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Presidential Elections - Analysis and Discussion => Election What-ifs? => Topic started by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 16, 2010, 10:54:29 pm



Title: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 16, 2010, 10:54:29 pm
New York governor Nelson Rockefeller was deeply concerned at the 1968 Republican National Convention. He had let a nomination slip through his fingers, and Nixon seemed destined to win the nomination. "What a waste it was to endorse Romney," Rockefeller thought. But there was still time.

Before Richard Nixon knew it, he had lost his nomination. Rockefeller managed to keep Nixon within 100 delegates of the nomination on the first ballot. Once that happened, Rockefeller managed to cajole several favorite son candidates, to switch to him. He even gained George Romney's delegates after much negotiation. Also, Nixon lost the support of the southern delegates, who had warmed up to California Governor Ronald Reagan. After the second ballot, Nixon was eliminated, and Rockefeller managed to gain the support of Ohio Governor James Rhodes's delegates. After the third ballot, Nelson Rockefeller had narrowly won the nomination over Ronald Reagan, who had the support of the southern delegation. While Ronald Reagan begrudgingly endorsed Rockefeller, the southern delegates, led by Strom Thurmond, walked out of the convention and endorsed George Wallace's third party candidacy.

Rockefeller's next objective was to choose a vice-presidential nominee. After some deliberation, Texas Senator John Tower was chosen.

Meanwhile, George Wallace managed to convince actor John Wayne to become the vice-presidential nominee of the American Independent Party. While Wayne had initially said no, he balked at the idea of a Rockefeller presidency and joined forces with Wallace.

The election would prove to be intensely close, with the Humphrey/Muskie ticket representing the left, the Wallace/Wayne ticket representing the right, and the Rockefeller/Tower ticket representing the center. Both Wallace and Rockefeller ran “law and order” campaigns. However, Rockefeller vigorously supported civil rights, and made no attempt to cloak his support. This cost him the support of conservative white Republicans, who defected to Wallace. Also, Humphrey lost the support of many blue collar Democrats, who found Wallace’s campaign quite appealing.

Election night was a nail-biter. Wallace made an impressive showing in the South, while Rockefeller carried his home state of New York and New England, save for Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. However, Tower’s vice presidential candidacy failed to bring in Texas to the Rockefeller column. Meanwhile, Missouri and Kentucky went to Humphrey by tight margins. While John Wayne’s presence on the American Independence Party ticket was not enough to swing California to the American Independence Party, it was enough to swing it to Humphrey. No candidate felt assured of victory, and the ever-looming threat of an electoral draw seemed present. The results would not be called until next morning, where major news networks announced the Nelson Rockefeller had been elected the 37th President of the United States. The closest Rockefeller states were Ohio, Illinois, and Pennsylvania.  Had Humphrey carried any one of them, no candidate would have an electoral majority. Had Humphrey carried all of them in addition to New Jersey (which was close as well), he would have won the presidency.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=1968&pv_p=1&ev_p=1&type=calc&AL=3;10;7&AK=2;3;4&AZ=2;5;5&AR=3;6;4&CA=1;40;4&CO=2;6;5&CT=2;8;4&DE=2;3;4&DC=1;3;8&FL=2;14;3&GA=3;12;4&HI=1;4;5&ID=2;4;5&IL=2;26;4&IN=2;13;5&IA=2;9;5&KS=2;7;5&KY=1;9;3&LA=3;10;5&ME=1;4;5&MD=1;10;4&MA=1;14;5&MI=1;21;4&MN=1;10;5&MS=3;7;7&MO=1;12;4&MT=2;4;5&NE=2;5;5&NV=2;3;4&NH=2;4;5&NJ=2;17;4&NM=2;4;5&NY=2;43;4&NC=3;13;3&ND=2;4;5&OH=2;26;4&OK=2;8;4&OR=2;6;4&PA=2;29;4&RI=1;4;6&SC=3;8;3&SD=2;4;5&TN=3;11;3&TX=1;25;3&UT=2;4;5&VT=2;3;5&VA=2;12;3&WA=1;9;4&WV=1;7;4&WI=2;12;4&WY=2;3;5)

Nelson Rockefeller (R-NY)/John Tower (R-TX): 289 EV, 40.3% PV
Hubert Humphrey (D-MN)/Edmund Muskie (D-ME): 172 EV, 39.6% PV
George Wallace (AI-AL)/John Wayne (AI-CA): 77 EV, 19.7% PV


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Lincoln Republican on February 16, 2010, 11:10:48 pm
Good timeline, interesting.

Just  my personal view, since John Tower voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and against the Voting Rights Act of 1965, I doubt very much Rockefeller picks him for VP.

Knowing somewhat about Rockefeller, I believe he would pick someone with a strong record of support for civil rights.  This issue was very important to Rockefeller his entire career.

He may have gone with George Romney.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Electric Feel on February 16, 2010, 11:15:58 pm
He may have gone with George Romney.

I think Romney had already made his "brainwashed" gaffe in this timeline.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Bo on February 16, 2010, 11:42:29 pm
Good TL. However, I think Rockefeller would defeat Humphrey by a larger margin because he was perceived as more moderate than Nixon and he was also a newer face to the national stage (in contrast to Nixon, who previously ran in 1960).


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: HappyWarrior on February 18, 2010, 10:20:09 am
lol John Wayne, awesome.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Electric Feel on February 18, 2010, 05:23:11 pm
lol John Wayne, awesome.terrifying.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 18, 2010, 09:23:31 pm
Thanks for the support and suggestions guys! I'm going to put up the next installment as soon as I can!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on February 18, 2010, 09:59:04 pm
Can't wait to see what happens in Rocky's crack at the Presidency...Keep it comming


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 19, 2010, 03:46:05 pm
The First Term of Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller

(http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKrockefellerN.jpg)

Rockefeller’s Cabinet
Vice President: John Tower
Secretary of State: Henry Kissinger
Secretary of Treasury:  George Romney
Secretary of Defense: Richard Nixon
Attorney General: James Rhodes
Postmaster General: William Scranton
Secretary of Interior: Edward Brooke
Secretary of Labor: Margaret Chase Smith
Secretary of Agriculture: Clifford Hardin
Secretary of Commerce: John Chafee
Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare: Arthur Fletcher
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development: John Volpe
Secretary of Transportation: John Lindsay

(http://www-personal.arts.usyd.edu.au/sterobrt/hsty3080/3rdYr3080/ClementHSTY3080/desegregation.jpg)

Rockefeller carried very few coattails, with the Republicans only gaining 5 Senate seats and 5 House seats. However, Rockefeller felt optimistic on January 20, 1969, as he fulfilled his lifelong dream of becoming the President of the United States. Conservative Republicans were dismayed at Rockefeller’s cabinet selection, which was largely comprised of moderates. Conservatives would also be disappointed by Rockefeller’s domestic policy. In an effort to become “the greatest school desegregator in history,” President Rockefeller, who was outspoken in his support for civil rights, made no attempts to stop forced integration, or busing, of public schools. To ensure that school desegregation went smoothly, he threatened to use Federal troops if southerners would not comply. He also supported extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and declared on the campaign trail in 1970 that the Federal Government would never hesitate to intervene in the name of civil rights. Rockefeller also signed affirmative action programs, such as the Revised Philadelphia Plan, into law. He appointed numerous blacks, Hispanics, and women to government positions.  This made Rockefeller very popular with minorities, social liberals, and moderates, but white southerners learned to despise him.

Rockefeller made no cuts in his predecessor’s Great Society, and expanded Medicare and Medicaid. Also, he and the Democratic Congress would increase federal spending on education, infrastructure, the arts, the environment, crime prevention, transportation, and welfare. To ameliorate the deficit incurred, Rockefeller signed the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1970, which raised income taxes. Nevertheless, Rockefeller was unable to present a balanced budget, declaring “Now I am a Keynesian.” Despite the federal spending, the economy was showing signs of stagnancy, and inflation was rising. This phenomenon would become known as “stagflation.” To control stagflation, Rockefeller signed the Economic Stabilization Act, which allowed him to set wages and prices. Rockefeller would decisively use them after passage. While the wage and price controls were popular, they did not end inflation. Rockefeller’s economic policies would alienate conservatives, who thought of President Rockefeller as a “tax-and-spend liberal.” However, Democrats like Hubert Humphrey would praise Rockefeller. Humphrey praised Rockefeller as “a man who was willing to cross party lines to ensure economic prosperity for generations to come.”

(http://blogs.venturacountystar.com/motorhead/epa.jpg)

Rockefeller would also create numerous government departments during his first term, such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Education, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). He would also turn the cabinet level Post Office Department with the independent United States Postal Service. To help protect the environment, President Rockefeller would sign the Clean Air Act of 1970. Rockefeller would also increase spending for “The War on Drugs,” since he strongly believed that they were a menace to society. He would sign the Stable Society Act, which demanded mandatory life sentences for all drug users, dealers, and those convicted of drug-related violent crimes; a $1,000 reward for information leading to the conviction of drug pushers; and harsh sentences for youthful drug users. Rockefeller’s harsh drug laws would become known as the “Rockefeller Drug Laws.”

(http://people.ucsc.edu/~alsavage/Moon.jpg)

In addition, Rockefeller increased funding for NASA, since he wanted to win the space race. One of his proudest moments was on July 20, 1969, which marked the first moon landing in history.  

(http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40336000/jpg/_40336701_nixon_and_kissinger300.jpg)
Secretary of State Kissinger conversing with Secretary of Defense Richard Nixon

Despite all his domestic policy accomplishments, President Rockefeller’s most pressing objective that Rockefeller had to accomplish was how to win “peace with honor” in Vietnam. Henry Kissinger, Rockefeller’s ally from his days as the Governor of New York, and Rockefeller’s former primary rival Richard Nixon both privately believed that the war in Vietnam was unwinnable, and that the United States should only help Saigon for a “decent interval” so that the United States could not be blamed for Vietnam’s fall. Rockefeller took Kissinger’s advice and implemented “Vietnamization:” American troops would gradually be replaced by Vietnamese troops so that South Vietnam could defend itself.

(http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/usa/images-3/vietnam-war-soldiers.jpg)

In March 1969, at Kissinger’s suggestion, President Rockefeller agreed to a secret bombing in Cambodia, in hopes of destroying to destroy Vietcong strongholds and weapons supplies. To cut the Ho Chi Minh trail, he would later agree to bomb Laos in 1971. Rockefeller’s Vietnam policies would cause significant backlash among the anti-war left. Students protested in cities and campuses. Anti-war protestor Jane Fonda would proclaim: "I would think that if you understood what Communism was, you would hope, you would pray on your knees, that we would someday become communists." Rockefeller despised hippies, made no attempts to negotiate with them, and took steps to undermine the hippie movement such as escalating the War on Drugs.

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Vietnam_War_Protest_in_DC,_1967.gif)

Although Rockefeller had made enemies on both the far right and the far left, he was still a fairly popular president, and his approval ratings were in the high fifties or low sixties.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on February 19, 2010, 06:31:50 pm
Awesome Go Rocky, Does Chappaquidick still happen ITTL? Cuz if Rocky remains as popular as you say he is, Teddy may decide to wait till '76...Either Way can't wait to see your take on the '72 election...Keep it comming.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 20, 2010, 01:00:50 pm
Awesome Go Rocky, Does Chappaquidick still happen ITTL? Cuz if Rocky remains as popular as you say he is, Teddy may decide to wait till '76...Either Way can't wait to see your take on the '72 election...Keep it comming.

Thanks Historico! Yep, Chappaquiddick still happened ITTL, but I agree with you that he probably wouldn't have run in '72 even without Chappaquiddick.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Bo on February 20, 2010, 01:25:39 pm
Just curious: Did Rocky raise income taxes on everyone, or just the rich? Also, go Rockefeller 1972!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 20, 2010, 01:43:26 pm
Just curious: Did Rocky raise income taxes on everyone, or just the rich? Also, go Rockefeller 1972!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

He raised taxes on everybody, but most of the burden was on the rich. So like the poor saw like a 1% tax increase or something small like that while the rich had a much bigger tax increase percentage wise.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 20, 2010, 01:44:21 pm
The 1970 Midterm Elections

The 1970 mid-term elections ended up being somewhat of a draw for Rockefeller, as the Republicans ended up losing 9 House seats but ended up with a draw in the Senate races. Democrats picked up Senate seats in California and Illinois, while the Republicans managed to pick up Senator Al Gore’s seat in Tennessee, Joseph J. Tyding’s seat in Maryland, and Thomas Dodd’s seat in Connecticut, and an open seat in Ohio. Additionally, Charles Goodell managed to closely beat out Conservative Party Candidate James L. Buckley and Democratic candidate Richard Ottinger, largely due to a last minute campaign by President Nelson Rockefeller. In the end, the Republicans had picked up a net of 2 Senate seats while the Democrats had lost 3.

Senate: 54 D, 45 R, 1 I
House: 252 D, 183 R

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=0&ev_p=0&AL=0;9;6&AK=2;3;5&AZ=2;10;5&AR=0;6;5&CA=1;55;6&CO=0;9;5&CT=2;7;6&DE=2;3;6&DC=0;3;9&FL=1;27;5&GA=0;15;5&HI=2;4;7&ID=0;4;6&IL=1;21;6&IN=1;11;4&IA=0;7;5&KS=0;6;5&KY=0;8;5&LA=0;9;5&MD=2;10;6&MA=1;12;6&MI=1;17;5&MN=1;10;5&MS=1;6;5&MO=1;11;4&MT=1;3;4&NV=1;5;5&NH=0;4;5&NJ=1;15;5&NM=1;5;5&NY=2;31;6&NC=0;15;4&ND=1;3;5&OH=2;20;5&OK=0;7;6&OR=0;7;5&PA=2;21;5&RI=1;4;6&SC=0;8;5&SD=0;3;5&TN=2;11;5&TX=1;34;5&UT=1;5;6&VT=2;3;6&VA=3;13;5&WA=1;11;5&WV=1;5;5&WI=1;10;5&WY=1;3;6&ME=1;2;5&ME1=1;1;6&ME2=1;1;5&NE=2;2;5&NE1=2;1;5&NE2=2;1;4&NE3=2;1;6)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Conservative frontier on February 20, 2010, 01:48:52 pm
John Wayne was awesome, too bad it wasn't Wayne  on top of the ticket.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 20, 2010, 02:12:49 pm
Alright, after this update I'll begin to cover the 1972 Presidential Election

(http://stuffgirlslike.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/kissinger_mao.jpg)
Secretary Kissinger greeting Chairman Mao

Outside of Vietnam, Rockefeller’s foreign policy, carefully crafted by Secretary of Defense Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, was very popular. Rockefeller foreign policy would become known as realpolitik, where they would take pragmatic considerations into foreign policy rather than ideological considerations. After opening talks with China, President Rockefeller, Marguerite “Happy” Rockefeller, Richard Nixon, and Henry Kissinger visited China in February 1972, meeting up with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and Chairman Mao Zedong. This normalizing relations with China was considered successful, and it would later be said that “only Rocky could go to China.”

(http://timesonline.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/brezhnev_and_nixon.jpg)
Secretary Nixon meeting with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev

Additionally, President Rockefeller met with Leonid Brezhnev in Moscow on May 22, 1972. After intense negotiations, President Rockefeller and Brezhnev signed SALT I, an arms limitation agreement, and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. President Rockefeller’s foreign policy with the Soviet Union would become known as détente, as the United States and the Soviet Union would relax tensions and enjoy peaceful relations.

(http://www.yournews.com/copyroom/newsimages/ronald-reagan-picture.jpg)

California Governor Ronald Reagan, the leader of the "Reagan Republicans"

Rockefeller’s foreign policy in regards to the Soviet Union and China would be opposed by “Reagan Republicans,” or conservative Republicans who were virulently anti-communist, opposed Rockefeller’s spending and tax increases, opposed his expansion of government, and opposed his liberal positions on social issues.  

(http://www.ils.unc.edu/dpr/path/era/ERAactivists.jpeg)
ERA Activists

Finally, Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment in 1972, despite the ire of conservative Democrats and “Reagan Republicans.”  President Rockefeller was an ardent supporter of the ERA, and campaigned heavily for it once it made its way to the state legislatures. Although there was fierce opposition from the South, the ERA was eventually passed.



Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on February 20, 2010, 04:14:53 pm
Go Rocky, I wonder if the Democrats will nominate a Conservative to balance out Rocky's Progressivisim...Seems like Scoop Jackson could definatley outhawk and pick up alot of the Anti-detente vote...Can't wait to see what you come up with for the election...Keep it comming!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: pragmatic liberal on February 20, 2010, 04:35:21 pm
This is good.

It does seem to me that in terms of policy, a Rockefeller presidency would not have been that different from the Nixon presidency. The main difference would have been, as you pointed out, less resistance to desegregation, less conservative judicial nominations, and fewer dog whistles to the South.

My impression is that the left would still have come to dominate Democratic presidential nominations, as Rocky's Vietnam policy wasn't all that different from Nixon's.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 20, 2010, 07:58:08 pm
The 1972 Presidential Election

President Rockefeller was in a comfortable position for the 1972 election. He and Vice President John Tower were easily renominated, his approval ratings were in the high fifties and low sixties, the economy was functioning decently, and the United States seemed to be winning the War in Vietnam. Due to President Rockefeller’s popularity, many Democrats stayed out of the primaries. Additionally, many Democrats stayed out of the race because they covertly supported President Rockefeller, since he was fairly cooperative with the Democratic Congress and he had made significant progress within the civil rights movement.

(http://www.nndb.com/people/903/000022837/george-mcgovern.jpg)
George Stanley McGovern (D-SD)

(http://photos.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/f0890226659c9b61ad0d6d8ac7672887/Gov.-George-Wallace.jpg)
George Corley Wallace, Jr. (D-AL)

(http://www.nndb.com/people/190/000022124/scoop-jackson.gif)
Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson (D-WA)

As a result, only a few Democrats ran in the primaries. These Democrats were South Dakota Senator George McGovern, Alabama Governor George Wallace, and Washington Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson. McGovern represented the far-left wing of the Democratic Party, while Wallace represented the far-right wing, and Jackson represented the center wing (even though Jackson was fairly liberal). Wallace’s campaign was attractive to many socially conservative voters who hated Rockefeller. On the campaign trail, Wallace would say: “President Nelson Rockefeller is a far left liberal who is ruining America. He has allowed the Communists to make significant inroads in Vietnam; he is making concessions to the Communists in the Soviet Union and China; and he has interfered with states rights.” George Wallace also portrayed himself in the biggest contrast to President Rockefeller, since McGovern and Jackson were fairly close to the President on domestic issues. Meanwhile, McGovern promised to end the War in Vietnam once in for all, while Jackson campaigned on ending détente and escalating the Vietnam War and the Cold War.

Scoop Jackson managed to win victories in the Iowa caucus and the New Hampshire primaries. However, Wallace won a huge victory in the Florida primary, carrying every county. He then won the Pennsylvania primary. McGovern would win the Massachusetts and California primaries. Wallace would do well in the South and among disgruntled socially conservative blue-collar white voters, while Jackson would do well among big labor and hawkish Democrats, and McGovern would do well among the hippies and the anti-war protestors. Primary victories would be exchanged among the three candidates throughout the entire Democratic primary season.

