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k-onmmunist
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« Reply #50 on: April 13, 2009, 12:39:04 pm »
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THE SUMMER OF LEAD: 1950

Asif Khan's grip on the nation was becoming more and more loose. In January 1950, he suspended the consitution altogether. And in April, he announced he had been elected for another 5 years wirth 99.4% of the vote. Khan expected mild discontent. What he got was out of any proportion he could have predicted.

On May 1st 1950, 11 top generals met and agreed that Khan was destroying the nation from within. They decided to overthrow him, and very soon, 3 divisions had revolted and many key towns in Pakistan had fallen, including Quetta, Khan's hometown. However, very little of the air force joined the rebels, and consequently, Khan had British supplied bombers used to rip the enemy forces to shreds, with ground support. However, by now, Khan had lost popular support and faced a wave of strikes and protests.

On June 24th, Pakistani civilians broke into an armoury on the border with Afghanistan and armed themselves with guns and artillery. This spread across Pakistan, and on July 1st, Khan was shot dead and hung by his feet in Karachi's town centre. His regime ended, and now a power vacuum had come into being. Several generals fought for power over the year, but in the end, a British-sponsored minority government came to power, with the aid of the Communists, although it was an uneasy alliance. It was clear that Pakistan could still easily fall into the Communist sphere, which would be an incalcuable disaster for Britain.

Pakistan also re-entered the Federation in September, albeit with a new governor general, as the last governor general had died. Cosgrave lifted the suspension, and he was now able to turn his eyes towards other situations, and towards preparing an election campaign.
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« Reply #51 on: April 13, 2009, 12:39:25 pm »
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EMERGENCY IN THE FAR EAST: 1950

Meanwhile, disturbing reports had reached British authorities in Asia. According to documents found by Chinese intelligence and passed onto the British, Americans and French, Japan had constructed a war plan against the British, French and Dutch, and it was likely they intended to carry it out. The plan would involve striking into Burma and India, while other forces rolled into Burma, Malaysia, Indochina, Hong Kong and the East Indies. It was also possible that the Japanese could strike America, or the Soviet Union while doing this.

News of this soon reached the heads of government in the Federation, and loud demands were made by Australia and New Zealand for more British warships to be moved to Singapore and Hong Kong. The Indians and Burmese were also concerned by the apparent Japanese plan, and held talks with Britain over collective security in the East. Secretary General Cosgrave called for calm, but it was clear that the Federation was now unable to ignore the Japanese threat for any longer.

On June 1st 1950, the government of Japan demanded that the Federation close the Burma Road, and cease any aid to the Chinese. A similar demand was made of the French, who were supplying goods to China via their border from Indochina. In response, a meeting of the Imperial Federation was called to discuss the response. In a near unanimous vote, the Japanese demands were thrown out and the Federation made a defiant stand with the Japanese, under Prince Konoie. The French also made a similar stand.

On June 6th, President Dewey of the US called a conference over the tensions in the Far East. However, when the meeting adjourned the next day, Dewey informed his staff that the Japanese representatives were ‘fatalistic and uncaring over the possibility of war’. On June 9th, India, Australia and New Zealand mobilised their forces, followed by Burma, Pakistan and France within the next week. On June 19th, Cosgrave made his final phone call to the Japanese ambassador, and asked him to pass on a message to the Japanese government, calling for another conference. By the time this message reached the Japanese government, Japanese planes would already be over the South China Sea, flying south towards Malaysia...
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« Reply #52 on: April 13, 2009, 12:40:27 pm »
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MALAYA AND IT'S CONSEQUENCES: June 1950-February 1951

On June 19th 1950, Japanese aeroplanes struck Kuala Lumpur and Singapore indiscriminately. This was followed by airstrikes in Burma, including on the Burma Road, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Hours later, Japanese forces landed at Hue, French Indochina, and in Northern Malaya.

The Imperial Federation response was inevitable. Just 1 member voted against the declaration of war against Japan that followed, and soon, Imperial forces were on their way to the Far East.

Meanwhile, Japanese bicycle troops advanced south, taking the town of Alor Star, and Kota Bahru. By July, Japanese forces were outside Kuala Lumpur, and General Slim realised it would be impossible to hold his lines there. He ordered a withdrawal to Singapore, and also asked for more air support to delay advancing Japanese forces.

The siege of Singapore soon began, but the Japanese had little success. An attempted assault in October faced stubborn resistance, not only from British troops, but even from civilians who had taken up arms to defend their homes. Many of them had lost relatives in the Japanese airstrikes and were eager for revenge.

In January, the arrival of new British divisions, including armour, meant that a breakout was staged. The siege was over, and by February, British forces had liberated Malaya all the way up to Malacca. The navies also played a major role. After the initial landings, British aircraft carriers had arrived in Sumatra and Malaya, and they were now making life difficult for ships carrying munitions. It looked as if the army in Malaya could end up besieged itself.

European forces had also begun to arrive in the Far East. In the Dutch East Indies, Australian, Dutch and Belgian forces were fighting the Japanese invaders, while in Indochina, the French and even the Germans, in their first deployment since the Great War, were defending. Against such a large coalition, and with their surprise attack having been a blunder, Prince Konoie saw little chance of Japanese victory and officially resigned. He was succeeded by Senjuro Hayashi, now 75 years old.

