediately readies all ships for combat, and makes sure all ship commanders remember Weaver's orders of "Engage only when engaged."

After short communication between the two groups, the Spanish ships engage the Americans on the early evening of September 14th. Though the Spanish group is slightly larger than Captain Glass' squadron, the Spanish navy is much less organized and fail to mount an aggressive attack on the more modern American warships. By nightfall, more than two thirds of the Spanish ships had been destroyed, and the remaining retreated to Havana. Captain Glass suffered the loss of four ships and considerable damage of three others.


Immediately upon news of the conflict, Democrats draft Declaration of War Against Spain proclaiming hostilities between the governments of the United States & Spain to have existed since the morning of September 14th, 1899. It swiftly passes both houses. President Weaver is saddened by the news, hoping for a clean supply mission, but signs the Declaration of War on August 15th. Spain officially declares war that same day.

Democrats seize the opportunity to show strength and leadership, and immediately in the Senate, Majority Leader Blanchard (D-LA) proposes the Wartime Production Act of 1899 which would dramatically increase funding towards the production of warships, increase orders from private businesses of essential materials such as steel and lead as well as ammunition and artillery, and would increase taxes on all brackets with the exception of the bottom, by 3%, and increases the average tariff on all goods by 4%, to fund such measures. The worried public gives widespread support for the legislation, aside from some Populist strongholds in the West, and it passes the Senate 71-19. It goes on to pass the house on September 20th, 302-55.
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« Reply #14 on: November 29, 2008, 01:37:01 am »
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1899 Continuation


Captain Henry Glass is joined by two additional cruisers and one battleship near the Southern Florida Coast on September 29th and is instructed to stand his ground and patrol the area for Spanish intruders, while the President prepares other naval forces.

President Weaver and his military advisers consult on October 4th to prepare for the reorganization of the North Atlantic Squadron and South Atlantic Squadron. After several days of organization, it is decided each Squadron will consist of two large fleets consisting of Battleships, Destroyers and Cruisers, two supporting battalions consisting of Destroyers and Frigates, and three supply and patrol groups consisting of Frigates commanded by two Cruisers.

Admiral Winfield Schley is placed in charge of coordinating the South Atlantic Squadron, and Francis Higginson is placed in command of the North Atlantic Squadron. While placement, armaments, and organization is taking place Henry Glass is placed in charge of guarding Florida and the outlying territory.

Spanish patrols are spotted by Captain Glass and is eliminated by his strengthened forces. Spain readies their two major fleets for engagement of the Americans.

President Weaver resolves for the moment to send no large amount of ground troops, but rather to use America's naval superiority to support the Cuban rebels, who have little to no naval forces to speak of. Squadron organization is complete on October 26th and the North Atlantic Squadron Admiral Higginson orders his largest fleets to move with the ultimate goal of blockading Spain herself. The South Atlantic Squadron on the other hand is ordered to stay in defensive positions and attempt to coordinate attacks with the Cuban rebels.

Democratic leaders denounce Weaver's handling of the war, calling him "cowardly." President Weaver responds by saying "I fight a war of defense and of support. I do not fight a war of imperialism and of conquering. Do Democratic leaders wish us to be like our adversaries?"

On November 12th, the 1st North Atlantic Fleet and 1st North Atlantic Support Squadron engaged three squadrons of Spanish Cruisers along the Bay of Biscay. Two Spanish Squadrons are eliminated, and remaining ships retreat. American losses count to be seven Cruisers, four Destroyers and six Frigates. At the command of Admiral Higginson the ships remain where they stand for reinforcements before advancement.

Cuban rebel leaders remain in regular contact with Captain Glass, who was put in charge of coordinating with the rebels by South Atlantic Squadron Admiral Schley. After two failed attempts at Havana, rebel leader Calixto García requested direct American assistance in attacking the Spanish Caribbean Squadron forces outside the port of Havana. While providing a distraction and supporting fire, odds of rebel success would increase dramatically. Admiral Schley and Captain Glass concur, and Glass is dispatched with a force of several Battleships and Destroyers to attack Havana once rebel leaders begin their assault.

On November 20th, President Weaver meets with his private war council about the possibility of sending American forces to Cuba to help set up a government after the Spanish have been expelled from the island. Weaver is hesitant but recognizes the necessity of some sort of American direction.

Congress goes into recess for the Winter on November 22nd. They will convene for special sessions in January and officially begin the next year's work on March 4th.

Cuban General Calixto García signals Captain Glass and what little naval support Cubans can give the Americans that they will attack Havana at dawn, on December 1st. On the morning of December the 1st, the silence of the cold morning is broken by artillery fire provided by the Americans from the rebels. Spanish forces are used to rebel attacks at this point and dispatch themselves in a classic defensive formation to repel the Cubans. Captain Glass immediately moves in within range of the Havana port and begins his assault on the Spanish Caribbean Squadron forces stationed there.