On the campaign trail in Maryland, a man named Arthur Bremer shot at Wallace and screamed “a penny for your thoughts!” Somehow, the shots missed and Bremer was quickly subdued. Wallace took his survival to be divine intervention, and that he had a mandate from God to win the Democratic nomination.

By the 1972 Democratic National Convention in Miami, no candidate had a majority of delegates. Wallace was in the lead, with Jackson second, and McGovern third. Wallace could have conceivably lost if Jackson combined his delegates with McGovern’s in a “Stop Wallace” movement, but the movement failed to gain traction since both refused to endorse each other. After many rounds of intense balloting, George Wallace was nominated.

(http://blogs.nashvillescene.com/pitw/George%20Wallace.jpg)
Governor George Wallace accepting the nomination at the Democratic National Convention

Right after the nomination, George Wallace picked Georgia governor Lester Maddox to be his running mate. McGovern and Jackson both refused to endorse the segregationist governor, and McGovern, Jackson, and all their delegates stormed out of the convention in a huff. Scoop Jackson decided to bite the bullet and endorse President Rockefeller in his re-election bid, while George McGovern announced that he would run for the presidency as an independent. McGovern chose former Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy as his running mate. McGovern’s independent ticket would prove to be popular among hippies and college students, and it was said that McGovern’s candidacy was one of “amnesty, abortion, and acid.”

Many Democrats, such as Hubert Humphrey, Edmund Muskie, Shirley Chisholm, and Scoop Jackson endorsed Rockefeller’s re-election bid. “Democrats for Rockefeller” became a powerful political organization that convinced many Democrats to vote Republican.

President Rockefeller campaigned on his foreign policy and domestic successes. He portrayed Governor Wallace as a bigot and he portrayed George McGovern as far-left crazy liberal. Wallace tried to shoot back by saying that Rockefeller was not winning in Vietnam and that if Wallace were president, he would “bomb Hanoi until kingdom come.” This campaign message was seen as way too extreme, and more people started to support the Rockefeller ticket. Wallace also vowed to protect states rights and to allow for “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever.” If there was any doubt that Rockefeller would be re-elected, that doubt ended October 8, 1972, where after secret talks with the North Vietnamese, Secretary Kissinger declared that “peace is at hand.” This was more palatable than George Wallace’s hawkish message, and this also marginalized George McGovern’s anti-war message. Additionally, Rockefeller sent Vice President John Tower to campaign for him in the South. On November 7, 1972, President Rockefeller was re-elected in a landslide.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=1972&ev_c=1&pv_p=1&ev_p=1&type=calc&AL=1;9;8&AK=2;3;5&AZ=2;6;6&AR=1;6;6&CA=2;45;5&CO=2;7;6&CT=2;8;5&DE=2;3;5&DC=3;3;4&FL=2;17;4&GA=1;12;7&HI=2;4;6&ID=2;4;6&IL=2;26;5&IN=2;13;6&IA=2;8;6&KS=2;7;6&KY=2;9;4&LA=1;10;6&MD=2;10;4&MA=2;14;5&MI=2;21;5&MN=2;10;5&MS=1;7;8&MO=2;12;4&MT=2;4;5&NE=2;5;6&NV=2;3;6&NH=2;4;6&NJ=2;17;6&NM=2;4;6&NY=2;41;6&NC=1;13;6&ND=2;3;6&OH=2;25;5&OK=2;8;5&OR=2;6;6&PA=2;27;5&RI=2;4;5&SC=1;8;8&SD=2;4;5&TN=2;10;4&TX=2;26;5&UT=2;4;6&VT=2;3;7&VA=2;12;4&WA=2;9;5&WV=2;6;4&WI=2;11;5&WY=2;3;7&ME=2;2;6&ME1=2;1;6&ME2=2;1;6)

Nelson Rockefeller (R-NY)/John Tower (R-TX): 470 EV, 61.3% PV
George Wallace (D-AL)/Lester Maddox (D-GA): 60 EV, 28.2% PV
George McGovern (I-SD)/Eugene McCarthy (I-MN): 3 EV, 10.1 % PV

(http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dartlife/archives/18-2/images/nelson.jpg)
President Nelson Rockefeller at his victory celebration

The election was the greatest Republican landslide since Abraham Lincoln’s re-election in 1864. George Wallace only carried states in the South. Wallace’s popularity came blue collar Democrats, labor unions, and the party machinery. Although George McGovern won a decent share of the popular vote (for a third party candidacy), he only carried the District of Columbia. The ultimate irony of the election was that Governor Wallace actually did worse on a major party ticket than he did on a third party ticket four years ago. Rockefeller even managed to carry some southern states due to Vice President and Southerner John Tower’s campaigning in the South. With a strong mandate, President Rockefeller looked forward to his second term.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 20, 2010, 08:00:45 pm
This is good.

It does seem to me that in terms of policy, a Rockefeller presidency would not have been that different from the Nixon presidency. The main difference would have been, as you pointed out, less resistance to desegregation, less conservative judicial nominations, and fewer dog whistles to the South.

My impression is that the left would still have come to dominate Democratic presidential nominations, as Rocky's Vietnam policy wasn't all that different from Nixon's.

Thanks pragmatic liberal! Well I figured Rockefeller's progressivism would launch a conservative nomination for 1972, just like Historico pointed out, but I doubt that conservatives will dominate the Democratic Party after Wallace's crushing defeat.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Electric Feel on February 20, 2010, 08:03:59 pm
Awesome; more please!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Psychic Octopus on February 20, 2010, 08:04:44 pm
It's good, but I don't think that George Wallace would have won the nomination. I think that, in this scenario, someone like HHH would have. Continue, please.

Make sure to check out my timeline, too. :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Lincoln Republican on February 20, 2010, 09:05:45 pm
Great timeline, but just a question about the cabinet, John Lindsay in Agriculture.

Why a big city Secretary of Agriculture from Manhattan?


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 20, 2010, 09:59:23 pm
Great timeline, but just a question about the cabinet, John Lindsay in Agriculture.

Why a big city Secretary of Agriculture from Manhattan?

Did I actually do that? OOPS....

Um, I guess Rocky appointed him due to sectional nepotism? j/k more like it's a bad mistake on my part. I'll change it.

Rockefeller’s Cabinet
Vice President: John Tower
Secretary of State: Henry Kissinger
Secretary of Treasury:  George Romney
Secretary of Defense: Richard Nixon
Attorney General: James Rhodes
Postmaster General: William Scranton
Secretary of Interior: Edward Brooke
Secretary of Labor: Margaret Chase Smith
Secretary of Agriculture: Clifford Hardin
Secretary of Commerce: John Chafee
Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare: Arthur Fletcher
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development: John Volpe
Secretary of Transportation: John Lindsay


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 20, 2010, 10:37:35 pm
Oh, and thanks for the support and suggestions guys!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Lincoln Republican on February 20, 2010, 10:40:40 pm
That's not to say that an urbanite could not serve capably as Secretary of Agriculture.  John Lindsay was a very talented individual who could have been effective in this capacity, after having immersed himself in agricultural issues, but it would be highly unusual, and may cause animosity and resentment within the agricultural community.

But I agree Lindsay is much better for Transportation, as you have made the change.

Also, do you not think that Rockefeller would have included at least one or possibly two Democrats in cabinet?  Rockefeller's public life did go back to working himself in the FDR administration as Assistant Secretary of State, not a cabinet level position, but in the administration.

Your cabinet as named is very good, especially with the change, the above is simply a discussion point.

Inspired choice George Romney at Treasury.  :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Bo on February 21, 2010, 12:42:58 am
Go Rocky!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 21, 2010, 12:54:04 pm
That's not to say that an urbanite could not serve capably as Secretary of Agriculture.  John Lindsay was a very talented individual who could have been effective in this capacity, after having immersed himself in agricultural issues, but it would be highly unusual, and may cause animosity and resentment within the agricultural community.

But I agree Lindsay is much better for Transportation, as you have made the change.

Also, do you not think that Rockefeller would have included at least one or possibly two Democrats in cabinet?  Rockefeller's public life did go back to working himself in the FDR administration as Assistant Secretary of State, not a cabinet level position, but in the administration.

Your cabinet as named is very good, especially with the change, the above is simply a discussion point.

Inspired choice George Romney at Treasury.  :)

Thanks! :) Well I think that Rocky choosing several Democrats in his cabinet is not out of the realm of possibility. However, I found enough Republicans that Rocky probably would have wanted in his administration that I didn't need to add a Democrat, AND I figure that he probably would have been criticized enough already by the conservative wing for choosing some of the more liberal Republicans in his cabinet (like Lindsay and Volpe), and that criticism would have been amplified had he chosen a Democrat. Not to mention that Rocky was already perceived by many as a liberal. I figured that he wanted to unify his party at least a little bit.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 21, 2010, 04:50:22 pm
Any more thoughts, comments, or suggestions? I'd love to hear them. :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Apocrypha on February 22, 2010, 12:13:35 am
Keep it up.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 24, 2010, 08:31:55 pm
The 1972 Congressional Elections

President Rockefeller managed to make inroads in the House of Representatives, winning 15 house seats. However, the Republicans lost a net of two seats in the Senate, while the Democrats made a net gain of two. In North Carolina, Democrat Jesse Helms managed to defeat both incumbent Senator B. Everett Jordan and Nick Galifianakis in the Democratic primary, and he would win a convincing victory in the general election. Also, Delaware incumbent Republican J. Caleb Boggs closely defeated Democrat Joe Biden in his bid for re-election. Secretary of Commerce John Chafee resigned his cabinet position to run for the Senate. While President Rockefeller was sad to see him go, he endorsed Chafee in his senate run and even campaigned for him a little. Chafee would be replaced by New York Senator and Rockfeller Republican Jacob Javits, who was easily confirmed by the Senate.

Republican Gains:
Rhode Island: John Chafee
New Mexico: Pete Dominicini
Virginia: William L. Scott

Democratic Gains:
Texas: John Connally
Kentucky: Walter D. Huddleston
South Dakota: James Abourezk
Iowa: Dick Clark

House: 237 D (-15), 198 R (+15)
Senate: 55 D (+1), 44 R (-1), 1 I

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=1&ev_p=0&type=calc&AL=1;9;9&AK=2;3;9&AZ=0;10;5&AR=1;6;9&CA=0;55;6&CO=2;9;9&CT=0;7;6&DE=2;3;9&DC=0;3;9&FL=0;27;5&GA=1;15;9&HI=0;4;7&ID=2;4;9&IL=2;21;9&IN=0;11;4&IA=1;7;3&KS=2;6;9&KY=1;8;3&LA=1;9;9&MD=0;10;6&MA=2;12;9&MI=2;17;9&MN=1;10;9&MS=1;6;9&MO=0;11;4&MT=2;3;9&NV=0;5;5&NH=1;4;9&NJ=2;15;9&NM=2;5;3&NY=0;31;6&NC=1;15;9&ND=0;3;5&OH=0;20;5&OK=1;7;9&OR=2;7;9&PA=0;21;5&RI=2;4;3&SC=2;8;9&SD=1;3;3&TN=2;11;9&TX=1;34;3&UT=0;5;6&VT=0;3;6&VA=2;13;3&WA=0;11;5&WV=1;5;9&WI=0;10;5&WY=2;3;9&ME=2;2;9&ME1=2;1;9&ME2=2;1;9&NE=2;2;9&NE1=2;1;9&NE2=2;1;9&NE3=2;1;9)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 25, 2010, 04:18:01 pm
The Second Term of Nelson Rockefeller

(http://www.firedupmissouri.com/files/win_button.jpg)

While President Rockefeller was reinaugurated in a national feeling of optimism, that feeling would soon fade away, as it was clear that economic troubles were afflicting the nation, and that these economic problems would most likely increase. To deal with the increasing inflation problem, President Rockefeller and the Democratic Congress brandished a new economic plan, entitled WIN, or “Whip Inflation Now.” In addition to circulating WIN pins to encourage personal fiscal responsibility, President Rockefeller signed off on a bill that cut domestic spending, raised taxes on the rich to levels not seen since the Eisenhower years, and restarted price and wage controls. However, inflation would not desist, and unemployment continued to rise. The wage and price controls began to ruin productivity in the economy, and stagflation only increased. President Rockefeller would have liked more spending to have been cut, but infighting in Congress led to a cut of only small portion of domestic spending.

(http://z.about.com/d/history1900s/1/0/y/N/viet31.jpg)
The signing of the Paris Peace Accords

(http://skunks.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/nixon-mccain.jpg)
Secretary Nixon greeting former POW John McCain

The United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the Provisional Revolutionary Government signed off on the Paris Peace Accords in 1973. They agreed to a cease-fire, and North and South Vietnamese forces were allowed to hold their places. Additionally, US troops would withdraw, and US POWs would be returned to home. Saigon and the Viet Cong were to negotiate, and reunification of Vietnam was to be “carried out step by step through peaceful means.” If North Vietnam was to break the treaty, the United States would respond with military force. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Lê Ðức Thọ would be rewarded Nobel Peace Prizes, even though Thọ refused to accept it.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bridge_Crossing.jpg)

After an Arab coalition led by Soviet allies Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in October 1973, Rockefeller initiated an airlift of weapons to help out the Israelis. By the time the United States and the USSR agreed to a truce, Israel had made inroads in the homelands of the enemy. However, OPEC raised oil prices as a result of US support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War. OPEC also placed an embargo against the United States and the Netherlands (the Netherlands assisted Israel as well).

(http://msnbcmedia2.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photo_StoryLevel/080624/080624-gaslines-hmed-4p.h2.jpg)

As a result of the bad economy and US support for Israel, gas prices reached an all time high. To ameliorate the high gas prices and gas lines, President Rockefeller signed off on a bill that lowered the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 mph on January 2, 1974. Although Rockefeller had already signed off on a bill to cut spending, he also signed the Alternative Energy Act, which granted more funding to the EPA, raised taxes on oil companies and polluters, and gave economic incentives to companies so that they could invest and discover alternate energy sources.

Additionally, the stock market crashed from January 1973 to December 1974, as a result of the collapse of the Bretton-Woods System (President Rockefeller had taken the United States off the gold standard in 1971). After the United States went off the gold standard, foreign countries increased their currency reserves, which made the United States dollar and other currencies deflate.

On February 6, 1974, Rockefeller introduced the Comprehensive Health Insurance Act, or CHIP, which mandated employers to provide health insurance for their employees and provided a federal health plan that any American could join (as a sweetener to Democrats, the federal health plan was completely free to the very poor). While CHIP raised the ire of boll weevil Democrats and conservative Republicans, congress signed CHIP on tight margins, and President Rockefeller authorized it.

(http://www.kinglyheirs.com/NewYorkStateRailroads/images/NelsonRockefeller.jpg)
A stressed out and tired President Rockefeller at a cabinet meeting

When all was said and done, the economic problems brought the President’s approval ratings down to a measly 37% by November 1974, right before the midterm elections, possibly one of the worst times to be an unpopular president.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Electric Feel on February 25, 2010, 05:20:16 pm
Intersting...


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on February 26, 2010, 11:15:32 am
Intersting...

Thanks! :)



Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on February 27, 2010, 09:20:30 am
Ouch...Im hoping Rocky's old heart can take the mountain of stress of the deplorable economic situation and unstable Foriegn Policy Realm. His workload alone could have aged him considerably, and it might not take an Sexual Encounter to do the trick ITTL. Either way, if he manages to survive, Teddy should be a lock in for '76...Keep it comming


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 01, 2010, 10:49:38 pm
Any more comments, suggestions, or thoughts?


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Bo on March 01, 2010, 10:53:38 pm
I admire Rocky for helping out Israel during the Yom Kippur War, even if it caused the U.S. to go into a recession as a consequence. I think that the Democrats will win in 1976--hopefully somone like Scoop Jackson, Hugh Carey, or Mo Udall wins the Democratic nomination. I'm assuming Chapaquiddick never occurs in this TL, but I still don't want to see another Kennedy in the White House. That family is way overrated.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Junkie on March 04, 2010, 08:48:54 pm
Very interesting.  Wonder what Rocky will do if Vietnam and Cambodia collapse?  I always thought he would be much more aggressive.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 05, 2010, 08:22:13 pm
Thanks for all of the comments and suggestions guys! Here's the next update

The 1974 Congressional Midterm Elections

The 1974 Congressional Midterm Elections
The bad economy had made President Rockefeller an unpopular president. Ergo, the Democrats made significant gains in Congress. Due to a campaign by President Rockefeller, who was still relatively popular among the New York populace, Senator Louis Lefkowitz, who New York governor Malcolm Wilson had appointed to fill the seat of Secretary of Commerce Jacob Javits, was able to win election in his own right. Several of the Senate elections would be close. Some close Senate elections would include Nevada, where Harry Reid would defeat Governor Paul Laxalt; Florida, where Jack Eckerd managed to defeat Richard Stone, and Kansas, where William Roy would defeat Bob Dole. In the House Elections, the Democrats would pick up 46 seats, leaving them 6 seats short of a veto proof majority.  

Democratic Pickups:
Gary Hart (D-CO)
Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Wendell Ford (D-KY)
William Roy (D-KS)
John Glenn (D-OH)

Republican Pickups:
None

House: 283 D (-46), 198 R (+46)
Senate: 60 D (+5), 39 R (-5), 1 I

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=1&ev_p=0&type=calc&AL=1;9;9&AK=1;3;9&AZ=2;10;9&AR=1;6;9&CA=1;55;9&CO=1;9;3&CT=1;7;9&DE=0;3;6&DC=0;3;9&FL=2;27;9&GA=1;15;9&HI=1;4;9&ID=1;4;9&IL=1;21;9&IN=1;11;9&IA=1;7;9&KS=1;6;3&KY=1;8;3&LA=1;9;9&MD=2;10;9&MA=0;12;6&MI=0;17;5&MN=0;10;5&MS=0;6;5&MO=1;11;9&MT=0;3;4&NV=1;5;9&NH=2;4;9&NJ=0;15;5&NM=0;5;5&NY=2;31;9&NC=1;15;9&ND=2;3;9&OH=1;20;3&OK=2;7;9&OR=2;7;9&PA=2;21;9&RI=0;4;6&SC=1;8;9&SD=1;3;9&TN=0;11;5&TX=0;34;5&UT=2;5;9&VT=1;3;3&VA=0;13;5&WA=1;11;9&WV=0;5;5&WI=1;10;9&WY=0;3;6&ME=0;2;5&ME1=0;1;6&ME2=0;1;5&NE=0;2;5&NE1=0;1;5&NE2=0;1;4&NE3=0;1;6)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 05, 2010, 09:26:55 pm
President Rockefeller was determined to rehabilitate his image over the next two years of his second term. The first domestic problem afflicting the nation was the Swine Flu Crisis. After the Influenza strain H1N1, which used to only harm pigs, began to affect humans, public health officials urged the President to demand mandatory vaccinations against Swine Flu. The President agreed, but due to public relations problems and delays, only 25% of the population was vaccinated. Many Americans were angered that more people died from the vaccines than did from the disease itself.