Meanwhile, Imperial forces were also making good use of their new high command, a merger of all national commands. This meant their forces operated as if the Federation was in fact a single nation, and with such effectiveness also.
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« Reply #53 on: April 13, 2009, 12:41:01 pm »
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JAPAN'S NAVY IS HUMBLED: September 1950-August 1951

At the start of the war, Japan's navy had been the second biggest in the world, after that of the UK. However, many of its ships were battleships, constructed for a war more like the Great War than the current Pacific War. As a result, it performed poorly. At the battle of the Phillipines, 4 Japanese battleships were destroyed by British and French aircraft, at the price of just 20 bombers. This small setback was nothing compared to what was to follow however.

The Battle of the South China Sea is today remembered as the victory that marked the beginning of the end for the Japanese navy. On June 2nd 1951, the battle began as British, French and Canadian aircraft hit several Japanese ships. This was followed by British and French battleships bombarding the smaller ships of the Japanese Navy. The resulting battle lasted two days, and by the end of it, 3 of Japan's 7 aircraft carriers lay at the bottom of the ocean.

However, Japan did have some success. On January 6th 1951, the supposedly 'unsinkable' carrier, the Kaiyo, engaged and destroyed the British flagship, the HMS Vanguard. On hearing this news, British Prime Minister Robert Stanley is said to have fainted. Nevertheless, the Japanese victory was temporary. 4 days later, a huge French naval force engaged and destroyed the Kaiyo.

By June, Japan's navy was only capable of defensive missions, and Coalition forces were already landing on the Carolines, mostly Dutch and German. It was now clear that the war would not have good outcomes for Japan.
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« Reply #54 on: April 13, 2009, 12:42:33 pm »
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ISLAND HOPPING, THE WAR IN KOREA AND THE ATOM BOMB: June 1951-January 1953

By 1951, the Carolines were under attack from German and Dutch forces. Most of these islands fell rapidly, but on Truk, Japan's main base in the area, a bloody six month campaign took place. By the end, Japanese forces were running into battle with bombs tied to their uniforms, in a desperate last attempt to force the coalition out. Kamikaze attacks had also begun on shipping in the area.

In 1952, British, French, German, Dutch and Canadian forces landed in the Marianas, where some of the bloodiest battles of the war were fought. Indeed, the garrison on Saipan managed to hold out until the end of the war. The war turned these islands from peaceful beach islands into murderous graveyards. Finally, British, French, Canadian, Chinese, German and New Zealand forces landed on Okinawa. The battle continued until the end of the war.

Meanwhile, in Korea, an insurgency had begun against Japanese rule. There were actually two groups in the insurgency; a communist group led by Kim Chaek and a capitalist group led by Syngman Rhee. Both fought and hated eachother as much as the Japanese. Nevertheless, they created a major disruption for the Japanese, and by 1952, much of the Pyongyang area was competely offlimits to Japanese forces.

There was no end in sight when coalition forces landed on the Bonin Islands and Iwo Jima in November 1952. However, in that same month, the worlds first atomic bomb was exploded in Central Australia, by Britain. And on December 16th 1952, the town of Kagoshima was annihilated by such a bomb. Emperor Hirohito was shocked, and immediately dismissed Senjuro Hayashi and asked for peace terms.

Trotsky had died in 1951, but his successor, Bukharin, saw his opportunity to gain land at Japan's expense. On January 2nd 1953, Soviet forces attacked Japanese garrisons on the Kurils and in Sakhalin. The end had come for Japan, and they signed an armistice 5 days later.
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« Reply #55 on: April 13, 2009, 12:44:44 pm »
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THE TREATY OF SHANGHAI: 1953

Terms summarised:

JAPAN:
* Loses the Carolines, Manchuria, all occupied territory in China, Korea, Sakhalin, the Kurils and the Marianas.
* Is forced to pay reparations
* Must not have an army exceeding 400,000
* Agrees to allow Imperial Federation military bases to be set up in Japan.
* Must hold free elections by June 1954.
* Retains Okinawa and Marcus.

SOVIET UNION:
* Gains the Kurils and Sakhalin
* Agrees not to interfere in Manchuria

CHINA:
* Regains all occupied territory
* Gains Taiwan

ESZ:
* Holland gains the Carolines
* Is permitted to establish a military base in Korea.

KOREA:
* Becomes independent under Syngman Rhee
* Agrees to allow ESZ and Imperial bases in its territory.
* Must hold free elections by June 1954.
* Agrees to negotiations with Japan over Dokdo dispute.

MARIANAS:
* Will hold plebiscite in in 1963 to determine new status. Until then, will be run independently, with British and French guidance.

HONG KONG:
* Will be granted a seat in the Imperial Federation

IMPERIAL FEDERATION:
* Britain gains Wake

ALL PARTIES:
* Agree to maintain peace in the Pacific.
* Agree to make efforts to form a Asian version of the ESZ.
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« Reply #56 on: April 13, 2009, 12:45:06 pm »
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THE ASIAN AND PACIFIC SECURITY ZONE: 1953-1963

The Treaty of Shanghai had included a clause calling for the establishment of an Asian equivalent to the ESZ. It was already known that there would be problems with this. China was reluctant to join any organisation with Japan as a member. Japan and Korea had many disputes. India and Pakistan had many disputes. Much of Asia was still under European control.