Roughly one third of Spanish forces are docked, due to not expecting any large scale naval assault and Glass immediately orders destroyers to close in on the docked ships. The distraction diverts some support troops along the entrances to Havana from fighting the Cubans to assisting in the defense of the Havana port. Spanish forces take heavy losses to the ensuing panic, and despite being outnumbered initially, Captain Glass succeeds in destroying more than half of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron stationed in Havana before being forced to retreat with the small forces of the Cuban Rebel Navy. Captain Glass immediately communicates to Admiral Schley his urgent need of reinforcements.

On the ground, Rebel forces assisted with a small contingent of American artillery and volunteer forces, manage to gain a significant foothold into Havana. Most of the remaining Spanish forces are concentrated near the port and various underground facilities. Towards nightfall, rebel leaders celebrate American help in taking most of Havana and the largest coordinated effort of the Spanish-American War had taken place.

On December 10th, Henry Glass receives several additional cruisers to replenish lost warships during the Battle of Havana. Admiral Schley readies forces under his personal command to assault Havana once more and eliminate the Spanish presence in Havana once and for all. After receiving coal in Key West and supplying all ships properly, Admiral Schley sets course for Havana, where he and the Spanish skirmish off an on for over a week.

It turns to be a very bloody winter for all sides.
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« Reply #15 on: November 29, 2008, 01:39:14 am »
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Events of 1900, Pre-Election Season


By January 9th, 27 States have ratified the Direct Senatorial Elections Amendment which would be the 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution providing for the direct election of two Senators from each state, every two years for two year terms. Nebraska, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Ohio, Wisconsin, Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Massachusetts, Idaho, Texas, Louisiana, Indiana, Illinois, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, Kansas, Iowa, Wyoming. Eight more states are required for total ratification.

South Atlantic Squadron Admiral Schley declares that "Every last Spaniard have been completely driven out of Havana once and for all" on January 20th, and requests from President Weaver some form of residual American forces in Havana to set up some sort of central structure for the Cuban rebellion. Weaver takes this under consideration, though his war council is very receptive.

Admiral Higginson of the North Atlantic Squadron directs both the 1st North Atlantic Fleet and the 2nd North Atlantic Fleet as well as the corresponding support squadrons to blockade the Spanish from the Bay of Biscay and at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. Madrid orders it's largest naval fleet to prepare for the defense of the Bay of Biscay.

By February, in the Philippines, the situation was deteriorating rapidly. Despite Democratic calls to expand the scale of the war into Puerto Rico and to the Philippines, President Weaver refuses, saying "My qualm is with Spain and her treatment of the Cuban freedom fighters. I am no imperialist." Filipino rebels had been combating the Spanish for years by this point, and the war with America and focus of remaining resources onto retaining what little control was left over Cuba had weakened their standing in the Philippine Islands considerably. Though Spain attempted to make several concessions, Filipino rebel leaders refused to cease until the goal of total independence is achieved.

On February 21st, German Admiral Alfred Tirpitz commanded a small fleet of several Light Cruisers from the German East Asia Squadron to head for Davao, to assess the situation in the Philippines.

President Weaver authorizes the assignment of 1,000 advisers to be sent to Havana to assist the Cuban rebels to set up a provisional government for the duration of the war and assist in rebuilding the infrastructure of Havana. Cubans meet this announcement with cheers and eagerly await their arrival. Rebel General Calixto García begins to direct his forces to march towards South-Eastern Cuba in an effort to defeat the remaining Spanish land forces who have heavily fortified Santiago and the outlying areas. Remaining Spanish naval forces are also reported to be in the area.

On March 11th, after several weeks of skirmishing with small Spanish groups along the Bay of Biscay, Admiral Higginson commands the 1st North Atlantic Fleet along with the 1st & 2nd North Atlantic Support Squadrons, a massive force consisting of over 55 ships total, to engage the Spanish fleet deeper into the Bay. Spanish forces are surprised at the attack but mount their most organized defense of the war. The battle rages on for most of the day, however, by nightfall the advantage is clearly with the American North Atlantic Fleet and the Spanish Navy retreats. Admiral Higginson lost the majority of the 2nd North Atlantic Support Squadron and several ships from the 1st Fleet, but the Spanish Navy had lost more than double the amount of American losses.

On March 14th, the Bay of Biscay is completely blockaded. Only French ships are allowed through the blockade.

It is rumored the Imperial Japanese Navy is supplying Filipino rebels with ammunition and medical supplies to battle disease and continue to resist the Spanish.

Democratic House Majority Leader Rice Pierce (D-TN) proposes the Wage Reformation Act of 1900 on March 24th, which would reduce the federally mandated minimum wage much like the Wage Reformation Act of 1899. The only difference between the acts is a slightly lower decrease than the previous year, designed to get wavering Populist support. The Act would reduce the minimum wage from .30 to .25 an hour for every worker. Populist Minority Leader Simpson (P-KS) and Republican Minority Leader Adin Capron (R-RI) oppose the legislation, and labor unions back the Populist opposition effort.