President Rockefeller happily signed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which required all public schools to accept federal funds for special education. He would also sign the Fairness in Education Act, which took funds deemed unnecessary by the Department of Education from rich public schools and gave them to poor public schools. Education activist Jonathan Kozol would proclaim that “The Fairness in Education Act has given poor children what they deserve the most: a path to success.” Also, at the request of New York City Mayor Abe Beame, Rockefeller would give New York City a Federal bailout, since they were facing bankruptcy.

Although the United States, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam had agreed to the Paris Peace Accords, North Vietnam resumed their attack on South Vietnam. Rockefeller wanted to supply the South with weapons and military aid, but the Democratic Congress refused to allow him to do so. President Rockefeller then implemented Operation Frequent Wind, which evacuated 1,373 US citizens and 5,595 Vietnamese and third country nationals from Saigon. Many of those Vietnamese refugees would become American citizens. The Reagan Republicans disliked Rockefeller’s Vietnam policy, and Ronald Reagan would proclaim “what happened to South Vietnam represents the ultimate betrayal of a military ally, the ultimate betrayal of the South Vietnamese citizens who wish to preserve their freedom against the evils of Communism, and the ultimate betrayal of everything we stand for.” The anti-war left would criticize Governor Reagan for his remarks, since they were glad that the long war in Vietnam was over. However, Republicans were beginning to consider Ronald Reagan as a potential presidential candidate if Vice President John Tower did not run in 1976.

(http://www.planetwaves.net/contents/images/saigon.jpg)

To help reduce Cold War Tensions, President Rockefeller would also enter the Helsinki Accords with the Soviet Union, continuing the policy of détente that Secretary Nixon and Secretary Kissinger had crafted. Also, he would again visit China and the Soviet Union.

Things were beginning to look up for President Rockefeller: his popularity was beginning to climb; the economy showed signs of recovery; and the War in Vietnam was over. While he was originally worried about how the rest of his term would play out, he once again felt optimistic about the rest of his term. Unfortunately, President Rockefeller never got to see the rest of his term, because on September 22, 1975, a woman named Sara Jane Moore shot President Rockefeller as he left a San Francisco hotel. Although doctors tried to operate on the President, he had lost too much blood, and President Rockefeller was dead. On trial, Moore would proclaim: “I am glad I succeeded, and allowed the winds of change to start. I did it to create chaos." President John Tower was quickly sworn in as President of the United States.

(http://gorightly.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/mn_assailant_released_ny110.jpg)
Sara Jane Moore

(http://listverse.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/57-governor-rockefeller-jpg.jpeg)
Nelson Rockefeller (July 8, 1908-September 22, 1975)

The assassination of Nelson Rockefeller was considered the greatest tragedy of the decade. The country was in great mourning and grief not seen since President John F. Kennedy’s assassination twelve years earlier. President Rockefeller’s untimely death cemented his reputation as a Progressive Hero. Years later historians would see him as one of the greatest Presidents of the United States.  

(http://www.museumofthegulfcoast.org/images/john%20tower.jpg)
John Tower (R-TX): The 38th President of the United States


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 05, 2010, 09:31:38 pm
Very interesting.  Wonder what Rocky will do if Vietnam and Cambodia collapse?  I always thought he would be much more aggressive.

Thanks! Well I figured that Rocky would probably listen to Henry Kissinger's advice just as much as Ford and Nixon did, since they were friends OTL. So unfortunately, Vietnam and Cambodia meet the same fate as they did OTL (I wish they hadn't, I'm Vietnamese).


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on March 06, 2010, 09:15:33 am
Hmmm...I guess Rocky's old heart could have taken a slug like Ford did...The 1976 Race should be very interesting, since we know how big of a patriot Ronnie was I doubt that hell run against the Incumbent President under these circumstances, especially a fellow Conservative. If the economy has recovered enough for Tower to seem viable, I think he could win in a narrow squeeker(especially if he sweeps the South). As for the Democrats Teddy might decide to wait or IDk maybe Scoop?


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 06, 2010, 08:34:31 pm
I realized that I never mentioned Nelson Rockefeller’s Supreme Court Appointments. Without any ado, here they are.

Nelson Rockefeller Judicial Appointments:

(http://shafer.allegheny.edu/pictures/hb1365.jpg)
Raymond P. Shafer
Began service on June 23, 1969

(http://farm1.static.flickr.com/167/447150912_1eed708266.jpg)
William J. Brennan Jr. (Chief Justice)
Already in the Supreme Court—Began service as Chief Justice on June 23, 1969

(http://www.uscourts.gov/ttb/may04ttb/images/devitt.jpg)
Wilfred Feinberg
Began service on May 14, 1970

(http://thebsreport.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/lewis_powell_-_1976_official_portrait.jpg)
Lewis F. Powell Jr.
Began service on December 9, 1971

(http://img.wonkette.com/politics/john%20paul%20stevens%203.jpg)
John Paul Stevens
Began service on December 15, 1971



Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 06, 2010, 08:43:43 pm
The Presidency of John Tower

(http://www.historycommons.org/events-images/a999johntower1_2050081722-24532.jpg)

President Tower came into office at a time of national mourning. As a result, Tower had approval ratings as high as 89%. To hold the country together, he requested that President Rockefeller’s cabinet stay with him for the rest of what was supposed to be President Rockefeller’s term. The next important thing that President Tower had to do was appoint a Vice President, since the Twenty-Fifth Amendment allowed him to do so—at the Senate’s confirmation. President Tower decided to appoint House Minority Leader Gerald Ford, whom the Democratic Senate found palatable and easily confirmed on December 13, 1975. Gerald Ford would be the first Vice President not elected.

(http://www.historycentral.com/Bio/people/images/ford.gif)

Additionally, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court William Douglas announced his resignation. In a different move than his predecessor would have made, President Tower appointed William Rehnquist, an unabashed conservative, to the Supreme Court. Rehnquist was confirmed by the Senate by a tight vote. Rehnquist’s appointment would solidify President Tower’s popularity in the South. Associate Justice Rehnquist would begin service on December 17, 1975.

(http://www.biography.com/images/database_images/18750.a.jpg)

President Tower announced that he and Vice President Gerald Ford would be candidates for re-election. Although Ronald Reagan was planning to run for President in 1976, he changed his mind after President Rockefeller’s untimely assassination, and Governor Reagan endorsed the Tower/Ford ticket. Governor Reagan would, however, decide to run for the Senate in California. With no major opposition, John Tower and Gerald Ford easily won the Republican Nomination.

All in all, Tower was not afraid of the 1976 Presidential Election. The Vietnam War was over, the economy was recovering, he was fairly certain to win sympathy votes, and Tower’s approval ratings were relatively high (but had declined from the almost universal 89%). But Tower losing was not out of the realm of possibility, and whom the Democrats nominated, and how he or she campaigned, still needed to be determined.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Vosem on March 07, 2010, 07:03:32 am
Awesome.

You never posted a map of the '68 Senate elections, so based on the '70 numbers (the Republicans gained 2 seats for a 55-45 majority for Democrats; therefore, they'd had a 57-43 majority before '70) and the '74 map, I've come to the conclusion that the '68 races were all exactly the same with two exceptions:

Idaho: George Hansen (R) defeats Frank Church (D)
Ohio: John Gilligan (D) defeats William Saxbe (R)

Is this right?


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 07, 2010, 11:10:19 am
Awesome.

You never posted a map of the '68 Senate elections, so based on the '70 numbers (the Republicans gained 2 seats for a 55-45 majority for Democrats; therefore, they'd had a 57-43 majority before '70) and the '74 map, I've come to the conclusion that the '68 races were all exactly the same with two exceptions:

Idaho: George Hansen (R) defeats Frank Church (D)
Ohio: John Gilligan (D) defeats William Saxbe (R)

Is this right?

I had meant for the 1968 elections to be exactly the same as OTL, so that means that I messed up the 1974 maps. What happened in 1974 in Ohio was that Saxbe lost to John Glenn (since he's not Attorney General ITTL), so it's a Democratic gain. I screwed Ohio up because when I looked up the 1974 senate races I saw that Metzenbaum was the incumbent therefore making it a Democratic hold and not a gain, but I didn't realize that Metzenbaum was only appointed because Saxbe went off to be attorney general. Sorry for all the confusion. I'll change the 1974 map now.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on March 07, 2010, 11:11:48 am
Yeah I had a feeling Tower wouldn't shrink away from the Nomination that easily lol...Can't wait to see what happens on the Democratic side.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Vosem on March 07, 2010, 12:36:10 pm
Awesome.

You never posted a map of the '68 Senate elections, so based on the '70 numbers (the Republicans gained 2 seats for a 55-45 majority for Democrats; therefore, they'd had a 57-43 majority before '70) and the '74 map, I've come to the conclusion that the '68 races were all exactly the same with two exceptions:

Idaho: George Hansen (R) defeats Frank Church (D)
Ohio: John Gilligan (D) defeats William Saxbe (R)

Is this right?

I had meant for the 1968 elections to be exactly the same as OTL, so that means that I messed up the 1974 maps. What happened in 1974 in Ohio was that Saxbe lost to John Glenn (since he's not Attorney General ITTL), so it's a Democratic gain. I screwed Ohio up because when I looked up the 1974 senate races I saw that Metzenbaum was the incumbent therefore making it a Democratic hold and not a gain, but I didn't realize that Metzenbaum was only appointed because Saxbe went off to be attorney general. Sorry for all the confusion. I'll change the 1974 map now.

Oh, okay. Since your going about changing errors in Senate maps, 1972 Oklahoma should be D hold, not gain :)

And great TL, by the way. Great TL.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Psychic Octopus on March 07, 2010, 12:54:26 pm
Poor Rocky :(

President Tower, interesting!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 07, 2010, 02:22:21 pm
Awesome.

You never posted a map of the '68 Senate elections, so based on the '70 numbers (the Republicans gained 2 seats for a 55-45 majority for Democrats; therefore, they'd had a 57-43 majority before '70) and the '74 map, I've come to the conclusion that the '68 races were all exactly the same with two exceptions:

Idaho: George Hansen (R) defeats Frank Church (D)
Ohio: John Gilligan (D) defeats William Saxbe (R)

Is this right?

I had meant for the 1968 elections to be exactly the same as OTL, so that means that I messed up the 1974 maps. What happened in 1974 in Ohio was that Saxbe lost to John Glenn (since he's not Attorney General ITTL), so it's a Democratic gain. I screwed Ohio up because when I looked up the 1974 senate races I saw that Metzenbaum was the incumbent therefore making it a Democratic hold and not a gain, but I didn't realize that Metzenbaum was only appointed because Saxbe went off to be attorney general. Sorry for all the confusion. I'll change the 1974 map now.

Oh, okay. Since your going about changing errors in Senate maps, 1972 Oklahoma should be D hold, not gain :)

And great TL, by the way. Great TL.

Thanks man! :) Good call. Thanks for all the help and corrections!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 07, 2010, 03:40:46 pm
The 1976 Democratic Primaries

Several Democrats emerged to compete in the primaries. These Democrats included:

Shirley Chisholm (D-NY)
Eugene McCarthy (D-MN)
Henry Jackson (D-WA)
Jimmy Carter  (D-GA)
George McGovern (D-SD)
Jerry Brown (D-CA)
Robert Byrd (D-WV)
Mo Udall (D-AZ)
Frank Church (D-ID)

Ted Kennedy (D-MA) had originally planned to run, but he had decided not to after President Rockefeller’s assassination and John Tower’s popularity.

The campaign trail was bitter. Slowly but surely different candidates would drop out, and the only candidates that remained in the running would be Jackson, Brown, Carter, McGovern, Udall, Church, and Byrd. McGovern would attack Jackson as a racist for opposing desegregation busing, while Jackson would deride McGovern as a crazy far left liberal. Robert Byrd, who only won two primaries, would criticize Jackson and McGovern for contributing to party disunity during the 1972 Presidential Election. Jackson would end up winning most of the primaries. Carter would prove to be a sectional candidate, whose outsider status did not seem to make a dent in the rest of the nation. He did however perform well in the South. Jerry Brown and Frank Church did not win many primaries, since they had entered the race too late. Jackson was especially popular with big labor, foreign policy hawks, and blue collar Democrats. McGovern was popular among the “new left” and liberals. Carter was popular among Southern Democrats. The west for the most part, was split between Udall, Church, and Brown.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=1&ev_p=0&type=calc&AL=2;9;5&AK=1;3;5&AZ=1;10;3&AR=2;6;5&CA=3;55;5&CO=1;9;5&CT=1;7;5&DE=1;3;6&DC=1;3;5&FL=1;27;5&GA=2;15;5&HI=3;4;3&ID=3;4;9&IL=1;21;5&IN=1;11;5&IA=1;7;5&KS=1;6;5&KY=1;8;5&LA=2;9;5&MD=1;10;9&MA=3;12;3&MI=1;17;5&MN=1;10;5&MS=2;6;5&MO=1;11;5&MT=3;3;9&NV=3;5;5&NH=1;4;5&NJ=1;15;5&NM=1;5;5&NY=1;31;5&NC=2;15;5&ND=1;3;5&OH=1;20;5&OK=1;7;5&OR=3;7;9&PA=1;21;5&RI=3;4;3&SC=2;8;5&SD=3;3;3&TN=2;11;5&TX=2;34;5&UT=3;5;9&VT=3;3;3&VA=2;13;5&WA=1;11;5&WV=1;5;9&WI=1;10;5&WY=1;3;3&ME=1;2;5&ME1=1;1;5&ME2=1;1;5&NE=3;2;9&NE1=3;1;9&NE2=3;1;9&NE3=3;1;9)

Red—Jackson
Green—Brown
Blue—Carter
Light Green—McGovern
Pink—Udall
Dark Green—Church
Dark Red—Byrd

By the Democratic National Convention, Henry Jackson had won more delegates than necessary to win the nomination. He was anxious not to lose the liberal voters who had deserted the Democrats in 1972 for the Republicans and McGovern’s independent ticket. Thus, Jackson selected the liberal Arizona representative Morris “Mo” Udall as his Vice Presidential candidate, even though they disagreed on several issues. At his nomination speech, Jackson promised to end détente with the Soviet Union, to end busing, and to enact policies friendly to big labor. However, due to President Rockefeller’s assassination, Jackson did not criticize any of Rockefeller’s policies or actions. Unlike the 1972 and 1968 Democratic National Conventions, the 1976 Democratic National Convention was relatively peaceful, and for the most part, the Democratic Party seemed to unite behind the Jackson/Udall Ticket. George McGovern was the only Democrat who had ran in the primaries that refused to endorse Jackson.

(http://www.washington.historylink.org/db_images/HenryJackson1970.jpg)
Henry Jackson (D-WA) giving his acceptance speech

(http://blogs.westword.com/latestword/mo%20udall.jpg)
Mo Udall (D-AZ)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 12, 2010, 06:27:26 pm
The 1976 Presidential Election

Polling was never close for the 1976 Presidential Election. Tower always had a comfortable lead over the Washington Senator. While Jackson campaigned hard for the Presidency, he was never able to break Tower’s lead. President Tower would travel to the South and campaign for “states rights,” which would win over socially conservative Southerners that ordinarily would have voted Democratic. This new approach would be called the “Southern Strategy,” which was unprecedented in the Republican Party. For the first time since 1960, a series of Presidential debates were held on television. Both Tower and Jackson performed well, and none of the debates were ever seen as game changers. However, the Vice Presidential Debate was a potential October Surprise, since Vice President Gerald Ford would proclaim “there is no Soviet Domination in Eastern Europe, and there never will be under a Tower Administration.” This comment allowed Jackson to avoid losing in a landslide. Nevertheless, Tower’s lead in the polls only decreased by a little. On November 2, 1976, President Tower would win his first legal term by a convincing margin. Many political analysts believe that the American people were still in great mourning over President Rockefeller’s untimely murder, and that they were not ready for a new President. Many theorize that Jackson would have won had President Rockefeller not died. Nevertheless, Tower made a commanding sweep of the south, carrying every southern state but WV. However, some Southern states, like MO and KY were very close. Overall, the sympathy vote carried Tower through Election Day.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=1976&ev_c=1&pv_p=1&ev_p=1&type=calc&AL=2;9;5&AK=2;3;5&AZ=2;6;5&AR=2;6;4&CA=2;45;5&CO=2;7;5&CT=2;8;5&DE=2;3;5&DC=1;3;8&FL=2;17;5&GA=2;12;5&HI=1;4;5&ID=2;4;6&IL=1;26;5&IN=2;13;5&IA=2;8;5&KS=2;7;5&KY=2;9;4&LA=2;10;5&MD=1;10;5&MA=1;14;5&MI=1;21;5&MN=1;10;5&MS=2;7;5&MO=2;12;4&MT=2;4;5&NE=2;5;6&NV=2;3;5&NH=2;4;5&NJ=2;17;5&NM=2;4;5&NY=1;41;5&NC=2;13;5&ND=2;3;5&OH=2;25;5&OK=2;8;5&OR=1;6;5&PA=1;27;5&RI=1;4;5&SC=2;8;6&SD=2;4;5&TN=2;10;5&TX=2;26;5&UT=2;4;7&VT=2;3;5&VA=2;12;5&WA=1;9;5&WV=1;6;5&WI=1;11;5&WY=2;3;6&ME=2;2;5&ME1=2;1;5&ME2=2;1;5)


John Tower (R-TX)/Gerald Ford (R-MI): 53.8 % PV, 346 EV
Scoop Jackson (D-WA)/Morris Udall (D-AZ): 45.6% PV, 192 EV


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Vosem on March 12, 2010, 06:42:59 pm
Good, good. Keep it going, Han.

Tower is still eligible for reelection in 1980, and looking at the Democratic possibilities...Scoop Jackson '80!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 12, 2010, 06:53:25 pm
Thanks Vosem! :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on March 14, 2010, 10:03:55 am
Awesome if Tower's term is anywhere as bad as Jimmy's IOTL, He may be pushed back into his heavy drinking and womanizing as an escape for the harshness of the era. With his Texas sized ego I could definatley see him trying to run again in 1980 despite some unpopularity. But if any of that stuff gets to the public, Teddy will have a cakewalk to the presidency despite his own problems with Booze and the ladies lol...Keep it comming.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 14, 2010, 08:04:52 pm
The 1976 Congressional Elections

President Tower’s convincing victory brought with him coattails, and while the Republicans by no means were close to control of Congress, they managed to eliminate the Senate’s filibuster proof majority and put the Democrats farther from a veto proof majority in the House. Probably the most remembered Republican victory of the night was Ronald Reagan’s Senate victory in California. Nevada governor Paul Laxalt, who was defeated in 1974 by Harry Reid by a slim margin, once again made a run for the Senate, and was able to narrowly defeat incumbent Howard Cannon by a very slim margin. In the House elections, Republicans were able to win 25 seats. One notable freshman included Newt Gingrich (R-GA).