Nevertheless, in May, delegates from several Asian nations gathered to sign a declaration establishing the APSZ. It's founding members were India, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Macao, Holland, Britain, France, Thailand, Korea and Marianas. Britain, France and India were all assigned veto power. Pakistan walked out of the negotiations and Japan's membership was opposed by many members, especially Korea.

This also allowed for the deployment of ESZ and Imperial forces in these nations. France and Korea signed a treaty in 1954 allowing for the construction of a French naval base at Pusan, and an airbase at Taegu. Britain also secured treaties with Korea, in 1956, which allowed it to use naval and air facilities in Hamhung.

In 1955, Japan was finally admitted as a member. Japan was already hosting Imperial forces in Hokkaido, and at airbases throughout the nation, especially at Sendai and Fukokua. In 1957, Japan signed a treaty with Britain which allowed them to place nuclear armed Hydra II's on Hokkaido.

Britain had also began to move towards greater autonomy for its colonies in the region. In 1957, Malaya and Singapore were both granted independence from Britain, and joined the APSZ in 1958, along with Burma, Ceylon, Pakistan and the Phillipines. Canada joined the following year.

The nuclear race had created a divide between Britain and France. Traditionally disparaging the Anglo-Saxon race, France soon began a nuclear program of its own, and became the second nation to explode an atom bomb in 1956. Although allied with Britain, it began to exert an influence of its own in the Pacific, especially in Korea where it was allowed to position nuclear arms in 1961.

War was also endemic in parts of the Pacific and Asia. France faced a war in Indochina in the 1950s and 60's, which, much to the chagrin of the French, the ASPZ refused to support them in. Laos and Cambodia both gained independence in 1960, and Laos was admitted to the ASPZ in 1963. However, Cambodia fell under Communist influence, and became an ally of the Soviet Union.

The war in Vietnam continued until 1971, but in the Dutch East Indies, Holland was forced to maintain some presence until 1983. Nevertheless, for the time being, Holland was able to keep the East Indies under their control. Finally, China began to liberalise somewhat in the 1960's from near fascism to simple conservatism. It became an associate member of the ASPZ in 1962, but it would be some time before it assumed full membership privileges.

The Marianas plebiscite was also held in 1963, and ended with Japanese control being restored. However, the status of military bases on the islands was allowed to remain, and the plebiscite also had no effect on the status of Guam.
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« Reply #57 on: April 13, 2009, 12:45:29 pm »
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THE MUSCAT PACT, THE GROWTH OF THE ESZ, AND SOVIET RESPONSES: 1953-1958

The Middle East had proven to be unstable since the end of the war with Italy. Soviet influence in Turkey was seen as a major threat to British interests in the region, and Cosgrave suggested to the President of France, Pierre Laurier, that Turkey be admitted to the ESZ. Belgium had already been admitted to the pact in ESZ in 1950 to bolster European strength in Africa, and it was now believed the ESZ should serve as a counter balance to Bukharin's advances in Europe. In 1953, Norway, Greece, Spain, Portugal and Austria joined the ESZ. A Turkish application was rejected due to reasons of 'geography'. This worried both Britain and France deeply, and as a result, a new organisation was formed.

The Muscat Pact would help counter communism in Islamic nations. Britain, France, Oman, Yemen, Iraq, Egypt, Palestine, Turkey and Libya all joined the organisation followed by Sudan in 1954. Saudi Arabia rejected the Pact, as did Syria and Lebanon, both very anti-French, and already considered within the Soviet sphere of influence. Iran was also growing more and more anti-British.

Bukharin responded by denouncing the Pact as a 'secret capitalist alliance, formed solely to destroy the Soviet Union'. Comintern also began sponsoring coups in neighbouring nations, bringing Finland, Bulgaria and Mongolia under Communist control. These nations, along with Cambodia and the 'Indonesian government in exile' formed the Socialist Alliance.

By 1958, it appeared that the world was going through a chain of events similar to that before WW1... the dividing of the great powers into different camps.
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« Reply #58 on: April 13, 2009, 12:45:52 pm »
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Interlude - Society and Economy: 1920-1953

As the post war-recession came to an end, the boom years of the 1920s really kicked off. The stock market flourished, as people bought stocks on the NY Exchange in such companies as RCA and US Steel. New industries were born. It was a great time to be an American, but little did the people of the United States know that the 20th century would not be the American Century as so many had proposed, but another British Century, or, to be more precise, Imperial.

Britain itself only pulled itself out of recession in 1924, but after this, it managed to develop better trade relations with the Empire, rather than with Europe and America, and as a result, when the Crash came, it survived the fallout.

Cinema also became a major art form during the 1920s. At first the films were silent, and mostly American made productions. The 'talkies' truly began in 1928, when the very first completely sound film, a production of 'The Hunchback of Notre Dame' was released in the US. By 1929, sound had spread to Britain, and by 1930 to France and Germany. In East Asia, it took significantly longer, and many Japanese films were silent as late as 1938.

The crash badly fragmented American society. It destroyed confidence in the economy, leading to a 13 year depression and the loss of financial supremacy. The Federation's economy had recovered by 1931, and by 1933, was undergoing accelerated growth. The completion of the Cape-Cairo Railway in 1942 also brought much prestige to the Federation. King Edward VIII himself actually was on the first full train journey on the railway.

Nevertheless, Britain did not escape completely unscathed. Particularly bad downturns were recorded in 1935-1936, 1944-1945, and 1949. However, the market usually recovered quickly.