Majority Leader Pierce claims it would "keep the American economy strong in the face of turmoil abroad." Unfortunately for the Populists, the war with Spain and the upcoming election hurt the Populist opposition, and the Wage Reformation Act of 1900 passes, 182-175. The Act heads for the Senate, where passage is shaky. Senate Minority Leader James Kyle (P-KS) attempts to rally the opposition and even holds speeches outside of the building. When a vote is near, the situation does not look good for the Populists and defecting Republicans. Kyle finally takes the last option, initiating the first filibuster in many years. Kyle and his allies speak passionately seemingly without end in the defense of working men across the country and the need for a reasonable standard of wages. Senate Majority Leader Blanchard threatens to change the rules of the Senate to allow the Democrats to end the filibuster.

Kyle backs down, and the Wage Reformation Act of 1900 reaches a vote on May 17th. Devastating the Populists, the Act passes, 47-43. Populists had hoped to keep it from passing to avoid the consequences of a Presidential Veto. Weaver refuses to go along with such legislation despite the consequences, and vetoes the Act the following day.

During the legislative battle taking place at home, Cuban rebel leaders announce their intention to attack Santiago with several thousand and move large amounts of heavy artillery from Havana to do so, provided to them by the Americans. General Calixto García requests significant naval assistance and additional ground troops. President Weaver deploys 7,000 troops (including cavalry) from the Oregon, Kentucky, and Missouri Volunteer Brigades, and orders Admiral Schley and Captain Glass to mount a joint attack on Santiago, the last bastion of Spanish naval power near Cuba.

On May 20th, the additional ground forces arrive in Matanzas along with additional cannons and gatling guns and ammunition supplies aboard the 2nd South Atlantic Supply Squad. They ready for their march into South-Eastern Cuba. Admiral Schley and Captain Henry Glass begin to organize their fleets in Havana.

On May 30th, after days of constant marching, fighting skirmishes with pockets of Spanish resistance, Cuban and American engage the Spanish on San Juan Hill. Though Spanish forces are far outnumbered by the American-Cuban forces, they hold the Hill for a significant amount of time. American soldiers and 2nd Artillery Division are sent to El Caney to flank the defending forces. Spanish General Joaquín Vara de Rey dies in the ensuing battle, valiantly defending El Caney for more than ten hours against the Americans. More than 12,000 Cuban & 6,000 American soldiers remain.

On the morning of May 31st, Captain Glass and Admiral Schley engage the remnants of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron outside of the port of Santiago. Within an hour after the initial engagement, General García and American support soldiers attack the defenses of Santiago. Lacking both El Caney and San Juan Hill, Santiago's defenses are overwhelmed from every side. Though the Spanish are much stronger within the city than they are on the water, the majority of Spanish artillery is destroyed by that evening, forcing the surrender of the Spanish forces.

Spanish ships engage in the most aggressive attack patterns of the war, and do severe damage to Captain Glass' squadron. Admiral Schley orders a third of his fleet to assist Glass and continue on with the assault. In the ensuing battle, Captain Glass' ship, the USS Indiana was severely damaged, and exploded near 5:30 PM, May 31st, 1900. Captain Glass did not survive.


Despite the defeat of the USS Indiana, the Spanish are soundly defeated. Several Spanish ships attempt to escape near dusk, however, they are chased down by the USS New York and USS Oregon. Cuban and American forces are now in control of the Island of Cuba.
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« Reply #16 on: November 29, 2008, 01:39:37 am »
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1900 Pre-Election Events, Continuation


Admiral Schley begins to regroup his forces for a planned advance on Puerto Rico. Upon considering their disastrous defeat in Santiago and the loss of the city, the death of General Joaquín Vara de Rey, an impregnable blockade of the Bay of Biscay, and the planned American naval advance on Puerto Rico, Spain sues for peace on April 3rd. President Weaver greets the news with tears, and gladly accepts the offer of peace. President Weaver and a team of diplomats plan to meet Spanish and Cuban officials in London, England, to work with Spain to assure the end of Spanish oppression, the end of hostilities, and Cuban Independence.

Before departing for London, President Weaver attends a memorial service for Captain Henry Glass, listening, teary-eyed to his family members speak of him. Towards the end of the ceremony, President Weaver and leading officials of the United States Navy approach the empty casket and lay a decorative box containing Admiral pins.

Though a cease to hostilities is speedily adopted in Washington, President Weaver, General García, and two high level Spanish diplomats meet in London, England on April 26th, 1900 and signed the Treaty of London after establishing several protocols of the ensuing peace.

Quote from: Excerpt from The Protocols of Peace, April 24th
Article 1: Spain will relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title of Cuba and recognize Cuba as an independent Nation.

Article 2: Spain will cede to the United States the Island of Puerto Rico.

Article 3: Spain will immediately evacuate Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the surrounding islands, and to this end each Government will, within ten days after the signing of this protocol, appoint Commissioners, and the Commissioners so appointed shall, within 40 days after the signing of the protocol, meet at Havana for the purpose of arranging and carrying out the details of the aforesaid evacuation of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the adjacent Spanish islands.