 (http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=1&ev_p=0&type=calc&AL=0;9;6&AK=0;3;5&AZ=1;10;3&AR=0;6;5&CA=2;55;3&CO=0;9;5&CT=2;7;9&DE=2;3;9&DC=0;3;9&FL=1;27;9&GA=0;15;5&HI=1;4;3&ID=0;4;6&IL=1;21;6&IN=2;11;3&IA=0;7;5&KS=0;6;5&KY=0;8;5&LA=0;9;5&MD=1;10;3&MA=1;12;9&MI=1;17;9&MN=1;10;9&MS=1;6;9&MO=2;11;3&MT=1;3;9&NV=2;5;3&NH=0;4;5&NJ=1;15;9&NM=2;5;3&NY=1;31;3&NC=0;15;4&ND=1;3;9&OH=2;20;9&OK=0;7;6&OR=0;7;5&PA=2;21;9&RI=1;4;9&SC=0;8;5&SD=0;3;5&TN=2;11;9&TX=1;34;9&UT=2;5;3&VT=2;3;9&VA=3;13;9&WA=1;11;9&WV=1;5;9&WI=1;10;9&WY=2;3;3&ME=1;2;9&ME1=1;1;9&ME2=1;1;6&NE=2;2;9&NE1=2;1;9&NE2=2;1;9&NE3=2;1;9)

Republican Pickups:
Ronald Reagan (R-CA)
Dick Lugar (R-IN)
John Danforth (R-MO)
Harrison Schmitt (R-NM)
Orrin Hatch (R-UT)
Malcolm Wallup (R-WY)
Paul Laxalt (R-NV)

Democratic Pickups:
Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-NY)
Spark Matsunuga (D-HI)
Paul Sarbanes (D-MD)
Dennis Deconcini (D-AZ)

Senate: 57 D (-3) , 42 R (+3), 1 I
House: 258 D (-25), 123 R (+25)




Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 14, 2010, 08:14:13 pm
The First Term of John Goodwin Tower

(http://www.museumofthegulfcoast.org/images/john%20tower.jpg)

The Cabinet of John Tower

Vice President: Gerald Ford
Secretary of State: Howard Baker
Secretary of Treasury:  John Connally
Secretary of Defense: Donald Rumsfeld
National Security Advisor: Henry Kissinger
Attorney General: James Rhodes
Secretary of Interior: George H.W. Bush
Secretary of Labor: Lloyd Bentsen
Secretary of Agriculture: John Block      
Secretary of Commerce: George Romney
Secretary of Health and Human Services: Caspar Weinberger
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development: Edward Brooke
Secretary of Transportation: Bob Dole
Secretary of Energy: James Schlesinger
Secretary of Education: William Bennett

From 1975-1977, President John Tower deviated very little from the deceased President Rockefeller’s planned course. He asked all of Rockefeller’s cabinet to stay, and he signed bills that he knew President Rockefeller planned to or would have signed, such as the creation of a federal Department of Energy, spending increases, etc. Now that President Tower had been elected in his own right, he was ready to govern his own way as well.

In a radical move from his predecessor, he reorganized President Rockefeller’s cabinet, retiring and switching around some secretaries. Perhaps the greatest change had to be the appointment of Howard Baker and Donald Rumsfeld in the place of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Secretary of Defense Richard Nixon. While Secretary Henry Kissinger would no longer serve as Secretary of State, President Tower appointed him to National Security Advisor. These cabinet switches left a bad taste in the mouths of Rockefeller Republicans, but conservatives were generally satisfied with President Tower’s cabinet changes.

Some triumphs for Tower would include authorizing Airline Deregulation and the Camp David Accords, where he would help broker an agreement between Israel and Egypt. Also, Tower would refuse to give Panama Canal to the nation of Panama, maintaining that the canal was American property. While conservatives applauded the move, liberals were outraged.

Senator Reagan, with the help of conservative Republicans and boll weevil Democrats, authored a tax cut, called the Economy Recovery Tax Act of 1977, which would bring taxes down from 90% to 28%. Due to the California Senator’s charisma, the tax cut was able to be passed by members of both parties in both houses, though by tight margins, since liberals resisted it. Speaker Tip O’Neill would call Reagan’s tax cut “a Christmas Party for the rich.” President Tower signed ERTA, even though he had some reservations about the deficits certain to be incurred, and he was unsure of whether signing a tax cut was a good idea in times of inflation.

Additionally, the economy soured under Tower’s watch. Although the tax cuts reduced unemployment, inflation was up in double digits, interest rates were high, deficits were high, oil was scarce, and oil prices were high. President Tower seemed indecisive and helpless in this economic malaise.

In an attempt to eliminate some of the deficit and avoid the full brunt of inflation, President Tower would sign the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1978, which offset some of the ERTA tax cuts, and started spending restraints. Unfortunately, TEFRA did not help with the growing inflation problem, deficits still increased, and President Tower’s policies were considered useless. In addition, President Tower was not charismatic enough to pacify conservatives who saw TERFA as pandering to the left. Conservatives were also dissatisfied with President Tower for his pro-choice stance on abortion.

Considering that things were going not so smoothly for the Tower Administration, the 1978 midterm elections were almost certain to be brutal. All the stress that President Tower had to deal with had accumulated, and President Tower resorted to alcoholism and numerous affairs with various women. The media however, had not picked up on Tower's behavior yet, and he hoped they never would.

To make matters worse, Tower would have yet another huge crisis on his hands.

(http://www.kommunan.is/asgeir/Ayatollah%20Khomeini.jpg)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Psychic Octopus on March 15, 2010, 03:33:30 pm
Great, except you accidentally labeled it "1972" in your first post.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 15, 2010, 05:44:01 pm
Great, except you accidentally labeled it "1972" in your first post.

Oops, thanks for telling me! And thanks for the kind words! :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on March 16, 2010, 10:06:16 am
Things don't look really good for President Tower don't they,At this rate he may even face a Challenge from the Rockefeller Republican Wing of the Party...Anderson annyone? I kinda would like to see someone other than Teddy get the nod in '80...maybe Governor Hugh Carey, Vice Presidential nominee Mo Udall, Governor Jerry Brown etc...Keep it comming!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 19, 2010, 02:15:35 pm
The 1978 Midterm Elections

Due to President Tower’s unpopularity, the 1978 Midterm Elections were a blowout for the Republicans. The Democrats picked up a net of five Senate seats, giving them a filibuster proof majority. Not only that, but the Democrats picked up 33 seats in the House, enough for a veto-proof majority. One bright side of the election for the Republicans was that George W. Bush, son of the Secretary of the Interior George H.W. Bush, won election for the House of Representatives by a close margin. Texas Senator John Hill, who had won the special election to fill Democratic Senator John Connally’s seat, once again won re-election in Texas. By a close margin, William Cohen (R-ME) was able to hold onto Rockefeller Secretary Margaret Chase Smith’s Senate, which after Smith’s ascension to the Cabinet, was filled by Maine Attorney General William Dubord. Al Gore’s son, Al Gore, Jr., was able to pick up his father’s seat. Although Gore had only served in Congress for two years, his connection to his father, his military experience, and John Tower’s unpopularity propelled him to the Senate. All in all the 1978 Midterm Elections were a referendum on the unpopularity of the Tower Administration.

Democratic Pickups:
Joe Biden (D-DE)
Bill Bradley (D-NJ)
J. James Exon (D-NE)
Paul Tsongas (D-MA)
Carl Levin (D-MI)
Alex Seith (D-IL)
Al Gore (D-TN)
Andrew Miller (D-VA)

Republican Pickups:
Thad Cochrane (R-MS)
David Durenberger (R-MN)
Rudy Boschwitz (R-MN)

Senate: 62 D (+5), 37 R (-5), 1 I
House: 291 D (+33), 144 R (-33)

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=1&ev_p=0&type=calc&AL=1;9;9&AK=2;3;9&AZ=0;10;5&AR=1;6;9&CA=0;55;6&CO=2;9;9&CT=0;7;6&DE=1;3;3&DC=0;3;9&FL=0;27;5&GA=1;15;9&HI=0;4;7&ID=2;4;9&IL=1;21;3&IN=0;11;4&IA=1;7;9&KS=2;6;9&KY=1;8;9&LA=1;9;9&MD=0;10;6&MA=1;12;3&MI=1;17;3&MN=2;10;3&MS=2;6;3&MO=0;11;4&MT=2;3;9&NV=0;5;5&NH=1;4;9&NJ=1;15;3&NM=2;5;9&NY=0;31;6&NC=1;15;9&ND=0;3;5&OH=0;20;5&OK=1;7;9&OR=0;7;9&PA=0;21;5&RI=2;4;9&SC=2;8;9&SD=1;3;9&TN=1;11;3&TX=1;34;9&UT=0;5;6&VT=0;3;6&VA=1;13;3&WA=0;11;5&WV=1;5;9&WI=0;10;5&WY=2;3;9&ME=2;2;9&ME1=2;1;9&ME2=2;1;9&NE=1;2;3&NE1=1;1;3&NE2=1;1;4&NE3=1;1;3)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 19, 2010, 02:24:01 pm
On February 1979, the Shah of Iran was overthrown by Ayatollah Khomeini. Although President Tower did not give the Shah military aid, he did allow the Shah to come to the United States for medical treatment. As a result, on November 4, 1979, fifty-three Americans were taken hostage at the Embassy in Iran. The Iranian Militants demanded:

   1. The return of the Shah to Iran for trial.
   2. The return of the Shah's wealth to the Iranian people.
   3. An admission of guilt by the United States for its past actions in Iran, plus an apology.
   4. A promise from the United States not to interfere in Iran's affairs in the future.

(http://www.middleeastopinion.com/history-&-policy/sites/default/files/images/us-policy/IranCrisis.jpeg)

Many clamored in anger against the Iranian government, and polls showed that Americans were willing to go to war, though President Tower and Kissinger decided against it. President Tower considered all his options. He first froze all Iranian assets. Tower also tried negotiations, but those failed. Eventually, President Tower tried to rescue the hostages militarily through Operation Eagle Claw, on December 20, 1979. The operation failed miserably due to a sandstorm, and 8 American servicemen were killed. The failure of Operation Eagle Claw was an embarrassment to the Tower Administration, and gave the new Iranian Government confidence. All in all, nothing that he did seemed to rescue the hostages. The Iran Hostage Crisis made Tower look like an indecisive leader. Eugene McCarthy would comment: "John Tower quite simply abdicated the whole responsibility of the presidency while in office. He left the nation at the mercy of its enemies at home and abroad. He was the worst president we ever had."

The economy showed no signs of recovery as inflation would continue to eat up the paychecks of many workers. Nothing Tower did seemed to help. He raised taxes once more, but that didn’t help with the inflation problem. The fact that Tower cut taxes with ERTA only to raise them again (even though the raises were substantially smaller than the tax levels under Rockefeller’s presidency) made him seem like a flip-flop, a title Democrats would call him. Additionally, President Tower would sign a second Strategic Arms Limitation Act with Brezhnev in 1979, at NSA Henry Kissinger’s behest. SALT II did nothing to further Tower’s popularity, and Senators Ronald Reagan and Scoop Jackson would criticize President Tower for selling out the United States to the Soviet Union.

Additionally, a Pennsylvania Nuclear Power Plant at Three Mile Island failed due to a partial meltdown of the reactor core, causing radioactive material to be released into the environment. While the claim was made that nobody was hurt, reporters later found that lung cancer and leukemia rates were higher, as was infant mortality. The disaster at Three Mile Island would only serve to increase President Tower’s already considerable unpopularity.

All that had happened seemed to be to the detriment of Tower. Even the conservative faction of the Republican Party opposed Tower, due to his détente policies, TERFA, his pro-choice stance, the failures of the Iran Hostage Crisis, and more. His approval ratings had been brought down to a measly 28%.

Despite President Tower’s unpopularity, he still decided to run, mainly due to pride and ego. Just when President Tower believed things couldn’t get any worse, Senator Ronald Wilson Reagan announced that he would challenge President Tower for the Republican Nomination. Reagan never imagined that he’d challenge the President for the nomination, but he felt that the Tower Administration was so incompetent that it was his national duty to run for President.

(http://www.yournews.com/copyroom/newsimages/ronald-reagan-picture.jpg)

Polling showed that Republicans favored Reagan to Tower 2-1, although Tower would privately mutter “I’ll kick his ass if he runs.” About a week after the Senator’s announcement, Illinois Representative John Bayard Anderson announced that he too, would challenge the President for the nomination, proclaiming that President Tower had abandoned the Rockefeller legacy and that Anderson, not Tower, was the heir apparent to President Rockefeller.

(http://photos.upi.com/topics-Independent-presidential-candidate-John-Anderson/120f78ff225803ff1ab6a75ee503d20a/J_1.jpg)

John Tower, who had an 89% approval rating at the beginning of his term, was now being challenged by both the left and the right of the GOP.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on March 19, 2010, 02:54:24 pm
Go Anderson!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 21, 2010, 12:10:07 pm
Any feedback (good or bad), comments, suggestions, or thoughts? They help me to write this TL. :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Bo on March 21, 2010, 07:39:10 pm
Here's some advice: Have Tower tell the Iranian regime that the U.S. will bomb them until all the hostages are freed. If the Iranians start killing the hostages, have Tower declare war on Iran and annihilate the crap out of them.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Kalwejt on March 26, 2010, 03:10:59 pm
Here's some advice: Have Tower tell the Iranian regime that the U.S. will bomb them until all the hostages are freed. If the Iranians start killing the hostages, have Tower declare war on Iran and annihilate the crap out of them.

Disguisting.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 27, 2010, 09:43:01 am
The Republican Primaries, 1980

The 1980 Republican Primaries proved to be a huge slugfest, which was ironic considering that Tower was the incumbent who had won the Republican Primaries unopposed four years ago. Reagan and Anderson would criticize Tower on all fronts, namely the economic malaise and the Iran Hostage crisis. Many primaries would be close. Ronald Reagan would make a huge imprint in the West, which warmed up to his limited government message. Anderson would do well among Rockefeller Republicans in the Northeast, even winning the important New Hampshire primary by a close margin, an important primary that an incumbent president should have won.  By campaigning on the deceased President Rockefeller’s legacy, Anderson was able to win a close victory in New York, with Tower coming in second place. Tower won most of the Southern states by close margins, largely due to his Texas residency, despite Reagan’s conservative message. Considering that both Reagan and Anderson symbolically represented the A.B.T. movement (Anybody But Tower), they siphoned votes from each other in the primaries even though the two represented very different ideologies. As a result, President Tower was able to sustain himself throughout the primaries. Although Reagan did not win a majority of the delegates in the primaries, historians theorize that if Anderson not made his campaign, Reagan probably would have won the primaries.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=0&ev_p=0&AL=2;9;6&AK=2;3;5&AZ=2;10;5&AR=1;6;5&CA=2;55;6&CO=2;9;5&CT=3;7;6&DE=1;3;6&DC=3;3;9&FL=1;27;5&GA=1;15;5&HI=3;4;7&ID=2;4;6&IL=3;21;6&IN=1;11;4&IA=1;7;5&KS=2;6;5&KY=1;8;5&LA=1;9;5&MD=1;10;6&MA=3;12;6&MI=3;17;5&MN=2;10;5&MS=2;6;5&MO=1;11;4&MT=2;3;4&NV=2;5;5&NH=3;4;5&NJ=3;15;5&NM=2;5;5&NY=3;31;6&NC=1;15;4&ND=2;3;5&OH=1;20;5&OK=2;7;6&OR=3;7;5&PA=1;21;5&RI=3;4;6&SC=2;8;5&SD=2;3;5&TN=1;11;5&TX=1;34;5&UT=2;5;6&VT=3;3;6&VA=1;13;5&WA=3;11;5&WV=2;5;5&WI=3;10;5&WY=2;3;6&ME=3;2;5&ME1=3;1;6&ME2=3;1;5&NE=2;2;5&NE1=2;1;5&NE2=2;1;4&NE3=2;1;6)
Blue-Reagan
Red-Tower
Green-Anderson

No candidate had a majority of delegates needed to win the nomination. President Tower carried a slight plurality of delegates, but Senator Reagan and Congressman Anderson closely followed him. As a result, all three candidates headed up to the RNC with high hopes that they would win the big prize.

At the Convention, Senator Reagan made a huge blunder when he announced that if nominated, he would pick moderate Pennsylvania Senator Richard Schweiker as his Vice Presidential nominee. Conservatives were outraged, wanting a more conservative candidate. As a result, few of Tower’s conservative delegates switched over to the California Senator and very few of Tower’s moderate delegates even cared that Schweiker was to be nominated for Vice President. Reagan and Anderson considered joining forces and creating a “Stop Tower” movement, but neither agreed to endorse each other, and the movement fell apart.

Tower’s moderate delegates were in an awkward position.  They were far from happy with President Tower, but the “yahoo” actor from California was too conservative for their tastes, and they didn’t like the “inexperienced” Anderson’s liberalism either. They stuck with President Tower as a result. As a result, President Tower would be renominated on the first ballot by a tight margin. Vice President Gerald Ford would be renominated by a more comfortable margin, though some of Reagan’s delegates symbolically voted for Reagan as the Vice Presidential nominee.

After losing the nomination, John Anderson and his delegates stormed out of the convention. Anderson announced that he would run as an independent ticket, and to convince Rockefeller Republicans to vote for him, he chose former New York City Mayor and Rockefeller Secretary of Transportation John V. Lindsay as his Vice Presidential running mate.

Senator Reagan would take the defeat much more gracefully. He reluctantly endorsed President Tower, giving a great eloquent speech that was not only considered the pinnacle of Reagan’s political career but was also considered to have overshadowed President Tower’s acceptance speech, which was inarticulate and lackluster. Despite his endorsement for President Tower, Senator Reagan failed to raise Tower’s hand up in the air, as a sign of party unity. This left many Reagan supporters reluctant to support the President, and many were planning to stay home.

All in all, the 1980 Republican Convention left many Republicans wondering if they had nominated the wrong guy, and wondering whether Reagan should have been nominated. The Republicans exited the Convention far less enthusiastically than they did in 1976.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 27, 2010, 09:47:06 am
The Democratic Primaries, 1980

Many had expected Edward “Ted” Kennedy to make a run for the Democratic Nomination. However, Kennedy did not run. Kennedy would write in his memoirs: “I was convinced that Tower was so incompetent that the Democratic Party would win big in the 1980 Elections, so I didn’t feel I had the need to run, since I had already carved out a nice place for myself in the Senate. I didn’t really want to be President that much, and if you were to ask me why I wanted to be President, I’m not sure if I would have been able to give a precise, articulate answer. If we had an incompetent Democratic President running the show in the late ‘70s however, I might have run against him in an attempt to save the party from the Republicans.”

In the absence of Senator Kennedy’s candidacy, several Democrats joined the fray. Jerry Brown, governor of California, was the first to declare his candidacy. Jimmy Carter, Georgia’s Governor and Southern favorite son, also declared his candidacy. The other Democrats that would run would include Morris “Mo” Udall and Hugh Carey. Brown would clearly win a majority of the states in the primaries, and while Carter put up a good fight, he was never able to defeat the Brown momentum after Brown won the important Iowa Caucuses and New Hampshire Primaries. Udall and Carey just simply were unable to make a huge impact in the primaries, largely because both of them had decided they wanted the Presidency way too late. Other Democrats came and went, but did not make a dent in the primaries.