Music had also become the domain of Britain. In the 1920s and 1930s, the most popular music was American Jazz. But during the 1940s, British crooners had begun to become well known among the US public.

The Imperial economy proved well up to the task of fighting wars. 1937-1939 and 1950-1953 were years of massive production of aircraft and tanks. By the end of the Pacific War, Britain was even beginning to develop its first jet fighters to replace the aging Hydra.
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« Reply #59 on: April 28, 2009, 04:41:46 am »
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What happens in Latin America? When do the African independence movements start? Do those continents fall under the rule of sunglass-wearing military uniform-dressing colonels?
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« Reply #60 on: April 28, 2009, 10:33:06 am »
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What happens in Latin America? When do the African independence movements start? Do those continents fall under the rule of sunglass-wearing military uniform-dressing colonels?

Both of these will be covered in future updates.
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« Reply #61 on: February 04, 2010, 03:07:29 am »
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« Reply #62 on: February 04, 2010, 06:50:03 pm »
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Really excellent.
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« Reply #63 on: April 01, 2010, 08:49:17 am »
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Life is change --
How it differs from the rocks
I've seen their ways
Too often for my liking

New worlds to gain
My life is to survive
And be alive
For you


- Jefferson Airplane, "Crown of Creation"

The right to die in Iraq was a right not previously possessed by Americans for twelve long years.  Bush rectified that.
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« Reply #64 on: April 04, 2010, 09:33:02 am »
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AFRICAN INDEPENDENCE: 1958-1968

Britain was losing interest in holding on to its African possessions. Increasingly, they were unstable and the fear was that if pushed too far, they may decide to break off links with Britain altogether. Thus, Britain began the process of withdrawal, beginning in 1958 with the independence of Sierra Leone. 1959 saw Zanzibar and Tanganyika become independent, and the rest are listed below:

1961: Nigeria
1962: Cyrenaica, Uganda
1963: Somaliland
1965: East Africa
1966: Nyasaland, Swaziland, Basutoland
1967: Ghana
1968: Southern Rhodesia

Labour Prime Minister Harold Parsons had been expecting to be able to quit these territories once independence was granted, but as British forces began to withdraw, bloodshed erupted in Nigeria and Somaliland. Parsons ordered forces back into the countries to help the government put down the insurgencies, in Nigeria by Soviet-backed Igbo tribes, and in Somaliland by a group known as the Independence Movement for Puntland. Harold Parsons would lose the 1964 elections to the Conservatives under James Castleton, who ordered increases in foreign aid to African Imperial Federation members, a move which no doubt helped maintain British influence in Africa. The Muscat Pact also offered help to the British, deploying Sudanese and Yemeni forces into Somaliland.

Bukharin of the Soviet Union had died in 1963, and his successor, Ivanov, was far more antagonistic in foreign policy than Bukharin. On January 25th 1965, the government of Uganda was overthrown in a palace coup by General Akiki Kigongo, a hardliner communist. Uganda withdrew from the Imperial Federation on February 2nd. Kigongo soon had pro-British elements in the country crushed and began a program of central planning. In addition, he raised tribal militias to harass political opponents, thus ensuring that the 1971 elections would be a sham.

In these new nations, the British Pound was considered to be the reserve currency, and could be used in many major department stores. Somaliland, Cyrenaica and Southern Rhodesia all decided to continue using the British Pound in 1968, the former two due to economic instability, and the latter to make exchanges to the South African rand more viable.

Britain still had not withdrawn from Africa completely however. The Gambia, Bechuanaland and Northern Rhodesia all remained under British colonial control, and would do for some time yet. Meanwhile, the wave of independence had also begun in the French, Spanish and Portuguese colonies of Africa...
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« Reply #65 on: April 04, 2010, 09:34:46 am »
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INTERLUDE: Where Are They Now? – 1958.

Iosif ‘Stalin’ Dzhugashvli (1878 – C. 1930)
After Lenin’s death, a little known member of the inner circle known as Iosif Dzhugashvli attempted to seize power from Trotsky. He was incarcerated, and is believed to have died in prison, sometime around 1930.

Benito Mussolini (1883 - 1939)
A member of D’Annunzio’s cabinet, and one of the chief negotiators at the Treaty of Zurich. Hung himself after refusing to sign the treaty.

Adolf Hitler (1889 – 1931)
Austrian corporal, best known for his book Mein Kampf, written in 1924. Originally dreamed of being an artist, but was rejected by the Academy of Vienna. Despite the Nazi Party gaining some popularity, Hitler shot himself after his niece, Geli Raubal, committed suicide.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1948)
Vice presidential nominee in 1920 for the Democrats, and later ran in the 1932 primaries but lost to Huey Long. Was governor of New York from 1929 to 1933 and again from 1941-1945. Retired and died of polio in 1948.

Hideki Tojo (1884-1951)
Japanese general in the Pacific War. Attempted to seize power of Japan in a coup in the 1920s. Was killed in action in the Vietnamese campaign.

Winston Churchill (1874-1957)
Chairman of the Federation from 1940-1943 when he resigned. Remained in the Imperial Parliament until 1952. Also served as British Ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1950-1954 and helped negotiate a peaceful settlement to the Afghan Civil War. Died of a stroke, 1957.