Article 4: Spain will recognize the Islands of the Philippines as an independent Nation.

Article 5: Spain will immediately evacuate the Philippine Islands and to this end each Government will, within ten days after the signing of this protocol, appoint Commissioners, and the Commissioners so appointed shall, within 40 days after the signing of the protocol, meet at Manila for the purpose of arranging and carrying out the details of the aforesaid evacuation of the Islands.


On June 10th, President Weaver returns home in celebration of the peace. Democratic leaders are still bitter of the handling of the war and seeked much more involvements, particularly in the Philippines. Republican Representative William McKinley of Ohio also complains about the ignoring of annexing the Republic of Hawaii.

The Kentucky state legislature approves funds for the building of a monument to the late Henry Glass on June 19th, a Kentucky native.

Japan, Britain, and Germany, after weeks of diplomatic pressure on Spain, convince the beaten and weak Madrid to dropping it's territorial claims in the Pacific.

German Admiral Alfred Tirpitz returns to Manila with a group of warships and Frigates under the banner of the German East Asia Squadron. Japanese Admiral Itoh Sukeyuki watches the Spanish evacuation and the recently arrived German forces closely, and privately continues to support the Filipino rebel leaders with whatever supplies they need. Itoh Sukeyuki hopes this will gain the Japanese favor.

On July 28th, President Weaver officially announces he will not seek a second term, though this had been unofficially spoken of many times beforehand. Populist William J. Bryan from Nebraska makes overtures to the Populist Party leaders about his possible nomination during the Populist Convention that draws near.

The last state required for ratification approves the 17th Amendment on August 1st. The Direct Senatorial Elections Amendment (17th Amendment) is ratified by Nebraska, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Ohio, Wisconsin, Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Massachusetts, Idaho, Texas, Louisiana, Indiana, Illinois, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, Kansas, Iowa, Wyoming, Rhode Island, California, Virginia, Colorado, South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Connecticut, and Kentucky. It is so far rejected by Utah and Arkansas.
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« Reply #17 on: November 29, 2008, 01:46:10 am »
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1900 Presidential Election Season


Populist Party Convention, 1900

Knowing James Weaver doesn't seek re-election, and the particularly unfriendly time for Populists, the Populist Convention doesn't have the optimistic tone it had four years earlier. Several candidates cross the delegates' minds. William J. Bryan, influential Populist and popular in Nebraska and parts of the south, Eugene Debs, popular figure in the Great Lakes and particularly, Indiana and Illinois, and influential among labor leaders, and James Kyle, majority leader of the Senate.

Debs and Bryan give impassioned speeches to the delegates, pressing hard for the mantle of leadership. Bryan pledges "reasonable isolationism" and to continue the economic policies that have "made America prosperous again." Debs pledges to "lead the Populist Party into the new century" with a "modern alliance of the farmer and working man." James Weaver has a friendly relationship with both men, but in the end, the delegates choose William J. Bryan, Nebraska native, out of fear that Debs would lead to a straying from Populist principles. Bryan chooses Francis Newlands in a deal with the Silver party to re-absorb into the Populist Party.
___________

After the Populist Convention, the German East Asia Squadron abruptly moved on the island of Guam and the Gilbert Islands on September 10th with two small Cruiser forces. Japan and the Philippines are stunned by German aggression, though for different reasons. Germany declares that several islands in the Pacific are unclaimed due to Spain's relinquishing of territorial claims and several areas being not officially claimed. Japan dispatches Admiral Itoh Sukeyuki to quickly move on their desire for Imperial outposts on the Caroline Islands. Upon news of Japanese opposition in the Caroline Islands, Germany exposes Japan's funding and support of the Filipino rebels, and that they were planning on taking several northern areas of the Philippine Islands once the Spanish had completely evacuated.

Japan vehemently denies any such schemes but bolsters it's naval presence in the Pacific. Germany easily takes control of the Gilbert Islands and Guam.
___________

Republican Party Convention, 1900

The Republican Party fears the renomination of Robert Pattison from the Democratic Party, and Republican delegates worry about losing their power structure in New England. Republicans eventually nominate former Connecticut Governor Morgan Bulkeley for President. Seeking to keep the Democratic Party from solidifying their hold on part of the Great Lakes, William McKinley (R-OH) is nominated as Vice President.

Democratic Party Convention, 1900

Democratic Party leaders are optimistic after having taken both houses of congress in the previous election cycle. Popular former Pennsylvania Governor Robert Pattison is widely seen as the logical choice for the Presidential nomination. he pledges to conduct international affairs "responsibly" and "curtail out of control Populist expenditures." Pattison is widely renominated for President.

Pattison urges Democratic delegates to confirm State Senator of Maryland and reformer John Smith (D-MD) as his Vice President. They confirm him, and the two immediately campaign in Pennsylvania and Ohio.
___________

Throughout late September and October, Democratic candidate Robert Pattison (D-PA) is widely seen as someone who can handle foreign affairs better than his major opponent, William Jennings Bryan.