(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=0&ev_p=0&AL=2;9;6&AK=1;3;5&AZ=4;10;5&AR=2;6;5&CA=1;55;6&CO=1;9;5&CT=1;7;6&DE=1;3;6&DC=2;3;9&FL=2;27;5&GA=2;15;5&HI=1;4;7&ID=1;4;6&IL=1;21;6&IN=1;11;4&IA=1;7;5&KS=1;6;5&KY=2;8;5&LA=2;9;5&MD=1;10;6&MA=1;12;6&MI=1;17;5&MN=1;10;5&MS=2;6;5&MO=2;11;4&MT=1;3;4&NV=1;5;5&NH=1;4;5&NJ=1;15;5&NM=1;5;5&NY=3;31;6&NC=2;15;4&ND=1;3;5&OH=1;20;5&OK=2;7;6&OR=1;7;5&PA=1;21;5&RI=1;4;6&SC=2;8;5&SD=1;3;5&TN=2;11;5&TX=2;34;5&UT=1;5;6&VT=1;3;6&VA=2;13;5&WA=1;11;5&WV=2;5;5&WI=1;10;5&WY=4;3;6&ME=1;2;5&ME1=1;1;6&ME2=1;1;5&NE=1;2;5&NE1=1;1;5&NE2=1;1;4&NE3=1;1;6)
Red-Brown
Blue-Carter
Yellow-Udall
Green-Carey

By the Democratic National Convention, Brown had won more than enough delegates to sweep the nomination, and he was nominated with little fuss, which was uplifting compared to the split Republicans. The mood of the night was optimistic, and nothing went wrong. In order to appease Southern Democrats and moderates, Brown would choose the runner up in the primaries, Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter. All in all, the Democrats were energized and ready to take on the Tower/Ford ticket and the Anderson/Lindsay ticket and send the Brown/Carter ticket to the White House. After 12 years of Republican rule, the Democrats felt that this was their chance.

(http://blog.cleveland.com/nationworld_impact/2009/04/large_Jerry-Brown-then-Nov-1978.jpg)
Jerry Brown (D-CA)

(http://trcs.wikispaces.com/file/view/JIMMY.jpg/41121037/JIMMY.jpg)
Jimmy Carter (D-GA)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on March 27, 2010, 11:42:24 am
Go Brown/Carter!!!, This race should be a fairly exciting one, as I think Jerry made a huge rookie mistake at not picking up someone more well-versed in Foreign Policy. Tower, being the strong Defense ties that he has will probably make this the issues of the campaign and as well as Brown's Youth and Inexpeirence(He'd be the Youngest President inaugurated if he won, 42!!! Also Anderson should have a considerable effect on the race especially in the Northeast...Keep it comming!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 27, 2010, 04:48:37 pm
The 1980 Presidential Election

The election was shaping up to be interesting. Brown and Anderson would heavily capitalize on President Tower’s failures regarding the economy and the Iran Hostage Crisis. The election however, would be far from a complete Tower Bashing, as Tower would criticize the Brown/Carter ticket for being too inexperienced, since if elected, Brown would the youngest President at 42 years old. “During these times,” President Tower remarked on the campaign trail, “Experience is absolutely necessary to guide the United States. Both Brown and Carter are way too inexperienced to lead the White House.” Brown and Carter would campaign as outsiders against a Republican ticket that, in Brown's words, had “spent too much time in Washington, D.C.” John Anderson campaigned for a gas tax and fiscal austerity. The gas tax proposal was not well received by voters. Anderson’s campaign attracted intellectuals, very liberal Democrats, and Rockefeller Republicans.

Additionally, rumors sprung during the election campaign, as it was rumored that President Tower was in fact an alcoholic womanizer (which was actually true). Tower always denied the rumors, and there wasn’t enough proof at the time to prove these allegations were, in fact, true. However, the rumors certainly didn’t help him, and decades after the election the rumors were proven true. At the advice of his campaign staffers, Brown would post several campaign ads attacking Tower for his bacchanalian behavior, and Tower would attack them as smear campaigns.

As with the last Presidential Election, several debates were scheduled between Tower, Brown, and Anderson. Also, a vice presidential debate was to be held between Ford, Carter, and Lindsay. However, Tower refused to debate with Anderson, and Brown refused to debate without Anderson. This led to several debates being canceled, although Brown would debate Anderson in a little publicized two way debate, which was largely considered a draw. Eventually Brown ceded to President Tower’s demands and agreed to debate…without Anderson present. Right before the debate, polls showed a slight and insignificant Tower lead, with the election too close to call.

At the debate, President Tower would refuse to shake Governor Brown’s hand, much to the surprise of everybody. When asked why, Tower would say: “My opponent has slurred my reputation. My kind of American doesn’t shake hands with that kind of man.”

Everybody was stunned, but the debate went on.

Governor Brown would surprisingly urge for limited government and “an era of limits.” At President Tower’s proposed idea of increasing military spending, Brown would say: “People always say money. Give us more resources; give us more planning, more experts. Well I would only say, the Vietnam War. The other side had less resources, less planning, less experts, less P.H.D.s, and they won.”

President Tower was shocked. He had planned to attack Governor Brown as a “tax and spend liberal,” but Brown had outsmarted him. He then said, “That was unpatriotic and uncalled for, Governor.” But his response did not gain as much traction from TV viewers as Brown’s did.

President Tower would also try to play up his experience at the debate. He said: “Governor Brown is a nice man, but he does not have the foreign policy experience necessary to be Commander-In-Chief of the United States Armed Forces. He has no foreign policy experience, and is simply too young to be President. I have served as Vice-President under President Nelson Rockefeller, helping him create his successful foreign policy. I have also served in the Pacific Theater in World War II and both the Armed Forces Committee and the Joint Committee on Defense Production in the Senate. With my experience in World War II, the Rockefeller Administration, the Senate, and my own administration, I believe that I am the only qualified candidate in this election to serve as the President of the United States.”

Everybody that watched the debate on television was stunned. What would the California Governor say to the President's long resumé?

Brown replied: “There you go again. You’ve got a point there, Mr. President. I don’t have the experience to lose our credibility abroad, as you have. I don’t have the experience to experience to create a foreign policy that keeps Americans in the hands of Iranian terrorists, as you have. I don’t have the experience to throw the country in a recession, as you have.”

The “There you go again” remark was considered the pinnacle of the debate. While polls indicated a small Tower lead before the debate, the polls indicated a Brown landslide afterwards. Americans were shocked at President Tower’s rudeness and Governor Brown’s exceptional performance.

Due to the Iran Hostage Crisis, Brown’s performance at the debate, and the bad economy, nobody was surprised when on November 4, 1980, Jerry Brown won in a landslide. While John Anderson did not win any electoral votes, he won a great share of the popular vote (for an independent candidacy). Anderson’s presence made several states very close. His greatest strength was among the New England Republican base, since many Rockefeller Republicans that couldn’t stand Tower but didn’t warm up to the quirky California Governor. Indeed, the only New England state that Tower carried was New Hampshire, which arguably was thrown to him by Anderson’s candidacy, since Anderson had enough votes to thrown New Hampshire to either Tower or Brown. Anderson would also come second Washington D.C., Vermont, and Rhode Island. Carter’s presence on the Democratic ticket did what it was supposed to: it took many of the Southern States, though many Southern States were close. The only Southern States Tower carried were his home state (by 303 votes), Alabama, Mississippi, and Virginia. All of Tower’s Southern states were carried on narrow margins.

The Brown Revolution had begun.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=1980&ev_c=1&pv_p=1&ev_p=1&type=calc&AL=2;9;5&AK=2;3;4&AZ=1;6;4&AR=1;6;6&CA=1;45;5&CO=1;7;5&CT=1;8;4&DE=1;3;4&DC=1;3;7&FL=1;17;5&GA=1;12;6&HI=1;4;5&ID=2;4;5&IL=1;26;4&IN=2;13;5&IA=1;8;5&KS=2;7;5&KY=1;9;4&LA=1;10;5&MD=1;10;5&MA=1;14;6&MI=1;21;4&MN=1;10;5&MS=2;7;5&MO=1;12;5&MT=1;4;5&NE=2;5;5&NV=1;3;5&NH=2;4;4&NJ=1;17;5&NM=1;4;5&NY=1;41;4&NC=1;13;4&ND=1;3;4&OH=1;25;4&OK=2;8;5&OR=1;6;5&PA=1;27;4&RI=1;4;6&SC=1;8;4&SD=2;4;4&TN=1;10;4&TX=2;26;5&UT=2;4;5&VT=1;3;4&VA=2;12;4&WA=1;9;5&WV=1;6;5&WI=1;11;4&WY=2;3;5&ME=1;2;4&ME1=1;1;5&ME2=1;1;4)

Jerry Brown (D-CA)/Jimmy Carter (D-GA): 429 EV, 51.1% PV
John Tower (R-TX)/Gerald Ford (R-MI): 109 EV, 37.6% PV
John Anderson (I-IL)/John Lindsay (I-NY): 0 EV, 10.9% PV


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 27, 2010, 05:40:20 pm
Oh, and thank you Historico, for all the help and suggestions!

Any comments, suggestions, and tips from anybody? Every comment helps! :D


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Barnes on March 27, 2010, 05:41:22 pm
Oh, and thank you Historico, for all the help and suggestions!

Any comments, suggestions, and tips from anybody? Every comment helps! :D

It's very good. A Brown/Carter White House will be very interesting! :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 27, 2010, 06:18:35 pm
Oh, and thank you Historico, for all the help and suggestions!

Any comments, suggestions, and tips from anybody? Every comment helps! :D

It's very good. A Brown/Carter White House will be very interesting! :)

Thanks Barnes! :D Are we going to see an update in your John Pershing TL anytime soon?


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Barnes on March 27, 2010, 06:19:40 pm
Oh, and thank you Historico, for all the help and suggestions!

Any comments, suggestions, and tips from anybody? Every comment helps! :D

It's very good. A Brown/Carter White House will be very interesting! :)

Thanks Barnes! :D Are we going to see an update in your John Pershing TL anytime soon?

You know, I'm not really sure. lol ;D


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Psychic Octopus on March 27, 2010, 06:23:48 pm
Go Jerry!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: roby on March 28, 2010, 11:24:11 am
Very interesting, keep it up man :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 28, 2010, 12:42:37 pm
Very interesting, keep it up man :)

Thanks! :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 28, 2010, 01:32:46 pm
I should have the next update fairly soon. In the meantime, here's a list of Presidents.

Rocky In 1968 POTUS List


36. Lyndon Baines Johnson (D-TX): November 22, 1963—January 20, 1969
37. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (R-NY): November 22, 1969—September 22, 1975
38. John Goodwin Tower (R-TX): September 22, 1975—January 20, 1981
39. Edmond Gerald “Jerry” Brown, Jr. (D-CA): January 20, 1981—??

Rocky In 1968 VP List

Vacant: November 22, 1963—January 20, 1965
38. Hubert Horatio Humphrey (D-MN): January 20, 1965—January 20, 1969
39. John Goodwin Tower (R-TX): January 20, 1969—September 22, 1975
Vacant: September 22, 1975—December 17, 1975
40. Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. (R-MI): December 17, 1975—January 20, 1981
41. James Earl “Jimmy” Carter, Jr. (D-GA): January 20, 1981—??


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 28, 2010, 04:56:10 pm
The 1980 Congressional Elections
Democratic Pickups:
Elizabeth Holtzman (D-NY)
Pete Flaherty (D-PA)
Bill Schultz (D-AZ)
Ted Kulongoski (D-OR)

Republican Pickups:
None

Senate: 66 D (+4), 33 R (-4), 1 I
House: 310 D (+19), 125 R (-19)


The First Term of Edmund Gerald “Jerry” Brown, Jr.

I am Governor Jerry Brown
My aura smiles
And never frowns
Soon I will be president...


(http://www.moonbattery.com/archives/jerry-brown_linda-ronstadt.jpg)


The Cabinet of Edmund G. Brown, Jr.

Vice President: Jimmy Carter
Secretary of State: Frank Church
Secretary of Treasury: Ernest Hollings
Secretary of Defense: George McGovern
Attorney General: Patricia Harris
Secretary of Interior: Cecil D. Andrus
Secretary of Labor: Hugh Carey
Secretary of Agriculture: Robert Bergland
Secretary of Commerce: Jesse Jackson
Secretary of Health and Welfare: March Fong Eu
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development: Julian Bond
Secretary of Transportation: Mark Hatfield
Secretary of Education: David S. Saxon
Secretary of Energy: Mo Udall

President Jerry Brown would enter his first term with a bang, considering that as he gave his first inaugural address, the 52 hostages that were held be Iran for 444 days were finally released. Not only that, but at 42 years old, he held the record for the youngest President in history, surpassing Republican Theodore Roosevelt. He would walk to his inaugural ceremony, as opposed to taking the limousine.

On March 30, 1981, a deranged man named John Hinckley, Jr. shot President Brown. Brown survived the shooting, Brown survived a punctured lung, but survived, and when he was taken to the hospital, he jokingly told the doctors: “Please tell me that you’re all Democrats.” His surgeon would reply: “We’re all Democrats today, Mr. President.” The shooting incident increased President Brown’s approval ratings to 75%, increasing his considerable popularity.

Additionally, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, Potter Stewart, announced his retirement at the age of 66 in 1981. President Brown wanted to create a precedent for future generations to come.  He thus nominated the first woman to the Supreme Court: Rose Bird, who he had previously appointed to the California Supreme Court back in his days as California Governor, who, despite objections from Conservatives, was confirmed by the Senate.  

(http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Wo5AGfK6Atk/SC4nX6J4vbI/AAAAAAAAAIM/VBLUAATxbO0/s400/RoseBird.jpg)

In the realm of foreign policy, President Brown would cut defense spending, much to the ire of conservatives. This cut in defense spending would help ameliorate the deficit, and the size in the Federal Government decreased. He would also engage in talks with the Soviet Union leaders, continuing the policy of détente and maintaining bilateral arms reductions, and President Brown essentially tried to remain friendly to the Soviet Union, while the Soviet Union’s economy was slowly deteriorating. President Brown planned to push for a nuclear freeze later along the line, but now wasn’t the time for that, given the Soviet leaders in power at the time. Brown wanted a much more conciliatory Soviet leader to bargain with, and he figured that the time would come very very soon, when he could engage in talks for a nuclear freeze. Ultimately, it seemed that the President was aiming for “peaceful co-existence” with the Soviet Union as opposed to “sending The Soviet Union to the ash-heap of history.”

The one military expenditure that he increased was NASA, increasing the number of space academies, spending more money on space-based research, and increasing the number of United States satellites. Also, Brown began to invest in the Strategic Defense Initiative, or “Star Wars,” as critics called it. “Star Wars” utilized the idea of using space-based systems to protect the United States from strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. Due to President Brown’s space policies, Americans began to refer to President Brown as “President Moonbeam,” which was a continuation of his nickname as Governor, “Governor Moonbeam.”

During the Tower Administration, tax levels had been reduced from 90% to 28%, but then were raised to 33% and then 38.6% in a failed effort to stop inflation. Senator Ronald Reagan, along with several Republicans and fiscally conservative Democrats, worked on a tax cut bill that cut income taxes to 26%. President Brown, who actually was a fiscally conservative governor, heartily endorsed Reagan’s bill, and with Brown’s endorsement and Reagan’s charisma in the Senate, the “Brown tax-cuts” were passed. “While Ronnie and I clearly disagreed on foreign policy and cultural matters, I must say that Senator Reagan had to have been my greatest ally in Congress for economic matters,” mused President Brown in his autobiography released in the 1990s. Additionally, Brown would push numerous economic deregulations in the economy, moving heavily towards a free market. One of his most successful deregulations was that of the oil industry. Brown would end price controls on domestic oil, leading to an oil glut and a reduction in oil prices. The 1980s therefore, did not suffer the same oil shortages that the 1970s did. Liberal Democrats would sneer at the President’s policies, but Brown’s policies were widely popular with the public. The deficit would widen, since liberal Democrats in Congress did not agree to cut social spending (though Brown and Reagan managed to push for a reduction in some domestic spending), but the deficit was partially healed by Brown's cutting of the defense spending.

Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volcker wrenched the economy by contracting the money supply, so that the inflation problem that afflicted the nation would cease to exist. This caused a huge recession that caused President Brown’s popularity to go down. Unemployment would rise to a high of 10.8% on December 1982. Also, Volcker was very unpopular among the American public. Effigies of Volcker would be hung and burned on Capital Hill. Despite Volcker’s unpopularity, President Brown never tried to put the Federal Reserve under direct control and he never criticized Chairman Volcker publicly. Brown would be criticized by the right and the left for his inaction against Volcker. President Brown was wise to do this because Volcker’s policies were working quite successfully, and the beast of inflation was tamed.

(http://therearenosunglasses.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/smoking-man.gif)

By the end of 1982, Brown, while personally popular and revered by 1980s pop culture, was a politically unpopular President, with his approval ratings at a dismal 35%, largely due to Volcker’s deliberate recession. The Republicans managed to pick up four seats in the Senate (which became five after former Democratic Presidential Candidate and Senator Henry Jackson's death) and twenty-six seats in the House, due to the bad economy. If there was any light at the end of the tunnel, it was that inflation had fallen drastically from 10.3% in 1981 to 3.2% in 1983. The economy would hopefully prosper from there on.

Despite the midterm losses, the Democrats still had a commanding majority in Congress, with a filibuster proof majority in the Senate and six seats short of a veto-proof majority in the House (which could easily be filled by liberal Rockefeller Republicans). President Brown still had several items left to fill in his first term agenda, and he was undeterred from fulfilling this agenda despite his losses in Congress. The rest of his agenda, would prove to be much more liberal than his economic goals that he had accomplished.

The 1982 Congressional Midterm Elections

Republican Pickups:
Paul S. Trible, Jr. (R-VA)
George H.W. Bush (R-TX)
Paul E. Pfeifer (R-OH)
Phillip Ruppe (R-MI)
Daniel J Evans (R-WA) (Won the Special Election for Henry Jackson’s seat in 1983)

Democratic Pickups:
None

Senate: 61 D (-5), 39 R (+5)
House: 284 D (-26), 151 R (+26)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 28, 2010, 04:56:53 pm
Any comments, suggestions, thoughts, or questions? Every comment helps and I'd love to hear them! :D


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 28, 2010, 05:43:04 pm
The economy began to experience a recovery, and the boom began. President Brown’s popularity surged, and he was glad that he did not attack Volcker in any way, since inflation was gone, and due to “The Brown Tax Cuts” and deregulation, unemployment was reducing. Even Senator Reagan had to comment “It’s morning in America again.”