Charles de Gaulle (1890-)
French general, served in the Libyan campaign in the war against Italy and played a minor part in the defeat of Japan in the Indochina campaign. Later, became famous for his unabashed French nationalism and calls for the war in Vietnam to continue. However, is still best known as C in C for ESZ forces in Korea from 1953 to the present day.
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« Reply #66 on: April 04, 2010, 09:35:49 am »
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THE NUCLEAR RACE: 1953-1970

With the dropping of the atomic bomb on Kagoshima, a new age began. Prime Minister of Britain, Robert Stanley, announced that his country already had five atomic weapons, all of which could be loaded and dropped from planes within just a days notice. Both the ESZ and the Soviet Union were rocked by this announcement. Both began their own crash programs to develop a nuclear weapon.

It wasn’t long before France caught up with the British. An atom bomb was exploded by the French in the Southern Algeria Desert in October 1954. President Pierre Quentin immediately obtained permission from Germany and Poland to deploy nuclear bombs within their territory.

Britain had already moved on however. They now exploded a hydrogen bomb in January 1955, in the Central Australian Desert, followed a day later by another test in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The Soviet Union was deeply concerned by their position, as both of their enemies had developed nuclear weapons to which they had no retaliation weapon. It would be 1957 before the Soviets exploded their own atom bomb. Other countries now joined the atomic race. India, Japan, Brazil, Korea and the US all began programs of their own.

Until 1958, these bombs would have been dropped from planes, but now, a missile was developed to carry nuclear weapons, and by 1960, Britain and the Soviet Union would both have fully switched to this system. France would maintain its plane dropped bombs until 1963. The US became the fourth power in the race in 1959, exploding an atom bomb in New Mexico.

The world’s first conference on nuclear weapons was held in Madrid in 1960. France and the US both agreed not to target each other’s territory with missiles, and also to decommission all old bombs that were not capable of being launched from missiles. Britain signed the conference in 1962, while the Soviet Union would never sign it.

In 1962, Japan exploded its first atomic bomb, provoking a bomb scare by those distrusting of Japan, especially the Soviet Union which believed Japan would want to reclaim Sakhalin and the Kurils. Nevertheless, Japan pledged a no first use policy, and signed the Madrid Conference in 1967.

China exploded a bomb in 1966, and India in 1967, and thereafter, these countries (known as the Nuclear Seven) would remain the biggest nuclear powers. Below is included a count of nuclear weapons of each of the Nuclear Seven.

1953:
Britain: 5

1955:
Britain: 20-30
France: 6-12

1960:
Britain: 180-220
France: 150-190
Soviet Union: 140-210
USA: 125

1965:
Britain: 2,000
Soviet Union: 1,800
France: 1,400
USA: 1,300
Japan: 40

1970:
Britain: 10,000
Soviet Union: 8,900
USA: 6,700
France: 5,400
China: 700
India: 300
Japan: 200
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« Reply #67 on: April 04, 2010, 09:37:34 am »
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THE SPACE RACE: 1958-1970

On August 5th 1958, President Edouard Girard of France announced on national television that France had put a small rocket shaped ‘satellite’ into space. It’s name, he continued was the ‘Libertie’, and it was transmitting radio waves back to Earth, which most radio stations should be able to pick up. British and American ham radio soon confirmed this. The major powers were shocked by this development.

Secretary General W.T. Cosgrave of the Imperial Federation, serving his final months before resignation, announced that ‘while the Federation has been working on a space program, this turn of events was not expected’. This proved to be true, as on September 17th, a small orb known as the Indefatigable I was launched by the Federation. However, by then, the French had outdone the Federation again. Just a day before, they had launched the ‘Egalitie’, which had as a passenger, a tabby cat named Achilles. On the same day as the Indefatigable was launched, the satellite returned to Earth, and Achilles was retrieved from the satellite alive.

The cat became a hero to the French media, and Cosgrave once again had to explain the Federation’s shortcomings in space. The USA soon launched a satellite of its own, the Columbus, into space. The space race now had three members.

Throughout 1959, more satellites were launched by all three powers. The Soviet Union also made a belated launch of its own satellite. Britain became the first power to launch a spy satellite into space, which the Soviets accused of photographing its nuclear facilities. The French also remained in the race, launching a communications satellite which managed to broadcast a speech by US President Geoffrey Appletree to a Parisian audience. It was now unclear as to who was leading the space race.

It became transparent on June 13th 1960, however, when it was announced that the Federation had launched the Invincible I, which carried a 28 year old Anglo-Indian, Richard Salisbury, into space. Imperial Federation Secretary General Pierre Trudeau bestowed the Medal of Imperial Valour, the Federation’s highest honour, on Salisbury. The US also launched a man into space, Glenn Allen, on December 11th 1960. However, in the months between the British and American launches, a tragedy has occurred.

On August 5th 1960, the launch of the Invincible II, carrying British pilot Kyle Fuller, failed. The rocket exploded on the launch pad, and soon the rocket was a flaming inferno. Fuller’s body was recovered. Trudeau and Prime Minister Harold Parsons both made speeches of condolence. However, it was Trudeau who, in typical fashion, tried to make some light of the incident. After commemorating Fuller’s death in the pursuit of the profession he loved, Trudeau promised ‘we shall go on and continue, in the memory of Fuller, and, by 1975, I feel sure that the Federation will have put a man onto the moon.’