German ships approach the Caroline Islands, claiming the Islands as their own. Japan warns the German Squadron under command of Admiral Alfred Tirpitz to halt their advance, and in a stunning development, claim it as their own. James Weaver is appalled at the savage conditions taking place in the Pacific and denounce it as "Despicable remnants of archaic colonialism." Weaver refuses to get involved.

On October 4th, the forces under the command of Admiral Tirpitz of the German East Asia Squadron engage the Japanese after repeatedly warning them to back down from "German islands." The German force initially overwhelm the Japanese, who expected the German Navy to back down. Several Japanese ships are heavily damaged and Admiral Itoh Sukeyuki withdraws from the Caroline Islands and fall back to the Philippines. Japan officially declares war on Germany on October 5th, 1900, and swiftly organizes the Imperial Japanese Navy for full scale combat. Germany declares war the same day, and immediately begins to send reinforcements while taking two weeks to solidify their control over the Caroline Islands.

President Weaver sends a team of envoys to both Germany and Japan, and sends his Ambassador to the Philippines to warn them to defend their borders "with all their strength." Germany is unresponsive to diplomatic overtures but Japan responds by saying German aggression "must not be tolerated and the Pacific must be taken under the protection of the Japanese Empire." Weaver worries about escalation of the conflict.

The General Election of 1900

Democratic Nominee Pattison (D-PA) pledges to intervene in the German-Japanese War as soon as possible, warning that the conflict will get much worse before he takes office. William J. Bryan pledges to sustain intense diplomatic efforts but shies away from direct military involvement.

Republican Candidates Morgan Bulkeley and William McKinley campaign on diplomatic and military involvement in the German and Japanese conflict as well as annexing Hawaii, which McKinley views as "essential."

Unfortunately for the Populists, with another foreign crisis on the country's hands and Weaver's vetoes of legislation in the past, public opinion swings against them for the second election cycle in a row. 224 Electoral Votes are required.



Robert Pattison/John Smith (D), PV 51%, EV 298
William J. Bryan/Francis Newlands (P), PV 33%, EV 87

Morgan Bulkeley/William McKinley (R), PV 16%, EV 62

The Implementation of the 17th Amendment causes greater losses for the Populists (and Republicans) than expected, but they still retain a sizable opposition. Democrats strengthen their majorities in both Houses of Congress, and for the first time in years, Populists are not in control of any portion of government. In one bit of good news for the Populists, the Silver party is entirely re-absorbed into the Populist Party. In the House of Representatives, Democrats build a very sizable majority.

Congressional Election Results

Senate:

Democrats - 49 (+7)
Populists - 30 (-5)
Republicans - 11 (-1)

House:

Democrats -  201 (+45)
Populists - 108 (-35)
Republicans -  48 (-9)

___________

On November 30th, the largest fleet in the German East Asia Squadron moves, bolstered with reinforcements, towards Davao, an important port in the southern Philippines, claiming to be arriving to protect the Philippines from becoming "Japan's puppet." Two Imperial Japanese Cruiser Squadrons stand in defense of Davao. The Germans defeat the Japanese squadrons and take the port city of Davao, however, on December 10th, the Japanese arrive with two large fleets of ships containing Battleships and Cruisers mostly purchased from Britain and France, and some of the most modern ships of the period.

The German fleet is crushed, and withdraws to the Caroline Islands. Several German troops however have been deployed onto the Filipino mainland, and have raided several Japanese and Filipino outposts. The Germans are unparalleled on land, and the Imperial Japanese Navy knows their strength is in their navy's technological superiority. President-Elect Pattison makes desperate pleas for President Weaver to announce involvement.
« Last Edit: December 20, 2008, 05:30:27 am by The Prince Was Never Raised For Sincerity »Logged

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« Reply #18 on: November 29, 2008, 01:53:37 am »
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The First Term of Robert Pattison (D-PA), 1901



Throughout January, skirmishes between Japanese and German forces in the Pacific take place, with both powers warning anyone against interfering. The rationales remain the same; Japan claims Germany is aggressive and territorial and thus the Japanese must take the Pacific under their protection against the "German threat." Germany claims Japan has had secret ambitions for territorial expansion since the beginning of the Spanish-American War. Germany solidifies it's positions in the Caroline and Gilbert Islands, as well as Guam, and makes several attempts at taking several ports in the Philippines, however they are mostly repelled. German and Japanese naval forces are rivalled in strength, but the territorial disadvantage the German forces have in the Pacific hurts their offensive attempts.

On January 27th, Britain warns the recently formed Commonwealth of Australia to protect it's waters and sends a small naval force to protect British influence in the region.

President Weaver, soon leaving office, decides to organize the Pacific Squadron and Asiatic Squadron simply for defensive purposes. Admiral George Remey is placed in charge of the Asiatic Squadron, turning out to be a second choice to George Dewey, who Weaver viewed as too aggressive. Admiral Silias Casey III remains in charge of the Pacific Squadron. Each squadron organizes their fleets along American waters but makes no aggressive movements. Weaver attempts to renew diplomatic contact with both Germany and Japan, but fails.