To address environmental problems, the Democratic Congress passed a bill (the Environmental Protection Act of 1983) at the encouragement of President Brown that increased spending on alternate energy sources and scientific research, increased funding for the EPA, created thousands of solar panels and wind turbines to provide new energy, gave tax incentives for business owners that used alternate energy, and raised taxes on the oil industry. President Brown signed it immediately (while Brown ended price controls on oil, he was not averse to raising taxes on gas once gas prices became very cheap). Environmentalists loved President Brown for his signature of the Environmental Protection Act of 1983, and President Brown considered it one of his biggest achievements in his first term.

Additionally, there was the problem of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, that was afflicting the nation, particularly those in the gay community. A champion of gay rights, President Brown would sign a bill passed by the Democratic Congress called the Civil Rights Act of 1983 (which mainly focused on gay rights as opposed to the black rights that former civil rights bills protected), which increased funding for AIDS, granted gay couples the same legal rights as heterosexual couples, permitted gay couples to adopt, and protected gay rights in the work place. Brown would adamantly tell the American people about the huge threat of AIDS and why the United States should eradicate it. This increased Brown’s standing with the gay community.

Finally, President Brown would continue his policy of conciliatory talks with the Soviet Union, and would place an emphasis on human rights rather than anticommunism. For example, President Brown would refuse to aid the Rebel Contras in Nicaragua, due to human rights concerns, much to the ire of Republicans. He signed the Boland Amendment in 1982, which restricted overt U.S. support of the Contras. Additionally, President Brown announced “The Brown Doctrine:” he would not give aid to any anticommunist forces if they did not respect human rights. He made no attempts to roll back Communism where it already existed (and did not help the anti-Communist rebels in Afghanistan), not wanting to face another Vietnam War. Vice President Jimmy Carter would proclaim: “Being confident of our own future, we are now free of that inordinate fear of communism which once led us to embrace any dictator who joined us in that fear. I’m glad that that’s being changed.”

Although Jerry Brown had suffered losses in the 1982 Congressional Midterm Elections, the economy was booming once more, and Brown’s popularity had skyrocketed, just the right time for the upcoming 1984 Presidential Election. Despite the increases in spending for NASA, increases in environmental spending and increases for spending for AIDS, Brown had successfully reduced the size of the Federal Government, earning the respect of some limited government Republicans and ultimately, President Jerry Brown's first term was considered successful.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 28, 2010, 05:44:06 pm
Any comments, suggestions, thoughts, or questions? Every comment helps and I'd love to hear them! :D


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Barnes on March 28, 2010, 05:45:55 pm
Brown seems like a great President so far! Continue. :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 28, 2010, 06:04:51 pm
Brown seems like a great President so far! Continue. :)

Thanks for the encouraging words Barnes! :D


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 30, 2010, 03:58:49 pm

The 1984 Presidential Election

The Democratic Nomination

President Brown and Vice President Carter were easily renominated by the Democratic Party with little fuss. Despite the fact that Brown had let down fiscally liberal Democrats who supported tighter regulations and more aid to the poor, the Democratic Party was for the most part, united around Brown’s re-election campaign. Nevertheless, the far-left Democrats would have preferred somebody else.

The Republican Nomination
The battle for the Republican nomination would be far more divisive and climactic. Given President Brown’s popularity, only several candidates emerged, and none of those Republicans were prominent in the political scene. The major Republicans that jumped in the fray were televangelist Pat Robertson (R-VA), John Lindsay (R-NY), who was a former Congressman, a former mayor of New York City, a former Secretary of Transportation under Nelson Rockefeller, and a former Vice Presidential Candidate under John Anderson’s independent candidacy; and Barry Goldwater, Jr. (R-CA), a California congressman, and son of Barry Goldwater, who lost in a great landslide in 1964 against Lyndon Baines Johnson.

As expected, Robertson would dominate the South, Lindsay would dominate the North, and Goldwater would dominate the West. Goldwater would attack Robertson for his policies, which seemed to be based on his religion. On the campaign trail, Goldwater would say: “Pat Robertson and his goddamn faction are not using their religious clout with wisdom. They are trying to force government leaders into following their position 100 percent. If you disagree with him and his faction on a particular moral issue, they complain, they threaten you with a loss of money or votes or both. I am warning him today: I will fight him every step of the way if he tries to dictate his moral convictions to all Americans in the name of ‘conservatism.’” In an affirmation of his religion, Robertson would proclaim: “Lord, give us righteous judges who will not try to legislate and dominate this society. Take control, Lord! We ask for additional vacancies on the court.” Lindsay would campaign on his connections with the deceased President Nelson Rockefeller, and Lindsay’s platform would be the typical liberal one: proposing increased federal aid for welfare purposes, and promoting social liberalism. Robertson would attack Lindsay for his liberalism and his role in the Anderson/Lindsay ticket in 1980. “If Anderson had not run as an independent with Lindsay,” declared Robertson, “The Republican Party would have been united, and John Tower would have won re-election.” Everybody knew however, that John Tower was so unpopular that he would have lost with or without Anderson’s independent candidacy. Conservatives who despised Lindsay were split up over Goldwater and Robertson, and many speculate that Goldwater or Robertson could have beaten out Lindsay for the nomination had only one of them run for the Republican nomination. John Lindsay gained momentum with his big gains in the Illinois Primary, the Connecticut Primary, the New York Primary, and the Wisconsin Primary. While neither Goldwater nor Robertson dropped out, they were unable to overcome the Lindsay momentum. Goldwater even lost his home state by one percentage point in the primaries.

At the Republican National Convention, John Lindsay had enough delegates to clinch the nomination on the first ballot, though Robertson and Goldwater did not fold yet, in hopes that some Lindsay delegates could defect to either of them. The defection never happened, and John Lindsay was nominated on the first ballot. It became very clear that Lindsay would not even attempt to diversify the ticket, as he would select the liberal Connecticut Senator Lowell Weicker as his Vice-Presidential nominee. Conservatives, who thought that Lindsay might at least select a moderate conservative for his Vice Presidential Candidate, exited the convention in disgust at this liberal Rockefeller Republican ticket. Lindsay’s nomination would however, attract liberal Democrats who disliked President Brown’s deregulatory policies.

Pat Robertson declared a run for the Presidency on the American Independent Party Ticket. He was easily nominated and he selected Democrat Jesse Helms as his running mate. Despite the furor and energy the “moral majority” felt against both Brown and Lindsay, most polls showed that Robertson’s candidacy would not affect the election in any way, and Robertson was never even considered for entry in the Presidential Debates scheduled that year.

Goldwater would endorse President Jerry Brown, as the lesser of two evils, or three evils if Robertson’s ticket counted. Goldwater’s father, Barry Goldwater, would also reluctantly endorse President Brown.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=0&ev_p=0&AL=2;9;6&AK=3;3;5&AZ=3;10;5&AR=2;6;5&CA=1;55;6&CO=3;9;5&CT=1;7;6&DE=1;3;6&DC=1;3;9&FL=2;27;5&GA=2;15;5&HI=1;4;7&ID=3;4;6&IL=1;21;6&IN=3;11;4&IA=2;7;5&KS=3;6;5&KY=2;8;5&LA=2;9;5&MD=1;10;6&MA=1;12;6&MI=1;17;5&MN=1;10;5&MS=2;6;5&MO=2;11;4&MT=3;3;4&NV=3;5;5&NH=3;4;5&NJ=1;15;5&NM=3;5;5&NY=1;31;6&NC=2;15;4&ND=3;3;5&OH=1;20;5&OK=2;7;6&OR=1;7;5&PA=1;21;5&RI=1;4;6&SC=2;8;5&SD=3;3;5&TN=2;11;5&TX=2;34;5&UT=3;5;6&VT=1;3;6&VA=2;13;5&WA=1;11;5&WV=2;5;5&WI=1;10;5&WY=3;3;6&ME=1;2;5&ME1=1;1;6&ME2=1;1;5&NE=3;2;5&NE1=3;1;5&NE2=3;1;4&NE3=3;1;6)
Red—Lindsay
Blue—Robertson
Green—Goldwater


(http://www.nndb.com/people/214/000117860/john-lindsay-2-sized.jpg)
John Lindsay (R-NY)

(http://bioguide.congress.gov/bioguide/photo/w/w000253.jpg)
Lowell Weicker (R-CT)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 30, 2010, 04:40:56 pm
The General Election

John Lindsay’s nomination greatly changed the political landscape of this election. Now, Jerry Brown was the conservative candidate (even though he was a social liberal and a dove in foreign policy), and Lindsay was the liberal candidate. Immediately, President Brown attacked Lindsay on Lindsay’s problems with union strikes and labor issues during his short mayoralty of New York City. He would also attack Lindsay on his tax increases during that short time span. Finally, Brown would also attack Lindsay for his limited executive experience, since Lindsay had only served as Mayor of New York City for 3 years, before serving as Secretary of Transportation under President Nelson Rockefeller. Many felt that John Lindsay was a “has been” in national politics. Lindsay would once again campaign as Rockefeller’s surrogate, but it was clear that that strategy was beginning to lose its effectiveness. He promised to increase welfare spending. Lindsay’s war chest was running low on money due to the expensive primary campaign, while President Brown had plenty of funds to campaign on. President Brown’s greatest asset was the booming economy that had flourished during his Presidency. Brown would campaign on the themes of limited government and restrained spending. Every poll showed Brown with a huge lead.

Just like the last election in 1980, there were several Presidential Debates that were held, as well as one Vice Presidential Debate. In the Vice Presidential Debate, Vice President Carter would stress the importance a nuclear freeze. Carter said: “I had a discussion with my daughter Amy the day before I came here, about what the most important issue was, she said the control of nuclear arms.” While Carter’s remark did not cause Brown’s lead in the polls to shrink, the media and the press mocked Carter for his remark. In the Presidential Debate, Brown would say: “I think when you vote on Election Day, it might be well if you would ask yourself, are you better off than you were four years ago? I believe the answer is yes. The economy is booming, inflation is down, jobs are growing, and our country is internationally respected overseas.” This question resonated in the minds of voters, who, after Brown’s remarks, decided to support Brown over Lindsay.

On November 6, 1984, Jerry Brown would defeat John Lindsay in one of the greatest landslides of all time. Brown would even carry the Western conservative states like Wyoming, Idaho, Nebraska, and Utah, which would ordinarily never go Democratic. However, Lindsay’s unabashed liberalism, the endorsement of both Goldwaters, Brown’s western status, and Brown’s message of limited government pulled in the entire West for Brown. Pat Robertson would not win any electoral votes, and did not win that big of a victory in the popular vote, even for a third party, although he broke one percent. Lindsay only managed to carry Vermont, Connecticut, and New Hampshire by close margins. Lindsay wasn’t able to carry his home state, New York, let alone the city he once governed: New York City. It was clear that the people in 1984 were better off than they were four years ago, and that they wanted the status quo. With 59% of the vote and 523 electoral votes (tying with Franklin Delano Roosevelt for the greatest amount of electoral votes received by a candidate), President Brown had a mandate to continue the successful policies that he had started in 1981.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=1984&ev_c=1&pv_p=1&ev_p=1&type=calc&AL=1;9;5&AK=1;3;6&AZ=1;7;6&AR=1;6;6&CA=1;47;5&CO=1;8;6&CT=2;8;5&DE=1;3;5&DC=1;3;9&FL=1;21;6&GA=1;12;6&HI=1;4;7&ID=1;4;5&IL=1;24;5&IN=1;12;5&IA=1;8;6&KS=1;7;5&KY=1;9;6&LA=1;10;6&MD=1;10;6&MA=1;13;7&MI=1;20;5&MN=1;10;6&MS=1;7;5&MO=1;11;6&MT=1;4;6&NE=1;5;5&NV=1;4;6&NH=2;4;5&NJ=1;16;6&NM=1;5;6&NY=1;36;5&NC=1;13;5&ND=1;3;5&OH=1;23;5&OK=1;8;5&OR=1;7;6&PA=1;25;5&RI=1;4;6&SC=1;8;5&SD=1;3;6&TN=1;11;5&TX=1;29;5&UT=1;5;5&VT=2;3;5&VA=1;12;6&WA=1;10;6&WV=1;6;6&WI=1;11;6&WY=1;3;5&ME=1;2;5&ME1=1;1;5&ME2=1;1;4)

Jerry Brown (D-CA)/Jimmy Carter (D-GA): 523 EV, 58.6% PV
John Lindsay (R-NY)/Lowell Weicker (R-CT): 15 EV, 38.3% PV
Pat Robertson (AI-VA)/Jesse Helms (AI-NC): 0 EV, 2.7% PV


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: RosettaStoned on March 30, 2010, 06:44:05 pm
Just started reading this. Very good! :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 30, 2010, 07:22:54 pm
Just started reading this. Very good! :)

Thanks! :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Mechaman on March 30, 2010, 07:57:24 pm
You have no idea how long I have been waiting for someone to do a TL with a Brown presidency in the 1980's, much less one where the Democratic Party is libertarian leaning.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on March 30, 2010, 07:58:26 pm
Go Goldwater Jr in 88!!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Barnes on March 30, 2010, 08:04:11 pm
Jimmy! '88


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on March 31, 2010, 06:05:56 pm
Thanks for the comments guys! Every comment counts, and every comment is appreciated! :D


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 01, 2010, 06:30:19 pm
The 1984 Congressional Elections
While the Democrats managed to pickup some of the 26 House seats that they lost in 1982, they actually lost seats in the Senate, despite Jerry Brown’s landslide victory. This proved that Jerry Brown’s popularity did not necessarily correspond to the popularity of the Democratic Party.

Republican Pickups:
Mitch McConnell (R-KY)
Gordon Humphrey (R-NH)
Nancy Hoch (R-NE)

Democratic Pickups:
None

Senate: 58 D (-3), 42 R (+3)

House: 294 D (+10), 141 R (-10)

The Second Term of Edmund Gerald “Jerry” Brown, Jr.

With newfound enthusiasm and a mandate, Jerry Brown was ready to take on his second term. One of the objectives that he had wanted to accomplish was the creation of a Balanced Budget Amendment. At Brown’s urging, Illinois senator Paul Simon wrote a Balanced Budget Amendment. However, the Congress voted against the passage of such an amendment, leading to the first major disappointment of the Brown Administration.

Upon the deaths of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, the Politburo elected Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985. Gorbachev enacted many reforms, namely glasnost and perestroika. After a meeting with Gorbachev that year, President Brown decided that now was the time to try for a nuclear freeze. He traveled to Moscow on November 19, 1985. After lengthy discussions with Gorbachev, Brown and Gorbachev signed the Nuclear Freeze of 1985: no more nuclear weapons would be developed. Despite the bipartisan objections of anticommunists in both parties, Congress ratified the Nuclear Freeze of 1985 by a tight margin. In some ways, the Nuclear Freeze of 1985 was a pyrrhic victory, as the Nuclear Freeze allowed the Soviet Union to survive faster than without the threat of the United States. Gorbachev refused to let the Eastern Bloc nations go “their own way.” Senator Ronald Reagan, who had described the Soviet Union as “an Evil Empire,” was outraged by this turn of events in the Cold War, and made no attempt at publicly covering his contempt for the nuclear freeze. Polls showed that many Americans did not support the Nuclear Freeze, and it was clear the Democrats would pay in the 1986 midterm elections.

President Brown would also relax the War on Drugs, much to the ire of conservatives. He and the Democratic Congress lightened punishments for drug offenders, cut down on the number of law enforcement officials enforcing the War on Drugs, cut down on the money spent to fight the War on Drugs, legalized medicinal marijuana, and treated drug offenders more like people with a medical problem as opposed to criminals. Additionally, Brown pushed for a law fully decriminalizing marijuana (even though he and Congress had already liberalized federal marijuana laws and legalized medical marijuana). Congressman Ron Paul, at Brown’s urging, wrote the bill to federally decriminalize marijuana. However, Congress voted against it, leading to yet another legislative failure of the Brown Administration. President Brown’s policies would prove to be polarizing, as a great chunk of the electorate opposed Brown’s “surrender flag” on the War on Drugs.

On October 22, 1986, President Brown signed Tax Reform Act of 1986, sponsored by two Democrats: Dick Gephardt (D-MO) in the House and Bill Bradley (D-NJ) in the Senate. The bill cut taxes, consolidated tax brackets, simplified the income tax code, broadened the tax base, and eliminated tax shelters. While Brown had become unpopular among the Republicans due to his Cold War policies, Republicans were largely supportive of this tax reform.

Yet another controversy would envelop Jerry Brown’s presidency: a personal scandal. The First Wife and rock star Linda Ronstadt and President Jerry Brown divorced. Ronstadt had married Brown in the White House in 1981. The two had largely fallen out of love, not to mention that Ronstadt did not like being a political wife and performing the chores that being the First Lady entailed. Additionally, Linda had never sat well with the fact that Brown waited to marry her after his election in 1980, since Brown did not want to marry her in the late 1970s, since he admitted to his friends that the wedding could cost him the White House, as Ronstadt had admittedly done drugs numerous times and used so much cocaine her nose had to be cauterized twice (Ronstadt's drug use would feed charges that Brown relaxed the War on Drugs only so she could do drugs). Ronstadt reported Brown’s unwillingness to marry her to the press. The divorce proceedings went normally, and there were no major legal issues between Brown and Ronstadt. However, the divorce served as an severe embarrassment for the Brown Administration, as Brown was the first President to have to deal with a divorce while in the White House, not to mention that Brown was the first President ever to have gotten a divorce. Brown’s popularity decreased.

(http://userserve-ak.last.fm/serve/500/10979457/Linda+Ronstadt++1968.jpg)

The 1986 Congressional Midterm Elections
There were many factors as to why the Republicans did so well in 1986. One of the major ones was Democratic fatigue. After 6 years with a Democratic President and a Democratic Congress, people just simply wanted a change. Additionally, Jerry Brown’s policies of a relaxation of drug laws and a nuclear freeze proved to be unpopular with a great portion of the public, which conservatives used to win. Jerry Brown’s divorce proceedings only served to diminish his unpopularity, which gave Republicans a small boost. As if that weren’t enough, Democrat Jesse Helms switched over to the Republican Party after he had had enough of Brown’s liberalism. Had Helms not switched, the Republicans would have only managed to create a 50-50 tie, keeping the Senate in Democratic hands due to Vice President Jimmy Carter’s tiebreaking vote. However, the Republicans had officially taken over the Senate.

Republican Pickups:
John McCain (R-AZ)
Pete Wilson (R-CA)
Ken Kramer (R-CO)
Bob Dole (R-KS)
Arlen Specter (R-PA)
Dan Quayle (R-IN)
Kit Bond (R-MO)
Mack Hattingly (R-GA)
Henson Moore (R-LA)

Democratic Pickups:
Barbara Mikulski (D-MD)

Senate: 51 R (-8), 49 D (+8)

House: 278 D (-16), 157 R (+16)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on April 01, 2010, 08:40:53 pm
Awesome update, Im sorry to see Jerry and Linda not making it(I bet the first White House Wedding of a President, would be a big enough event, that it would probably make Prince Charles and Diana's wedding pale in comparision). Can't wait to see happens in the rest of the Brown Presidency and the 1988 Election...Keep it comming


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 02, 2010, 11:07:26 am
Awesome update, Im sorry to see Jerry and Linda not making it(I bet the first White House Wedding of a President, would be a big enough event, that it would probably make Prince Charles and Diana's wedding pale in comparision). Can't wait to see happens in the rest of the Brown Presidency and the 1988 Election...Keep it comming

Thanks Historico! :) Here's the next update!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 02, 2010, 11:08:36 am
The Republicans had gained the Senate for the first time since 1952. Jerry Brown would’ve lied if he said it didn’t hurt him at all that the Republicans gained the Senate during his presidency. Nevertheless, he was determined to walk out of the White House in 1989 with flying colors.