At first, the audience was in shocked silence. Then, thunderous applause followed. Trudeau had laid down the gauntlet, and in the next few weeks, all three of the other powers announced their own intentions to launch their own moon programs. The race to the moon was on.

The Soviet Union soon took the honour of having the first object on the moon... a small probe was launched in the dying months of 1960, which crashed into the moon. France soon launched probes too, including the first probe to explore Venus. Britain showed more interest in launching probes onto Mars. More manned missions were also launched.

1961 was comparatively uneventful. The race continued as it had. The only new record to be broken was when the US launched a young woman into space, Sarah Jones on September 17th 1961. Otherwise, the powers continued on as they had.

In 1962, the USSR launched the first space station into the cosmos. However, the following mission to try and bring a spacecraft into the station failed, resulting in the deaths of the entire crew, and severe damage to the station itself. The following year, after the death of Bukharin and more launch failures, the USSR, now disinterested in the race, withdrew.

For the next 4 years, the race appeared to die off somewhat. Few new events occurred, as proxy wars and the nuclear race seemed to take precedence in people’s minds. Then, in 1967, the Federation announced it had launched its own space station, and would conduct several probe launches within the next few days. The race roared back to life, and in 1968, France claimed the honour of being the first nation to explore the dark side of the moon with a probe. Nevertheless, France’s own interest in the race was also beginning to wane, and they would make little attempt to follow up on this. It now appeared to be the Federation and the US who would be in the final race to the moon.

In 1969, a US spacecraft, the Minuteman, flew around the moon carrying 2 passengers. It looked as if the US would win the race. President Richard Parker announced that the US would land a man on the moon on April 26th 1970. It looked as if the race was over, and many began to wonder if Secretary-General Indira Gandhi had prepared a concession speech to read on the day. Then, the unexpected occurred.

The Federation announced its own launch on March 21st 1970, but did not disclose the details. Most thought this would simply be a simple copy of the Minuteman mission. However, they were wrong. On March 19th, it was announced that this was in fact the moon launch. And at noon, GMT, millions around the Federation gathered around their television sets to watch the landing. At 12:36 GMT precisely, the Brotherhood XI touched down on the surface of the moon. 3 minutes later, a young British pilot emerged from the cockpit, carrying the flag of both the Federation and the Union Jack. His name was Robert Accrington. As he took the first footstep ever made by man on the surface of the moon, he said ‘May this mission forever live on as a symbol of the ingenuity of man’. Minutes later, his co-pilots, a Canadian named Damon McIntyre and an Indian named Rajit Chandran joined him in planting the flags of the Federation, Britain, Canada and India into the surface of the moon.

President Parker of the US took the loss well, and made an honourable concession speech. At the end, he noted the US mission would still take place, and on April 26th, US pilot Michael Lister became the first American on the moon. The Stars and Stripes flew symbolically beside the Union Jack and the Federation banner.
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« Reply #68 on: April 04, 2010, 09:38:33 am »
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IMPERIAL FEDERATION COMITTEES: 1927-1970

IMCOMIND (Imperial Committee on the Self Determination of India, 1927-1944): Was chiefly responsible for reforming India’s role in the Imperial Federation, and paved the way for and independent India. Disbanded after Indian independence, 1944.

IMCOMS (Imperial Committee on Slavery, 1927-): Contributed to the abolition of de facto slavery in parts of the British Empire in Africa. Now mainly a pressure group for stricter action against states that tolerate slavery.

IMARM (Imperial Council of Armed Forces, 1937-): Formed to co-ordinate the war against Italy. Has remained since to help co-ordinate Imperial forces.

IMDECOL (Imperial Council on Decolonisation, 1955-): Formed to supervise elections and transfer of responsibility in countries granted independence by Britain.

IMNUC (Imperial Council on Nuclear Arms, 1959-): A council to stop profileration of nuclear weapons, and to discuss nuclear treaties.

IMNUCP (Imperial Council on Nuclear Power, 1959-): A council to discuss the use of nuclear power.

IMARTS (Imperial Committee for the Arts, 1945-): Since 1945, has rewarded writers, film directors, actors and artists for works considered exceptional.

IMSPACE (Imperial Space Commission, 1958-): For the co-ordination and organisation of Imperial space missions.
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« Reply #69 on: April 04, 2010, 09:39:30 am »
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THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM: 1958-1970

The ESZ proved to face difficult challenges after 1958. It had swelled to include most of Europe that could feasibly be added, and now, had even begun to recede; In 1959, Romania quit the ESZ and began to lean towards the Soviet Union. Hungary, previously isolationist, decided to attack while no-one could help Romania. On 15th February 1959, Hungarian forces pushed into Romania, and bombed the Ploetsi oil facility. A three month war broke out, which resulted in little gain for either side. Romania finally agreed to cede Northern Transylvania on May 18th, after a particularly brutal bombing raid on Bucharest. Romania was driven into the Socialist Alliance as a result.

The Muscat Pact did even worse. Licking its wounds, the ESZ decided to allow Turkey into the alliance (along with Ireland, although Ireland remained, primarily, an Imperial Federation member). As a result, Turkey left the Pact in 1960. In addition, British refusal to end support for Israel meant that both Jordan and Iraq quit the Pact in 1963. Despite the Trucial States joining in 1964, the Pact just could not hold together. Both Egypt and Sudan no longer had any interest in the Pact, getting all the benefits they needed from the Federation, and quit in 1964 and 1966 respectively. The remaining members, Kuwait, Trucial States, Yemen, Oman and South Arabia decided to discontinue the Pact and instead formed the Arabian Co-Operation Sphere, which came to have a practical monopoly on oil in the area very soon (although Federation oil companies continued to exploit the oil of these nations).