After February, a month marked by several land battles between Japanese and German forces through the Philippine Islands (Much to the anger of the Filipinos) President-elect Robert Pattison (D-PA) is sworn in as President of the United States on March 4th. James Weaver leaves Washington disappointed, and Pattison makes a short Inauguration Speech.

Quote from: Excerpt of the Pattison Inauguration Speech, March 4th 1901
...Many years have passed under Populist rule, and though not all of these years have been saddening, many have been horribly mismanaged!

Economic infrastructure has been handled improperly, government expenditure has been out of control, and the process of conducting foreign relations has been nothing short of abysmal with Populist "isolationism." My fellow Americans, I am here to correct these mistakes. To show America's strength in international relations once more, and to manage economic affairs responsibly.

I pledge to curtail past Populist legislation, to resolve the crisis taking place in the Pacific, and maintain peace at home. I will not allow bullies to threaten the international community, and I will most definitely not allow bullies to ruin the businesses of this country...

Unions rally behind the Populist Party after the speech, and remark on Pattison's interference of the Homestead Strike during his time as Governor of Pennsylvania.

On March 7th, Pattison increases advisory and infrastructure recovery efforts in Cuba, and pledged to redouble efforts to build up the Cuban government and withdraw.

On March 9th, President Pattison announces to the Japanese and German governments demands to end the conflict in the Pacific at once, and to respect the independence of the Philippine Islands. Pattison requests a conference in Washington between Japanese and German diplomats to discuss possible resolutions to the crisis. Both governments decline the invitation, blaming the other for the cause of hostilities. Pattison and his cabinet are unsure of how to go from here.

President Pattison directs Admiral Remey to deploy the 1st & 2nd Asiatic Fleets, 2nd Asiatic Support Squadron, and 1st & 2nd Asiatic Support Squads to organize together and to form positions outside Hawaiian waters and near the Aleutian Trench on March 20th, an effort to show American naval strength to both the Germans and Japanese. Filipino forces begin contemplating their own defense.

After some deliberation, on April 12th, President Pattison had negotiated a treaty for the annexing of the Republic of Hawaii, asking the Senate to approve the treaty. Senator Joseph Bailey (D-TX) introduced the Bailey Resolution which would approve the treaty submitted to the Senate for annexation. Despite some Populist opposition, Democrats and Republicans support the treaty, and it passes the Senate 63-27. It moves to the House for approval, where the overwhelming Democratic majority sweeps the Bailey Resolution through the House 265-92.

Though American naval presence in the Western waters was powerful, It was much smaller than naval forces in the East. President Pattison urged congressional Democrats to consider legislation designed to dramatically increase the size of the United States Navy, partly for defense, partly to show Japan and Germany they had no intention of backing down. On April 20th, Senate Majority Leader Newton Blanchard (D-LA) proposes the Naval Preparedness Act of 1901 which would eventually double the size of the Navy in the Pacific by increasing funds for ship and artillery production, increases in pay for ship manufacturers with the goal of expanding the overall work force, and mandating shorter construction periods. The Act would also allocate funds for refitting Pearl Harbor in Hawaii to fit more ships.

Populists are strongly opposed to the act, with Senate Minority Leader James Kyle (P-KS) remarking "This act is not only reminiscent of wars past but it is hypocritical in every way, coming from a party of so called 'fiscal responsibility.'" Senator Blanchard shrugs off these concerns, and claims the American Navy in the Pacific must remain strong, and reminds opposition that actions to balance the budget will be taken in the near future. The Naval Preparedness Act of 1901 is never truly in danger, however, and passes 58-32. Despite Populist attempts to bolster their opposition, they are vastly outnumbered in the House of Representatives, and it passes 227-130.

On May 2nd, Filipino leaders announce their intention to formally defend their borders, though pockets of resistance and local militias had already sprung up in the past two months. The Provisional Government of the Philippines forms a formal militia, and initially stuns the Japanese and Germans by making surprisingly effective raids on their supply outposts. The Filipino government states "This fight is not against anyone, we do not fight to conquer or destroy, we fight to defend our homes." The Ambassador from the Philippines requests help from the United States.

President Pattison steps up his efforts, directing his attention to the Germans who appear to be the weakest in the Pacific. Pattison demands German diplomatic attention and a ceasefire or the Asiatic Squadron will directly intervene. The American public supports the cause, with the end of the Spanish-American war still fresh on their minds. Japan and Germany officially declares war on the Republic of the Philippines, and the Imperial Japanese Navy destroys several Filipino ports.

Admiral Remey is ordered by Pattison to move to the 1st Asiatic Fleet & 2nd Asiatic Support Squadron to the Philippine port city of Davao, but to make no engagements unless attacked. Aboard the Support Squadron are several American envoys who wish to make contact with Japanese and the Filipinos. En route, Japanese Admiral Itoh Sukeyuki warns the Americans about any involvement. American forces arrive outside Davao on May 23rd, 1901.