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Lewis Powell, whom Nelson Rockefeller had appointed to the Supreme Court, announced his retirement in 1987. To fill in Powell’s position, President Brown nominated California Attorney General John Van De Kamp. Brown was worried about the Attorney General’s ability to be nominated by the Republican Senate. Indeed, conservative Republicans in the Senate found Van De Kamp to be soft on crime, especially given his actions in the Hillside Strangler case. Nevertheless, the Senate confirmed Van De Kamp on a tight vote. Van De Kamp began service as Associate Justice on June 26, 1987.

(http://www.calbar.ca.gov/calbar/images/CBJ/2004/VandeKamp-John-Bay.jpg)

On the economic arena of politics, President Brown did not have a huge problem with the Republicans in Congress. To ameliorate the deficit, Republicans in Congress devised a plan to cut welfare spending. The heavily Democratic House demanded that the cut in welfare spending be reduced. The House passed the reduced version of this cut, then the Senate passed it, then Brown signed it. While Brown had failed in his plan to pass a balanced budget and eliminate the deficit, the deficit was not amazingly high, and had been reduced since the Rockefeller/Tower years, largely due to his cutting of the military budget, his relaxation of the drug war, and his willingness to cut domestic spending. The economy, however, would be far from completely sunny, as the stock market crashed on October 19, 1987. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped 508 points. However, the Federal Reserve pumped liquidity, and the market recovered from the crash. Economists however, began to wonder how the economy would be during the next four years. In the meantime however, the economy was still doing quite well, especially compared to the 1970s, and this helped President Brown’s popularity. All in all, Jerry Brown was well regarded by both the Republicans and the Democrats for his work on the economy: inflation was low, and 14 million new jobs had been created.

On December 8, 1987, Jerry Brown and Mikhail Gorbachev signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, formally titled The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, which called for the elimination of nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges. Not only had Brown agreed to a freeze in nuclear weapon production, but it was clear that he was determined to eliminate nuclear weapons that already existed Congress passed the treaty by tight margins. The Soviet Union continued to economically deteriorate, and Brown’s SDI program scared them into increasing some military spending. However, the Soviet Union still managed to stave off its decline, and Gorbachev saw no reason to dismantle the great empire.  Gorbachev did, however, permit more personal freedom than had ever existed in the USSR.  It was clear however, that if the United States wanted to send the Soviet Union to “the ash heap in history,” it wouldn’t be too hard, given the weak Soviet Economy. All the United States would have to do would be to repeal the treaties signed during the 1980s and engage in an arms race, and this arms race would probably dismantle the Soviets very fast.

By the end of his second term, despite the heavy losses he suffered in Congress, Jerry Brown was one of the most popular presidents of all time, largely due to the booming economy and international stability. He had recovered from the political backlash against his drug policy and his nuclear freeze. He exited the Oval Office with approval ratings of 63%. Instead of going back to his home in California, Jerry Brown traveled to Japan to study Buddhism. He would also visit Mother Teresa in Calcutta, India, helping her with her humanitarian work. He would not return to the United States of America until 1995, six years from his exit of the Oval Office.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 02, 2010, 11:14:49 am

The 1988 Presidential Election


The Democratic Nomination

Jerry Brown unequivocally endorsed Jimmy Carter for the Democratic Nomination in 1988, and no major Democrats decided to challenge Carter. As a result, Carter was easily nominated at the Democratic National Convention. To set a precedent, Jimmy Carter would choose New York Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro as his Vice Presidential running mate. While she was not the most experienced out of all of those in his Vice Presidential shortlist, she was the first woman ever to be nominated for Vice President by a major party.

(http://people.virginia.edu/~ted9t/CYOU/intro_page/home/1980s/80s-images/jimmy-carter.jpg)
Jimmy Carter (D-GA)

(http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/forum/ferraro.JPG)
Geraldine Ferraro (D-NY)

The Republican Nomination
After the Republican takeover of the Senate, Republicans geared up to take the White House. This time, no Rockefeller Republican stepped up to the plate, and the major Republicans who decided to run for the presidency were:

Barry Goldwater Jr. (R-CA)
Jack Kemp (R-NY)
Howard Baker (R-TN)
Pat Robertson (R-VA)
Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R-KS)

Barry Goldwater Jr.’s candidacy got off to a great start when he managed to win the Iowa Caucus on a plurality of the vote, even though Kemp was widely expected to win it. Kemp however, reorganized his campaign, and managed to win decisively in New Hampshire. He then capitalized on the “Big Mo,” winning more and more primaries. Goldwater dropped out on February 28 after losing the Alaska Primaries to Kemp. He would endorse Kemp. The reason why Goldwater dropped out much earlier than he did in 1984 was because he knew that Kemp could win the nomination and that Kemp was much more acceptable than Lindsay and Robertson were in 1984. As a result, Goldwater won more primaries in 1984, simply because he stayed in the race longer. Goldwater did, however, decide to run for Governor of California in 1990. The South would be split up between Baker and Robertson. Kassebaum did not make a huge impact, and would endorse Baker after a dismal showing on March 8, when she only won the Massachusetts primary. Baker dropped out on March 31, when it was clear he couldn’t beat Kemp. Robertson would drop out on April 8, endorsing Kemp.  

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=0&ev_p=0&AL=0;9;6&AK=2;3;5&AZ=2;10;5&AR=0;6;5&CA=2;55;6&CO=2;9;5&CT=2;7;6&DE=2;3;6&DC=2;3;9&FL=0;27;5&GA=4;15;5&HI=2;4;7&ID=2;4;6&IL=2;21;6&IN=2;11;4&IA=1;7;5&KS=3;6;5&KY=4;8;5&LA=0;9;5&MD=4;10;6&MA=3;12;6&MI=2;17;5&MN=2;10;5&MS=0;6;5&MO=4;11;4&MT=2;3;4&NV=1;5;5&NH=2;4;5&NJ=2;15;5&NM=2;5;5&NY=2;31;6&NC=0;15;4&ND=2;3;5&OH=2;20;5&OK=0;7;6&OR=2;7;5&PA=2;21;5&RI=3;4;6&SC=0;8;5&SD=2;3;5&TN=4;11;5&TX=0;34;5&UT=2;5;6&VT=4;3;6&VA=0;13;5&WA=2;11;5&WV=0;5;5&WI=2;10;5&WY=1;3;6&ME=2;2;5&ME1=2;1;6&ME2=2;1;5&NE=2;2;5&NE1=2;1;5&NE2=1;1;4&NE3=2;1;6)
Blue—Kemp
Red—Goldwater
Gray—Robertson
Yellow—Baker
Green—Kassebaum

By the end of primary season, Kemp was the assured nominee. There were no splits in the party, and every Republican that had run in 1988 endorsed Kemp. To appease moderates, Kemp would choose moderate Texas Senator George H.W. Bush as his running mate. As Texas law allowed, Bush would also pursue re-election in the Senate while simultaneously running for Vice President. Following a rousing keynote speech by Senator Ronald Reagan, the conservatives were pumped and were ready to send Kemp to the White House. Kemp’s conservatism was infectious among Republicans, and conservatism overtook the once Rockefeller dominated GOP.

(http://politics247.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/antjackkemp8x10a.jpg)

Jack Kemp (R-NY)


(http://farm1.static.flickr.com/45/167098092_544a236392.jpg)

George Bush (R-TX)


(http://media.buffalonews.com/smedia/2009/05/04/06/751-bn-20090504-A001-jacktheeternalo-9628-MI0003.standalone.prod_affiliate.50.jpg)
The Kemp/Bush Ticket on the Campaign Trail


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 02, 2010, 11:30:59 am
The General Election

It was clear that election season was going to be close. While the economy was great and Jimmy Carter had a link to Brown’s popularity, Jack Kemp refused to give up. Kemp campaigned all over the nation, making conservatism more and more popular among the electorate. The conservative movement, which had been stifled under Nelson Rockefeller’s administration, was beginning to experience resurgence. Day by day more and more people began to see themselves as conservatives. Kemp attacked the Brown Administration for their liberal policies on drugs, the environment, and the Cold War.  Carter would stress his connection with the popular Brown Administration: essentially running for Jerry Brown’s third term. Every poll, however, showed that Kemp and Carter were neck in neck. Both of them stressed their religion over the course of election season.

Carter hit a snag when, in an interview with Playboy Magazine, he said:  “I've looked on a lot of women with lust. I've committed adultery in my heart many times.... This is something that God recognizes, that I will do and have done, and God forgives me for it. “ This made Carter unpopular with women, and Carter’s momentum was stalled. Both Carter and Kemp were considered to have performed well at the Presidential Debates, without major game changes. At the Vice Presidential Debate, George H.W. Bush would lecture Geraldine Ferraro on the nature of the Cold War, and how dangerous Brown’s nuclear freeze was. To this, Ferraro responded: "Let me just say first of all, that I almost resent, Senator Bush, your patronizing attitude that you have to teach me about foreign policy." The Vice Presidential Debate however, would not be a major game changer, and males tended to think Bush won while females tended to think Ferraro won.

The mood of the night was tense on November 8, 1988.  States fell to the Kemp or Carter columns by tight margins. Carter would be dismayed to find that the West, which had gone so forcefully to Jerry Brown four years ago, would go to Kemp. Unfortunately for Kemp, Southerners decided to vote for their favorite son, Carter (though the South voted for Carter on tight margins), despite Bush’s presence on the Republican ticket. The only Southern state that Kemp/Bush carried was Virginia, and even that was by a close margin. By a close heartbreaker, Carter won Bush’s home state of Texas. Bush would however, win re-election as a Senator. It was a shame for the Kemp campaign because Kemp had 258 electoral votes, and with Texas’ 29 electoral votes Kemp would have won the Presidency. However, it was clear that Jack Kemp was winning the national popular vote, probably due to heavy turnout in Kemp states.

The election night hinged on Ohio, which flipped back and forth several times. Carter had 257 electoral votes; Kemp had 258 electoral votes. Everything depended on Ohio’s 23 electoral votes. After several recounts, it was announced that Jimmy Carter had carried the state, and with that the Presidency, despite having lost the popular vote by nearly three million votes. For the first time since 1888, the winner of the popular vote failed to win the election. Had 525 votes in Ohio switched from Carter to Kemp, Kemp would have won the Presidency. Had 2,563 votes in Texas switched from Carter to Kemp, Kemp would have won the Presidency with or without Ohio.

Kemp’s loss actually invigorated conservative Republicans just as much as a win would have: a clear majority of Americans supported conservatism in this election, and that conservatism would now be the clear ideology of the Republican Party. The Nelson Rockefeller wing of the Republican Party was no more. Not only that, but the Republicans had made gains in Congress. Republican congressmen were bitter and angry at Kemp’s loss. If Jimmy Carter thought that the Republicans in Congress would cooperate with him, he had another think coming.

On a lighter note, Geraldine Ferraro became the first woman ever to be elected Vice President. Carter would become the first incumbent Vice President to be elected since Martin Van Buren in 1836. Ultimately, the good economy and Carter’s connection to the popular Jerry Brown won Carter the election.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=1988&ev_c=1&pv_p=1&ev_p=1&type=calc&AL=1;9;4&AK=2;3;5&AZ=2;7;5&AR=1;6;6&CA=2;47;5&CO=2;8;5&CT=2;8;5&DE=2;3;5&DC=1;3;8&FL=1;21;5&GA=1;12;6&HI=1;4;5&ID=2;4;6&IL=2;24;5&IN=2;12;5&IA=2;8;5&KS=2;7;5&KY=1;9;5&LA=1;10;5&MD=1;10;5&MA=1;13;5&MI=2;20;5&MN=1;10;5&MS=1;7;4&MO=1;11;5&MT=2;4;5&NE=2;5;6&NV=2;4;5&NH=2;4;5&NJ=2;16;5&NM=2;5;5&NY=1;36;5&NC=1;13;5&ND=2;3;5&OH=1;23;4&OK=2;8;5&OR=2;7;5&PA=1;25;5&RI=1;4;5&SC=1;8;4&SD=2;3;5&TN=1;11;5&TX=1;29;4&UT=2;5;6&VT=2;3;5&VA=2;12;4&WA=2;10;5&WV=1;6;5&WI=2;11;5&WY=2;3;6&ME=2;2;5&ME1=2;1;5&ME2=2;1;5)

Jimmy Carter (D-GA)/Geraldine Ferraro (D-NY): 47.6% PV, 280 EV
Jack Kemp (R-NY)/George Bush (R-TX): 50.7% PV, 258 EV

The 1988 Congressional Elections
Republican Gains:
Connie Mack III (R-FL)
Trent Lott (R-MS)
Conrad Burns (R-MO)
Susan Engeleiter (R-WI)
Pete Dawkins (R-NJ)

Democratic Gains:
Joe Lieberman (D-CT)
Richard Bryan (D-NV)
Chuck Robb (D-VA)

Senate: 53 R (+2), 47 D (-2)
House: 271 D (-7), 164 R (+7)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Apocrypha on April 02, 2010, 01:42:29 pm
I'm hoping 3rd times the charm for Barry in 92!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on April 02, 2010, 08:01:26 pm
I'm hoping 3rd times the charm for Barry in 92!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 02, 2010, 10:48:51 pm
Thanks for the comments guys! :D


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 12, 2010, 06:15:05 pm
The First Term of James Earl Carter, Jr.

(http://www.whitehousehistory.org/whha_pictures/images/carter-01.jpg)

The Cabinet of James Earl Carter
Vice President: Geraldine Ferraro
Secretary of State: Walter Mondale
Secretary of Treasury: Lloyd Bentsen
Secretary of Defense: Harold Brown
Attorney General: Bill Clinton
Secretary of Interior: Gary Hart
Secretary of Labor: Elizabeth Dole
Secretary of Agriculture: Robert Bergland
Secretary of Commerce: Philip Klutzknick
Secretary of Health and Welfare:  Patricia Harris
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development: Moon Landrieu
Secretary of Transportation: Neil Goldschmidt
Secretary of Education: Shirley Chisholm
Secretary of Energy: Hazel O’Leary
Secretary of Veteran’s Affairs: Colin Powell

While Carter had won the 1988 Presidential Election, Conservatives had the momentum: they had won the popular vote, and America was quickly turning toward the right. Even if Carter governed decently for his first term, the Republican momentum was so strong that he would have to put up a fight to stay in office. Carter’s term would be anything but easy.

President Carter would have a hard time cooperating with the Republican Senate, or for that matter, even the Democratic House. Carter would decry a Democratic bill in the house for being too "wasteful, corrupt, and inflationary," which left a bad taste in the mouths of many Democrats in Congress, creating an interparty rift between Carter and the Democrats in Congress. Carter would end up becoming politically weakened when he ended up signing the bill. Meanwhile, Republicans would attempt to derail Carter's agenda at every step of the way, and Carter was unable to expand upon CHIP, which was, ironically, a Republican idea. Liberals would oppose Carter’s proposed policies for being too moderate, while conservatives would oppose Carter’s proposed policies for being too liberal.

In a move similar to Harry Truman’s desegregating the armed forces, President Carter signed an executive order that allowed open gays to serve in the United States military. Liberals lauded Carter for his actions, but conservatives were enraged.

The Cold War during Carter’s Presidency was uneventful. Carter would continue to implement Jerry Brown’s plan of “peaceful co-existence” with the USSR, much to the ire of anticommunists in both parties. He would make no attempts to “win” the Cold War, and instead, attempted to maintain current détente policies that Nelson Rockefeller had begun. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union continued to survive, and the Warsaw Pact did not disband. Carter would cut defense spending by six billion dollars, to the ire of conservatives.

One of Carter’s goals was to not get into any wars, during his Presidency. He acted accordingly, and stayed out of the Gulf War conflict that started when Saddam Hussein invaded its oil rich neighbor, Kuwait. While many clamored for war, Carter remained steadfast in his opposition to the Gulf War. On January 10 1991, he wrote the leaders of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Syria: "I am distressed by the inability of either the international community or the Arab world to find a diplomatic solution to the Gulf crisis. I urge you to call publicly for a delay in the use of force while Arab leaders seek a peaceful solution to the crisis. You will find the White House, the French, Soviets, and others fully supportive." The urging didn’t work, and on January 17, a coalition of Allied United Nations Forces invaded Iraq to stop the invasion of Kuwait, without the help of the United States military. Carter’s refusal to participate in the Gulf War undermined the United States’ reputation overseas, and made many see him as incompetent.

Additionally, Chief Justice William J. Brennan, whom Nelson Rockefeller had appointed as Chief Justice back in the 1970s, announced his retirement. Wanting to set a precedent, President Carter nominated Ruth Bader Ginsburg, whom Nelson Rockefeller had appointed as Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit during his Presidency. Despite objections from conservatives, no major problems with Ginsburg were found, and Ginsburg began service as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on October 3, 1990. While Jerry Brown had already appointed a woman to the Supreme Court, Rose Elizabeth Bird, Carter’s appointment of Ginsburg was signification for two reasons: one, because Ginsburg was the first Jewish female ever to serve on the court; and two, because Ginsburg was the first ever female Chief Justice in the United States of America.

(http://lgbtpress.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/ruth_bader_ginsburg_scotus_photo_portrait2.jpg)

What hurt Carter’s popularity the most, however, was the souring of the economy. Unemployment numbers were beginning to rise. The Savings and Loan industry collapsed. The number of Americans below the poverty line increased.

Some successes of the Carter administration however, would include the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and the Immigration Act of 1990.

Meanwhile, conservative media personalities like Rush Limbaugh, Jerry Falwell, and Pat Robertson would do everything in their influence to derail the Carter agenda. They harshly criticized everything Carter did, and energized conservatives to oppose the Carter administration. With their help, a movement to reduce government, cut spending, slash taxes, enact socially conservative policies, ban abortion, restore “family values,” and more, began to emerge. Jerry Falwell formed the Moral Majority, and Pat Robertson formed the Christian Coalition, both of which supported conservative Republicans and opposed Carter.  

(http://www.cephas-library.com/wordoffaith/robertson_time.jpg)

In some ways, Carter can be considered one of the unluckiest Presidents in the twentieth century, largely due to the fact that conservatives were energized against Carter and had strong momentum. Overall, the conservative movement continued to flourish. The conservative movement should have really started in 1968, had Nixon or Reagan won the Republican Nomination and the election, but with Nelson Rockefeller’s victory, conservatism was stifled, but was in full flow now. Carter was very unlucky to be President during the conservative resurgence.