The real winner was the ASPZ. In 1960, Nepal, Tibet and Afghanistan all joined, and in 1966, newly independent North Guinea also joined. Even Leninist Mongolia began to lean towards joining the alliance. Nevertheless, challenges still faced the ASPZ, including border disputes between India and China, and the Xinjiang separatist movement.

As more and more African nations became independent, many began to swing towards the Socialist Alliance. In 1970, Chad, Tripoli, Fezzan, Gabon, Senegal and Mozambique had all joined the Socialist Alliance. A brief attempt to establish an ‘African Security Pact’ failed, and it appeared that most of the former French colonies would go their own way.

Even the Imperial Federation ran into trouble. Although Uganda was the only country to quit in Africa, the Federation also faced problems in Turkey, which had now gone over to the Europeans, and also with the Indo-Pakistani conflict, which was dangerously close to reigniting in 1969.

A new alliance was also born in this era, with very little fanfare. The US had begun to emerge from its isolationism, and decided to seek out allies in Latin America. Having signed a trade agreement with Brazil in 1961, and with Mexico in 1963, it sought to form an Americas Pact. On 17th February 1965, the US, Mexico, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador signed the Norfolk Pact. The alliance would grow very little in the 1960s, with many Latin American nations having hostile memories of ‘Yanqui imperialism’, but the alliance would come to play a major part in world affairs by the 1970s.
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« Reply #70 on: April 04, 2010, 09:40:28 am »
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DECOLONISATION CONTINUES: 1970-1980

With Indira Gandhi having become Secretary General of the Imperial Federation in 1970, the wave of decolonisation continued. Only three nations in Africa were left under British control by 1970. In 1971, Bechuanaland became independent, but by now, decolonisation had begun in other parts of the world.

In the Caribbean, Britain decided to create one large country, which would have 15 seats at the Imperial Federation. The Caribbean Federation was granted independence in 1972, and gained Belize in 1974. Although unstable, strong leadership managed to hold together the Federation.

The Pacific also saw decolonisation. Wake was transferred to Canada in 1970, and in 1973, Nauru, The Solomons, The Gilberts and Palau all became independent. Tuvalu followed in 1974, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa in 1976 and Tokelau in 1980. The Marshalls were transferred to Japan in 1979. Almost all these nations stayed in the Federation, and even those that didn’t either remained associates or rejoined later on.

In Africa, trouble continued in Northern Rhodesia and the Gambia. By now, British forces were generally being replaced with Imperial peacekeepers in the Gambia, and thus, in 1978, the Gambia became independent officially. Even there, British forces would only completely leave in 1981. The Communists continued their program of violence and bombings in Northern Rhodesia. Prime Minister William Haywood announced his hope to have an independent Northern Rhodesia by 1985, and the end of British presence before the millennium, but even this seemed like a difficult objective.
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« Reply #71 on: April 04, 2010, 09:41:54 am »
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THE NUCLEAR RACE: 1970-1983

More and more nuclear weapons continued to be built throughout the 1970s. Nevertheless, by 1973, efforts had begun towards nuclear disarmament. In that same year, British Prime Minister William Haywood announced a new nuclear conference in Cardiff. Britain, France, the US, Japan and China attended, while India walked out halfway through the conference and the Soviet Union refused to attend. An agreement was finally concluded on September 20th 1973 which agreed:
1. No nation will carry out nuclear tests in outer space or underwater
2. Reduction of long range nuclear weapons by ¼
3. Britain, France, America, Japan, China, the Soviet Union and India are the ‘Nuclear Seven’. It is agreed that no-one outside of these seven will be allowed to obtain assistance with nuclear weapons programs

Britain and the US agreed to the treaty immediately and ratified it the same year. China ratified in 1974, Japan in 1977 and France in 1981. Nevertheless, France continued nuclear testing in the Pacific, which angered the ASPZ so much that they declared arms sanctions on France until they backed down. From then on, France tested weapons underground, begrudgingly.

The treaty failed to prevent more states from constructing nuclear weapons. Korea became a nuclear power in 1974, Pakistan in 1978 and Germany in 1981 (to the furore of the ESZ). However, Germany agreed to sign the Madrid Treaty in 1982, but still refused to sign the Cardiff Treaty until the 3rd point was removed.

Following this treaty, the US proposed the Boston Treaty in 1978, which would place a cap on nuclear weapons at 30,000. All of the Nuclear Seven agreed to attend this treaty, with Ivanov, the leader of the Soviet Union having died the year before and been replaced by reformist Chenyenko.