Admiral Alfred Tirpitz of the newly organized German Asiatic Squadron takes advantage of the Japanese and American standoff and commands a squad of Cruisers and Battleships to Davao. American diplomats demand a ceasefire, and pledge to be an objective mediator in the conflict to resolve the crisis as swiftly and fairly as possible. Germany is reluctantly open to the idea of a ceasefire and peace negotiations, if only because of American naval power. Japan, however, is not willing to negotiate, claiming Germany is the aggressors and without Japanese protection the Pacific would fall to them.

Diplomatic efforts continue in Davao for several weeks before Japanese forces renew attacks on the ground against German bases. Germany responds by dropping off supplies for German soldiers and unleash an attack on the Imperial Japanese Navy outside of Davao. Under previous orders from President Pattison, Admiral Remey immediately orders American forces to keep the peace, and to intervene immediately. The Asiatic Fleet moves between the opposing forces after several volleys of warning fire, and orders the Japanese aggressors to stand down immediately or be fired upon.

Neither side ceases fire, and a large and confusing battle ensues. Admiral Remey orders his ships to focus on the Japanese, who are the most powerful and influential, instead of German forces, which is mainly comprised of Cruisers. The 1st Imperial Japanese Fleet withdraws by evening after suffering severe losses from German and American flanking, leaving a short fight between the German forces and the 1st Asiatic Fleet. Remey refuses to back down after the Japanese withdrawal and drives Admiral Tirpitz from Davao as well. The Asiatic Fleet suffers moderate losses, but manages to maintain their presence in Davao.
« Last Edit: December 20, 2008, 05:32:09 am by The Prince Was Never Raised For Sincerity »Logged

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« Reply #19 on: November 29, 2008, 01:54:06 am »
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1901 Continuation


On June 17th, shortly after news of the conflict becomes headline news in the American newspapers, Senator Blanchard (D-LA) at the request of President Pattison, puts forward the Pacific Authorization of Force which would give the President "unrestricted authorization of force in the Pacific in an effort to resolve the foreign crisis." It passes the Senate 76-14, and the House of Representatives by 311-46. Pattison immediately directs Admiral Casey to move the 1st & 2nd Pacific Fleets to attack the Gilbert and Caroline Islands after German forces refuse to support a ceasefire.

Quote from: Pattison's Statement to the Press, As reported by The New York Times
I will fight in the Pacific for as long as it takes to get these two stubborn empires to see the reasoning of a cease-fire. We must send a message that the Independence of foreign powers will not be eroded by selfish ambition for territorial gain.

Senate Minority Leader Kyle (P-KS) proposes the Kyle Resolution in the Senate on June 24th, which would bind the United States by a time-line to withdraw from Cuba within two years, and includes a declaration that the United States will not attempt to annex the Island of Cuba. Though Democrats are concerned over the time-line, they agree to the declaration they will not make any attempts to annex Cuban land, and it passes the Senate 66-24. The House passes the Kyle Resolution 287-70.

Throughout most of July, the Pacific Squadron engages in a string of battles throughout the Gilbert and Caroline Islands, which were occupied by the German forces. Admiral Tirpitz, already hurt from the crippling defeat at Davao, withdraws from most of the Gilbert Islands but makes a stand in the Carolines. Though American forces are at a territorial disadvantage, the amount of ships lost is 2:1 in Admiral Casey's favor. President Pattison seeks to drive the German Asiatic Fleet from the Gilbert and Caroline Islands, to force them into a ceasefire.

Pattison refuses to make naval advancements towards Japan herself knowing it would mean a much longer and extended war, preferring to fight a defensive war of the protection of the Philippines and keeping order in the Islands of the Pacific. Because of the policy of defensive warfare, no advancements are made towards German New Guinea or Samoa, also German controlled. Pattison jokes “I suppose in some ways my Populist adversaries and I have more in common than we like to admit.”

On July 14th sends several thousand volunteer forces mainly from the Western United States in alliance with the Filipino State Militia to drive the Japanese and German forces off the islands. Admiral Remey prepares his ships for the second attack on Manilla, after initially being repelled, the last bastion of significant Imperial Japanese Naval influence and a critical Japanese supply point to ground forces.


On the home-front, House Democrats propose the Farmer/Labor Assistance Reform Act of 1901 which would restrict funding for the Farmer & Labor Assistance Administration and reform eligible recipients to only disabled farmers and laborers, and only grant farming assistance money to farms which only have under a certain amount of land and/or crops. A late amendment to the act would also raise the income tax on the top bracket by 7%. Populists are horrified and line up in unanimous opposition, as do some Southern Democrats, namely Georgia and Florida Democrats. House Majority Leader Rice Pierce (D-TN) claims the act will "provide the necessary funds for the war effort and reform a mismanaged program." The Act passes the House, by what will be the narrowest margin of the year, 202-150.