The 1990 Congressional Elections

As expected during a midterm election, the incumbent party lost seats, as the Republicans would increase their Senate majority to a 56-44 balance, largely due to grassroots efforts by conservatives and due to the poor economy. As if that wasn’t enough, House Minority Whip Newt Gingrich won election as Governor of Georgia: Jimmy Carter’s home state. Also, Barry Goldwater Jr. won election as the Governor of California, replacing Republican George Deukmejian.

Republican Gains:
Christine Todd Whitman (R-NJ)
Phil Gramm (R-TX)
John Warner (R-VA)

Democratic Gains:
None

Senate: 56 R (+3), 44 D (-3)
House: 260 D (-11), 175 R (+11)



Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on April 13, 2010, 08:35:32 am
Did Douglas Wilder still win the VA Gubernatorial election in '89? And how will Poor Jimmy handle the Gulf War Crisis...Things may get pretty nasty before the 1992 Presidential Elections lol...Keep it comming!!!


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 13, 2010, 09:49:14 am
Did Douglas Wilder still win the VA Gubernatorial election in '89? And how will Poor Jimmy handle the Gulf War Crisis...Things may get pretty nasty before the 1992 Presidential Elections lol...Keep it comming!!!

No, Marshall Coleman won the election ITTL. Hm, I thought I already mentioned the Gulf War in my first term. Anyway, here's a summary of what happened: Iraq invades Kuwait, but Carter stays out of the conflict, despite international and national urging for him to intervene. Carter urges for peace and diplomacy. Nevertheless, the UN permits a coalition force made out of UN countries (not from the US) and they invade Iraq just like OTL. However, due to lack of United States support, the war is much more messier and longer with much more casualties than ITTL, but eventually the Gulf War is won (but the coalition force doesn't depose Saddam). Conservatives decry Carter for not helping out with the crisis, and the U.S. is viewed as weak.

The next updates are coming soon, so stay tuned! :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 13, 2010, 05:08:34 pm
On January 17, an international UN coalition force, called the Coalition of the Gulf War, attacked Iraq (without United States support), for the purpose of stopping the invasion of Kuwait. Carter would continue to stay out of the Gulf War conflict, refusing to give help to either side, and refusing to give arms or supplies to the UN. The Gulf War would prove to be long and messy, with heavy casualties on both sides. Videos and photos of dead soldiers would show up in the international news, and many Americans believed that the United States should’ve gotten involved. International relations between the United States and other countries (specifically those in the Coalition Force) would sour. Additionally, oil prices shot up sky high due to the Gulf War crisis, and many Americans blamed Carter for the high gas prices. High gas prices used to be a thing of the past, but now, the unmissed relic from the 1970s was back again. Carter pushed for peace talks between the two sides, but nothing came out of them, and Carter was seen as a joke, and a weak one at that. He would also freeze Iraqi assets, and passed economic sanctions. The Gulf War Crisis would send Carter’s approval ratings down the tubes.

(http://www.pauliddon.net/img/Desert%20Storm.jpg)
The Coalition of the Gulf War: Without US Support

The first black Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall, announced his retirement in 1991. Marshall was reportedly glad that his position would be filled by a Democrat, and mused about how disappointing it would have been if a Republican had nominated Marshall’s successor. President Carter would nominate his Secretary of Health and Human Services and former Attorney General Patricia Roberts Harris, the first black woman to be nominated to the Supreme Court. The Senate voted to confirm Harris, and Harris would begin service on October 18, 1991. In his Cabinet, Carter would replace Harris with fellow Georgian Louis Wade Sullivan.

(http://encyclopedia.gwu.edu/gwencyclopedia/images/thumb/3/31/Harris_patricia_rg0005-004.jpg/200px-Harris_patricia_rg0005-004.jpg)
Patricia Roberts Harris

Despite the setbacks President Carter suffered in Congress, he decided to push for Gun Control. He urged Congressmen to create bills increasing gun control. The two bills that Congress proposed were the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, and the Federal Assault Weapons Ban.

“None of us wants to own an assault weapon, because we have no desire to kill policemen or go to a school or workplace to see how many victims we can accumulate before we are finally shot or take our own lives…Heavily influenced and supported by the firearms industry, N.R.A. leaders have misled many gullible people into believing that our weapons are going to be taken away from us, and that homeowners will be deprived of the right to protect ourselves and our families. The N.R.A. is defending criminals’ access to assault weapons and use of ammunition that can penetrate protective clothing worn by police officers on duty,” said Carter, in a special message to Congress.

(http://seeker401.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/ron_paul.jpg)
Ron Paul Campaigning Against The Proposed Gun Legislation

In response to Carter's address, former Texas congressman Ron Paul would say: “On one level I agree whole-heartily with the anti-gun activists. We desperately need gun control: we need to control the bureaucrats, disarm them, and then abolish their agencies...Force and intimidation are the preferred tools of tyrants, though not just intimidation with government guns. The threat of imprisonment and fear of harassment by government agents strikes terror into the hearts of millions of Americans. The Constitution's Second Amendment is the most important. Without the ability to protect themselves and their property, discussion of any other rights is only so much talk.” With the activism of Paul, the NRA, and GOA, public opinion was set against Carter’s proposed gun control policies. The NRA and GOA would write newsletters to members, urging them to oppose Jimmy Carter in the upcoming 1992 Presidential Election, and to oppose the passage of the Brady Bill and the Assault Weapons Ban.

Carter’s proposed Gun Control policies proved to be very controversial and unpopular among a majority of the public. While the Democratic House passed both the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act and the Federal Assault Weapons Ban, Republicans in the Senate managed to kill both of the bills. Carter’s approval ratings would go down further, and he was seen as an incompetent man trying to “take people’s guns away.” Even Southerners began to oppose Carter’s presidency.

Meanwhile, the economy continued to worsen, as unemployment, poverty, and deficits increased tremendously. The sunny days of the Jerry Brown presidency were over, and a new, unstable epoch of time had replaced them. A riot in Los Angeles sparked in April 1992, after black rage when four L.A. police officers were acquitted, even though they had been videotaped beating up a black motorist. This sparked anger, left people dead, and left a lot of property damage. Due to the economy worsening, public school budgets began to face huge problems also. All of these problems only served to increase President Carter’s unpopularity. To make matters worse, Jerry Brown was out of the country and did nothing to help Carter with his problems as President.

If there was one thing that Carter enjoyed bipartisan support for, it was for NAFTA. President Carter, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican President Carlos Salinas, negotiated for the North American Free Trade Agreement, which would reduce tariffs on products traded between the three countries, encouraging free trade. Nevertheless, protectionist Democrats and Republicans sneered at the proposed idea, especially since unemployment was already high at the time, and protectionists believed that more jobs would be lost due to NAFTA.

In response to Carter’s Presidency, Republican Congressmen began to formulate “The Contract With America.”  If, in 1992, the Republicans won the House of Representatives and the Presidency, the Republicans would hold votes on a number of reforms and bills.

The Contract With America
“(Excerpt) On the first day of the 103rd Congress, the new Republican majority will immediately pass the following major reforms, aimed at restoring the faith and trust of the American people in their government:  

    * FIRST, require all laws that apply to the rest of the country also apply equally to the Congress;
    * SECOND, select a major, independent auditing firm to conduct a comprehensive audit of Congress for waste, fraud or abuse;
    * THIRD, cut the number of House committees, and cut committee staff by one-third;
    * FOURTH, limit the terms of all committee chairs;
    * FIFTH, ban the casting of proxy votes in committee;
    * SIXTH, require committee meetings to be open to the public;
    * SEVENTH, require a three-fifths majority vote to pass a tax increase;
    * EIGHTH, guarantee an honest accounting of our Federal Budget by implementing zero base-line budgeting.“


President Carter and the Democrats would derisively refer to the Contract With America as the “Contract On America.” Nevertheless, the Contract With America proved popular with the American people, and more and more Americans began to support it. Both the Moral Majority and the Christian Coalition supported the Contract With America, and both religious groups would register more and more voters to vote Republican in the upcoming election.

All in all, President Carter’s approval ratings were at an all time low of 28%, but there was still another task he had to accomplish: re-election.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: GLPman on April 13, 2010, 08:18:45 pm
Wow, Carter's presidency sounds like a mess...even ITTL the guy couldn't do things right.


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 14, 2010, 09:16:56 pm
Thanks for the comment! :D Every comment counts, and every comment encourages me to keep on going! :)


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 17, 2010, 09:35:27 am
The 1992 Presidential Election

The Democratic Nomination

(http://www.orbitcast.com/archives/jesse_jackson.jpg)
Jimmy Carter would have a primary challenge from the left of the party, as Jesse Jackson (D-DC) announced that he would run for President, getting the support of minorities and liberals. Jackson promised to end the Brown tax cuts “aimed at the rich,” increase federal welfare spending, increase federal funding for education, and support the creation of an independent Palestinian state. Due to heavy black turnout, Jackson would do quite well in the South. Nevertheless, it was clear that Carter was going to win the nomination, and Jackson dropped out on April 14. Although he had won the Virginia Primary, he lost the important New York primary. Jackson was allowed however, to make the keynote speech.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=0&ev_p=0&AL=2;9;6&AK=1;3;5&AZ=1;10;5&AR=1;6;5&CA=1;55;6&CO=1;9;5&CT=1;7;6&DE=2;3;6&DC=2;3;9&FL=1;27;5&GA=1;15;5&HI=1;4;7&ID=1;4;6&IL=2;21;6&IN=1;11;4&IA=1;7;5&KS=1;6;5&KY=1;8;5&LA=2;9;5&MD=1;10;6&MA=2;12;6&MI=2;17;5&MN=1;10;5&MS=2;6;5&MO=1;11;4&MT=1;3;4&NV=1;5;5&NH=1;4;5&NJ=1;15;5&NM=1;5;5&NY=1;31;6&NC=1;15;4&ND=1;3;5&OH=1;20;5&OK=1;7;6&OR=1;7;5&PA=1;21;5&RI=2;4;6&SC=2;8;5&SD=1;3;5&TN=1;11;5&TX=1;34;5&UT=1;5;6&VT=1;3;6&VA=2;13;5&WA=1;11;5&WV=1;5;5&WI=1;10;5&WY=1;3;6&ME=1;2;5&ME1=1;1;6&ME2=1;1;5&NE=1;2;5&NE1=1;1;5&NE2=1;1;4&NE3=1;1;6)
Red: Carter
Blue: Jackson

The Democratic National Convention was lukewarm, and President Carter gave a lackluster and boring speech. It was clear that the Democrats needed a morale booster that they simply weren’t getting, due to Democratic fatigue and Carter’s troubles.

The Republican Nomination

Given Jimmy Carter’s unpopularity, many Republicans were eager to step up to the plate. While many thought that Barry Goldwater Jr. would run for President again, he said that he had gubernatorial duties as the Governor of California to fulfill, and would not run. The Republicans who competed for the Republican nomination were:  

George H.W. Bush (R-TX)
Newt Gingrich (R-GA)
Bob Dole (R-KS)
Pat Buchanan (R-VA)
Arlen Specter (R-PA)

Texas Senator George H.W. Bush scored a win with his victory in the Iowa Caucus. However, Georgia Governor Gingrich, determined to see the Contract With America (which he had helped write) put into action, reorganized his campaign, and won a great victory in the New Hampshire Primary. Dole, Buchanan, and Specter all dropped out before they had the chance to win any primaries, as it was clear that either Gingrich or Bush would win. Thus, the race was between Gingrich and Bush. Gingrich campaigned as a conservative, while Bush campaigned as a moderate. Gingrich advertised an economic plan that was described by many as “supply-side economics.” Tax revenues would go up as tax rates came down, and the economy would be better off with tax cuts. Bush derisively referred to this economic plan as “voodoo economics,” and focused more on deficit reduction. Given the conservative resurgence, Gingrich generally trounced Bush in the primaries. After doing badly on Super Tuesday (where a great deal of primaries were in the South, where the Texan Bush should have done well), Bush dropped out and endorsed Gingrich, who became the presumptive nominee of the Republican Party. Gingrich won the rest of the primaries easily.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=2008&ev_c=0&pv_p=0&ev_p=0&AL=2;9;6&AK=2;3;5&AZ=2;10;5&AR=2;6;5&CA=2;55;6&CO=2;9;5&CT=2;7;6&DE=2;3;6&DC=1;3;9&FL=2;27;5&GA=2;15;5&HI=1;4;7&ID=2;4;6&IL=2;21;6&IN=2;11;4&IA=1;7;5&KS=2;6;5&KY=2;8;5&LA=2;9;5&MD=1;10;6&MA=1;12;6&MI=2;17;5&MN=2;10;5&MS=2;6;5&MO=2;11;4&MT=2;3;4&NV=2;5;5&NH=2;4;5&NJ=2;15;5&NM=2;5;5&NY=2;31;6&NC=2;15;4&ND=2;3;5&OH=2;20;5&OK=2;7;6&OR=2;7;5&PA=2;21;5&RI=1;4;6&SC=2;8;5&SD=2;3;5&TN=2;11;5&TX=1;34;5&UT=2;5;6&VT=2;3;6&VA=2;13;5&WA=2;11;5&WV=2;5;5&WI=2;10;5&WY=2;3;6&ME=1;2;5&ME1=1;1;6&ME2=1;1;5&NE=2;2;5&NE1=2;1;5&NE2=2;1;4&NE3=2;1;6)

Blue: Gingrich
Red: Bush

In a move that surprised political pundits, Gingrich would choose failed 1988 Republican nominee and congressman Jack Kemp as his running mate. Pundits were expecting Gingrich to choose a moderate Republican as opposed to the “bleeding heart conservative” that Kemp was. Nevertheless, Kemp was still viewed very favorably by the Republicans and the electorate: given Carter’s troubles, many wished that they had voted for Kemp in 1988. Republicans also highly sympathized with Kemp for winning a majority of the popular vote but losing the election by 525 votes in Ohio, and many Republicans wanted Kemp to run for the Presidency in 1992, though Kemp refused to run. Overall, Gingrich’s choice of Kemp was considered a home run, albeit an unexpected one. The Republicans were energized and ready to send the Gingrich/Kemp ticket to victory.

(http://pnsr.org/data/images/newtgingrich.jpg)
Newt Gingrich (R-GA)


(http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3658/3505448954_529cf841b4.jpg)
Jack Kemp (R-NY)

The General Election

With the help of the Christian Coalition and the Moral Majority, the Gingrich campaign was pumped, and many new evangelical voters had registered to vote for Gingrich. Gingrich was warm and sunny, while Carter seemed downtrodden and introspective. More and more Americans began to support the conservative Gingrich/Kemp ticket, and Carter lost the support of socially conservative hawkish Democrats in the South, who would be called “Gingrich Democrats.” Gingrich promised to enact the Contract With America, promised to reduce government and spending, and promised to restore “family values” to the nation’s culture. Additionally, Gingrich would criticize Jimmy Carter for his inaction in the Gulf War, as many soldiers were dying, the war was messy, and the war might have been easier to win if the United States had jumped in. Additionally, gas prices had been jacked up, which was additional fodder for Gingrich's criticisms of Carter.

Gingrich was considered to have won the Presidential Debates, as he successfully attacked Carter on all fronts, while Carter looked inept. Carter would, however, attack Gingrich for his limited executive experience, as Gingrich had only served as Georgia’s governor for two years before running for President. Gingrich surprisingly made himself look like Jerry Brown, as he advertised the same limited government values that Jerry Brown enacted (and Gingrich mentioned this), while Carter did not emphasize Jerry Brown as much as he should have. "Jerry Brown Democrats" took note of this and actually decided to vote for Gingrich instead of Brown's Vice President, Carter. To make matters worse for Jimmy Carter, Jerry Brown was still out of the country doing humanitarian work and taking a voyage of self discovery, so Brown was never there to defend or campaign for Carter.

On November 3, 1992, Newt Gingrich defeated Jimmy Carter in a landslide. Nobody really thought that Carter was an abysmal President, but he was simply a victim to the conservative momentum that had swept the nation away. Overall, the bad economy, conservative resurgence, inaction in the Gulf War crisis, and Carter’s push for gun control landed Gingrich in the White House, and pushed Carter out. Carter did so badly that he lost his home state to his fellow Georgian. Liberalism had suffered a death knell, at least for the time being. The New Deal Coalition was in smithereens.

As if that wasn’t enough for the Democrats, the Republicans gained 54 seats in the House of Representatives, gaining control of the House and had gained even more seats in the Senate. The Republican Revolution had begun.

(http://uselectionatlas.org/TOOLS/genusmap.php?year=1992&ev_c=1&pv_p=1&ev_p=1&type=calc&AL=2;9;4&AK=2;3;6&AZ=2;8;5&AR=2;6;4&CA=2;54;5&CO=2;8;6&CT=2;8;5&DE=2;3;5&DC=1;3;8&FL=2;25;5&GA=2;13;4&HI=1;4;5&ID=2;4;6&IL=2;22;5&IN=2;12;6&IA=2;7;6&KS=2;6;6&KY=2;8;4&LA=2;9;5&MD=1;10;5&MA=1;12;5&MI=2;18;5&MN=1;10;5&MS=2;7;4&MO=2;11;5&MT=2;3;6&NV=2;4;6&NH=2;4;6&NJ=2;15;5&NM=2;5;5&NY=1;33;5&NC=2;14;5&ND=2;3;6&OH=2;21;5&OK=2;8;6&OR=2;7;5&PA=2;23;5&RI=1;4;5&SC=2;8;5&SD=2;3;6&TN=2;11;4&TX=2;32;5&UT=2;5;7&VT=2;3;5&VA=2;13;5&WA=2;11;5&WV=1;5;5&WI=2;11;5&WY=2;3;6&ME=2;2;5&ME1=2;1;5&ME2=2;1;6&NE=2;2;6&NE1=2;1;6&NE2=2;1;5&NE3=2;1;6)

Newt Gingrich (R-GA)/Jack Kemp (R-NY): 57.4% PV, 457 EV
Jimmy Carter (D-GA)/ Geraldine Ferraro (D-NY): 41% PV, 81 EV


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Historico on April 17, 2010, 04:12:14 pm
Well, It looks like Jimmy got his ass kicked in that battle of the Georgia Bull Dogs. Allthough I don't agree with his policies, Newt is atleast a very intelligent and competent man for the Presidency, but im not sure how he will handle the changing foriegn policy landscape of the 90's...Keep it comming


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on April 18, 2010, 11:08:36 am
Keep in mind that the USSR is still in existence ITTL, so Gingrich has a lot on his plate for foreign policy (and domestic policy as well).


Title: Re: Rocky in 1968
Post by: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey on May 16, 2010, 08:57:28 pm
Bump

I'm kinda busy with The Biggest Damned-Fool Mistake I Ever Made: by Dallasfan65 and hantheguitarman (http://uselectionatlas.org/FORUM/index.php?topic=112578.0) and White House? More Like The WET House!: An Alternate History  (http://uselectionatlas.org/FORUM/index.php?topic=115233.0) combined with school, so you probably won't see an update on this at least until school's done (and even then, I may do a brief summary instead).