The final document was signed and ratified by Britain, the US, France and Japan immediately. China signed and ratified in 1980. India signed in 1979, and ratified in 1981, while the Soviet Union signed in 1982, but never ratified the Treaty.
Nuclear Count:

1975:
Britain: 17,000
Soviet Union: 13,000
USA: 11,000
France: 8,700
China: 4,500
India: 3,900
Japan: 1,000
Korea: 20

1980:
Britain: 23,000
Soviet Union: 21,000
USA: 20,000
China: 12,000
France: 10,000
India: 8,500
Pakistan: 3,200
Japan: 2,000
Korea: 300

1983:
Soviet Union: 26,000
Britain: 22,000
USA: 20,000
China: 18,000
France: 12,000
India: 11,000
Pakistan: 7,000
Japan: 1,500
Germany: 1,200
Korea: 900
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« Reply #72 on: April 04, 2010, 09:42:43 am »
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THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM: 1970-1983

The ESZ gained no new members from 1970 to 1976. Then, much to the surprise of France, Britain applied for associate membership, which was approved. However, in 1979, General Mehmet Dogulu overthrew the government of Turkey and announced the forming of an Islamic republic. The new nation left the ESZ, followed swiftly by Greece, disgusted at the ESZ’s inaction over the Cyprus dispute. It was genuinely feared that the ESZ was on the verge of dissolution.

The ASPZ gained a flood of new members from the newly independent British pacific areas. However, it was unable to attract Persian membership, and thus open the gate to the Middle East. With the exceptions of Bahrain and Indonesia, no Muslim state would join the ASPZ from 1970-1983.

The Imperial Federation also did well. After a brutal countercoup, General Kigongo of Uganda was overthrown in 1975, and thus Uganda passed back into the Imperial Federation. However, Northern Rhodesia remained an ongoing nightmare for the Federation.

It was in the Socialist Alliance that membership was most chaotic. The Alliance reached its peak strength in 1974, after which it began a rapid decline in its fortunes. By 1980, most of the African states which Ivanov had referred to as ‘the future of socialism’ had left, with the exception of Senegal. Chaos also reigned within the Soviet Union, where strikes and demonstrations were now regular occurrences, and with the death of Ivanov, there was no-one who could control them.
Finally, the Norfolk Pact began to expand very gradually. Cuba joined in 1974, Haiti and Guatemala in 1975, Argentina and Uruguay in 1976 and Colombia in 1980. The alliance was already considered to have overtaken the Socialist Alliance in importance.

And then, in 1983, chaos erupted in the Soviet Union.
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« Reply #73 on: April 04, 2010, 09:43:40 am »
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WINDS OF CHANGE PART I – THE USSR CRUMBLES: 1983

In January 1983, inflation stood at an unprecedented 800% in the Soviet Union. The ruble was depreciating rapidly. Chenyenko repeatedly called for calm, but the fact was that he was now little more than a paper tiger. Parts of the army were mutinying against the Central Command, and as if to make things worse, Chenyenko received news that Mongolia had officially quit the Socialist Alliance, leaving only 4 members: The Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Finland and Senegal.

On February 2nd, Latvian border guards seized control of their posts and shortly afterwards, an interim government announced Latvian secession from the Soviet Union. Most of the Latvian forces in the Soviet Army also quit their posts and joined the newly formed Latvian Defence Force. Latvian Prime Minister Ozolins called for ESZ support. 8 days later, Lithuania followed their Latvian cousins in secession, and on March 1st, so did Estonia.

Chenyenko’s response was surprising to the West. He announced the USSR would take no action, and even commented that it may be for the best, given how the USSR had forcibly invaded those nations in 1948.

What Chenyenko didn’t realise was that his inaction had set off a chain reaction. Food riots now erupted in many parts of the USSR, and local police frequently did nothing to stop the protesters. In April, Georgia officially pulled out of the USSR, followed by Azerbaijan, Armenia and Dagestan. Finally, the hardliners had had enough.

On May 2nd 1983, tanks rolled up outside the Kremlin. Chenyenko was removed from the building and sent to a detention camp at Kola. The new government officially declared war on all the seceding republics, and ordered their forces into these nations. In response, the ESZ called an emergency meeting and authorised military action to defend the Baltic states.
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« Reply #74 on: April 04, 2010, 09:44:28 am »
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WINDS OF CHANGE PART II – BLOOD AND STEEL: 1983

On May 3rd, German forces in East Prussia moved into the Baltic States, to help defend them against Soviet forces. For the first time since 1914, German and Russian forces were fighting each other. German and Polish fighters were moved into airbases at Kaunas and Riga, and soon took to the skies, ripping into any Soviet aircraft they encountered. To the north, Norwegian forces entered Petsamo, just three hours after Finland announced its departure from the Socialist Alliance.

By now, Finnish forces had also allegedly fired on Soviet troops, and had shelled Leningrad. To the south, Romania had also attacked the Soviet Union, no doubt seeking to conquer Moldova. By the end of the week, French and Italian forces had also arrived in the Baltic States, and the Soviet offensive had grounded to a halt. Cruise missiles rained down on Moscow and other major Russian cities. The hardliners decided it was time to teach the Europeans a lesson, and on May 15th, the order was sent to fire 4 nuclear missiles, at Paris, Berlin, London and Warsaw. However, instead of firing the missiles, the staff at the nuclear sites went on strike, and refused to provoke a nuclear holocaust. In fact, by that time, rioters had already broken into the Kremlin and captured most of the hardliner leaders.

The grisly image of the executed and mutilated leaders was soon shown on major news channels, and it was clear that the USSR was in no state to continue. On May 22nd, Ukraine declared independence, and an unofficial truce broke out all over the frontline, except in the new state itself, where a brutal civil war commenced over who would lead the nation.
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