Populists are enraged at their defeat in the House and redouble their efforts in the Senate. Minority Leader Kyle ponders the possibility of another filibuster, but decides against it, and instructs his Senate colleagues to follow his lead, knowing they stand no chance. The Populists endure their biggest defeat so far, with the Farmer/Labor Assistance Reform Act of 1901 passing 56-34 on July 28th.

Pattison gives his approval for the second attack on Manilla to a strengthened Admiral Remey, in alliance with small Filipino naval forces. The Second Battle of Manilla Bay begins on August 2nd, 1901 at dawn. The Imperial Japanese Navy initially has the advantage in the battle, because of strengthening their fleet with the most technologically advanced ships of the empire, but soon, Filipino Militia forces begin assaulting the city on land and Filipino Naval forces coordinate a successful flank, and manage to kill the ship of the second-in-command of the Japanese fleet. Admiral Remey takes significant losses for the first half of the battle, and after several hours, the Japanese forces begin to lose steam because of diverting resources to land and confusion in the chain of command.

Japanese Admiral Itoh Sukeyuki refuses to withdraw, knowing the loss of Manilla would be a disaster for the war effort, and that only one major port would remain in their possession, and attempts to outlast the notoriously cautious American forces. Pattison, however, is far different from Former President Weaver and throws excessive caution to the wind. Admiral Remey continues to order all-out attacks until the Imperial Japanese Navy at last withdraws by evening. Japanese naval forces take significant damage and suffer heavy losses during the battle, and the only remaining major port-city under Japanese "protection" is Dagupan.


Throughout August, several skirmishes occur between German and American forces in the Caroline Islands, with American victories most of the time. On September 9th, the final serious German ground-threat on the Philippine Islands is eliminated by Filipino-American combined forces.

Due to German forces in the Pacific being cut off and Japan under threat of American attack on the port of Dagupan, President Pattison offers a ceasefire and diplomatic engagement (including the possibility of a compromise) for the formation of a peace treaty. Germany agrees, and Japan, reluctantly agrees as well. German, Japanese, American, and Filipino envoys will meet in Manilla on September 20th.

Negotiations go on for weeks, with Germany refusing to cede it's territorial claims over Guam and the Caroline & Gilbert Islands. Japan demands no German territory in the region and asserts a claim to the Caroline Islands and the Northern Philippines. American and Filipino diplomats outright refuse any sort of occupation of any Philippine land, but attempt negotiating a compromise over other territory.

American and Filipino diplomats introduce a draft of a compromise to include in the Peace Treaty. The Compromise would allow Germany to retain control over the island of Guam, and would give the Caroline Islands to Japan. The Republic of the Philippines would be given control over the chain of small islands known as the Gilbert Islands. Due to the territorial compromises, the treaty would also require the small payment of reparations to the Filipino government for damages incurred; Germany paying the equivalent of sixty million Dollars and Japan paying the equivalent of one-hundred million Dollars.

American and Filipino diplomats sign the treaty with the included compromise, as does Germany because of it's lower payment of reparations and ability to retain control over Guam. Japan however is angered by the compromise, and refuses to sign for several days, before finally buckling to the pressure of all three parties involved, and Japan's attention being required on the Asian mainland. The Peace Treaty is signed on November 9th, 1901. Congress and Pattison speedily approve of the treaty, and at last, there is peace in the Pacific.

President Pattison pledges to maintain his "successful" policies in the coming year, and Congress adjourns for the winter on November 21st.
« Last Edit: December 20, 2008, 05:31:55 am by The Prince Was Never Raised For Sincerity »Logged

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« Reply #20 on: November 29, 2008, 01:54:33 am »
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That's all I've written so far!
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« Reply #21 on: November 29, 2008, 02:00:30 am »
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That's all I've written so far!

You've written quite a lot I must say Tongue.

Anywho, I'm enjoying your timeline thus far. Its always nice to see timelines that focus around this era in American History, primarily as hardly any of them are written around that period, on this forum anyway. I assume you plan to continue this timeline until the present day?
« Last Edit: November 29, 2008, 02:03:17 am by Robert Childan »Logged



Here's to the State of Richard Nixon

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« Reply #22 on: November 29, 2008, 02:05:12 am »
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Now mine seems kinda inadequete Cry
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"Destiny is not a matter of chance; it is a matter of choice. It is not a thing to be waited for; it is a thing to be achieved."
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« Reply #23 on: November 29, 2008, 02:05:53 am »
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That's all I've written so far!

You've written quite a lot I must say Tongue.

Anywho, I'm enjoying your timeline thus far. Its always nice to see timelines that focus around this era in American History, primarily as hardly any of them are written around that period, on this forum anyway. I assume you plan to continue this timeline until the present day?

I'm hoping so. Any thoughts/criticism/advise is welcome.
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« Reply #24 on: November 29, 2008, 03:31:56 am »
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So, it was 2:30 am, I planned to go to bed, I was checking the forum one last time for anything interesting, and then I saw this and read it for an hour. Very good stuff.
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